The Strategypage is a comprehensive summary of military news and affairs.
August 20, 2019

CIC 473

Past Issues
CIC 472
CIC 471
CIC 470
CIC 469
CIC 468
CIC 467
CIC 466
CIC 465
CIC 464
CIC 463
CIC 462
CIC 461
CIC 460
CIC 459
CIC 458
CIC 457
CIC 456
CIC 455
CIC 454
CIC 453
CIC 452
CIC 451
CIC 450
CIC 449
CIC 448
CIC 447
CIC 446
CIC 445
CIC 444
CIC 443
CIC 442
CIC 441
CIC 440
CIC 439
CIC 438
CIC 437
CIC 436
CIC 435
CIC 434
CIC 433
CIC 432
CIC 431
CIC 430
CIC 429
CIC 428
CIC 427
CIC 426
CIC 425
CIC 424
CIC 423
CIC 422
CIC 421
CIC 420
CIC 419
CIC 418
CIC 417
CIC 416
CIC 415
CIC 414
CIC 413
CIC 412
CIC 411
CIC 410
CIC 409
CIC 408
CIC 407
CIC 406
CIC 405
CIC 404
CIC 403
CIC 402
CIC 401
CIC 400
CIC 399
CIC 398
CIC 397
CIC 396
CIC 395
CIC 394
CIC 393
CIC 392
CIC 391
CIC 390
CIC 389
CIC 388
CIC 387
CIC 386
CIC 385
CIC 384
CIC 383
CIC 382
CIC 381
CIC 380
CIC 379
CIC 378
CIC 377
CIC 375
CIC 374
CIC 373
CIC 372
CIC 371
CIC 370
CIC 369
CIC 368
CIC 367
CIC 366
CIC 365
CIC 364
CIC 363
CIC 362
CIC 361
CIC 360
CIC 359
CIC 358
CIC 357
CIC 356
CIC 355
CIC 354
CIC 353
CIC 352
CIC 351
CIC 350
CIC 349
CIC 348
CIC 347
CIC 346
CIC 345
CIC 344
CIC 343
CIC 342
CIC 341
CIC 340
CIC 339
CIC 338
CIC 337
CIC 336
CIC 335
CIC 334
CIC 333
CIC 332
CIC 331
CIC 330
CIC 329
CIC 328
CIC 327
CIC 326
CIC 325
CIC 324
CIC 323
CIC 322
CIC 321
CIC 320
CIC 319
CIC 318
CIC 317
CIC 316
CIC 315
CIC 314
CIC 313
CIC 312
CIC 311
CIC 310
CIC 309
CIC 308
CIC 307
CIC 306
CIC 305
CIC 304
CIC 303
CIC 302
CIC 301
CIC 300
CIC 299
CIC 298
CIC 297
CIC 296
CIC 295
CIC 294
CIC 293
CIC 292
CIC 291
CIC 290
CIC 289
CIC 288
CIC 287
CIC 286
CIC 285
CIC 284
CIC 283
CIC 282
CIC 281
CIC 280
CIC 279
CIC 278
CIC 277
CIC 276
CIC 275
CIC 274
CIC 273
CIC 272
CIC 271
CIC 270
CIC 269
CIC 268
CIC 267
CIC 266
CIC 265
CIC 264
CIC 263
CIC 262
CIC 261
CIC 260
CIC 259
CIC 258
CIC 257
CIC 256
CIC 255
CIC 254
CIC 253
CIC 252
CIC 251
CIC 250
CIC 249
CIC 248
CIC 247
CIC 246
CIC 245
CIC 244
CIC 243
CIC 242
CIC 241
CIC 240
CIC 239
CIC 238
CIC 237
CIC 236
CIC 235
CIC 234
CIC 233
CIC 232
CIC 231
CIC 230
CIC 229
CIC 228
CIC 227
CIC 226
CIC 225
CIC 224
CIC 223
CIC 222
CIC 221
CIC 220
CIC 219
CIC 218
CIC 217
CIC 216
CIC 215
CIC 214
CIC 213
CIC 212
CIC 211
CIC 210
CIC 209
CIC 208
CIC 207
CIC 206
CIC 205
CIC 204
CIC 203
CIC 202
CIC 201
CIC 200
CIC 199
CIC 198
CIC 197
CIC 196
CIC 195
CIC 194
CIC 193
CIC 192
CIC 191
CIC 190
CIC 189
CIC 188
CIC 187
CIC 186
CIC 185
CIC 184
CIC 183
CIC 182
CIC 181
CIC 180
CIC 179
CIC 178
CIC 177
CIC 176
CIC 175
CIC 174
CIC 173
CIC 172
CIC 171
CIC 170
CIC 169
CIC 168
CIC 167
CIC 166
CIC 165
CIC 164
CIC 163
CIC 162
CIC 161
CIC 160
CIC 159
CIC 158
CIC 157
CIC 156
CIC 155
CIC 154
CIC 153
CIC 152
CIC 151
CIC 150
CIC 149
CIC 148
CIC 147
CIC 146
CIC 145
CIC 144
CIC 143
CIC 142
CIC 141
CIC 140
CIC 139
CIC 138
CIC 137
CIC 136
CIC 135
CIC 134
CIC 133
CIC 132
CIC 131
CIC 130
CIC 129
CIC 128
CIC 127
CIC 126
CIC 125
CIC 124
CIC 123
CIC 122
CIC 121
CIC 120
CIC 119
CIC 118
CIC 117
CIC 116
CIC 115
CIC 114
CIC 113
CIC 112
CIC 111
CIC 110
CIC 109
CIC 108
CIC 107
CIC 106
CIC 105
CIC 104
CIC 103
CIC 102
CIC 101
CIC 100
CIC 99
CIC 98
CIC 97
CIC 96
CIC 95
CIC 94
CIC 93
CIC 92
CIC 91
CIC 90
CIC 89
CIC 88
CIC 87
CIC 86
CIC 85
CIC 84
CIC 83
CIC 82
CIC 81
CIC 80
CIC 79
CIC 78
CIC 77
CIC 76
CIC 75
CIC 74
CIC 73
CIC 72
CIC 71
CIC 70
CIC 69
CIC 68
CIC 67
CIC 66
CIC 65
CIC 64
CIC 63
CIC 62
CIC 61
CIC 60
CIC 59
CIC 58
CIC 57
CIC 56
CIC 55
CIC 54
CIC 53
CIC 52
CIC 51
CIC 50
CIC 49
CIC 48
CIC 47
CIC 46
CIC 45
CIC 44
CIC 43
CIC 42
CIC 41
CIC 40
CIC 39
CIC 38
CIC 37
CIC 36
CIC 35
CIC 34
CIC 33
CIC 32
CIC 31
CIC 30
CIC 29
CIC 28
CIC 27
CIC 26
CIC 25
CIC 24
CIC 23
CIC 22
CIC 21
CIC 20
CIC 19
CIC 18
CIC 17
CIC 16
CIC 15
CIC 14
CIC 13
CIC 12
CIC 11
CIC 10
CIC 9
CIC 8
CIC 7
CIC 6
CIC 5
CIC 4
CIC 3
CIC 2
CIC 1

Short Rounds

American’s Most Genuine Hero General

Generals are often thought to be heroes. And some certainly are – George Washington, Andrew Jackson, Sam Houston, Winfield Scott, George S. Patton. But none of these can compare to American’s most genuine hero general. Or rather, General Hero – major general, in fact, as in Maj. Gen. Andrew Hero, Jr.

Born in 1868, Hero, a native of New Orleans, graduated from West Point in 1891 (8th in a class of 65). Initially commissioned in the infantry, he shortly transferred to the artillery, and then to the coast artillery. During the Spanish-American War he helped train the 3rd Division, III Army Corps, and after the armistice went to Cuba for occupation duty. Hero later taught at West Point, edited The Artillery Journal, was as assistant to the Chief, Coast Artillery Corps, and served in a variety of garrison assignments. By 1917, Hero had been in the army for over a quarter of a century and had never heard a shot fired in anger. That began to change on April 6, 1917, when the U.S. declared war on Germany.

Almost exactly four months to the day after the U.S. entered World War I, Hero was promoted to brigadier general and given command of the newly formed 154th Field Artillery Brigade (79th Division). He went to France with the brigade, and commanded it through the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, in October-November 1918.

After the war Hero rose to Chief, Coast Artillery Corps, retiring in 1930 to live quietly in Washington until his death a dozen years later.

 

Populations and Armies on the Eve of the French Revolution

For most of the eighteenth century armies were relatively small. Training and equipment were costly, and monarchs preferred to keep expenses down as much as possible. This parsimony was also reflected in the relative care which armies took in wartime to avoid battles, much preferring maneuver and siege to confrontation which would inevitably lead to heavy casualties, necessitating additional expense. This can be seen in the “military participation ratio” – the percentage of populace under arms – of the major European powers in 1789, at the outbreak of the French Revolution.

The Military Participation Ratio The Principal European Powers, 1789
CountryPopulationArmyMPR
Austria20 million300,0001.5%
Britain 16 million 50,000 0.3   
France 24 million 255,000 1.6   
Prussia 9 million 200,000 2.2   
Russia 35 million 400,000 1.1   

The introduction of mass conscription by the French in 1793 radically increased the size of armies. By 1795 France had nearly 3-percent of her population under arms (700,000 men), and within two years nearly 5-percent (1,100,000). At the same time, of course, the French were effecting many reforms in their armies, including the introduction of the permanent division, the use of swarm skirmish tactics, and so forth. But it was not these reforms that underpinned the success of the French armies during the Revolutionary period. More than anything, that success was built upon the willingness of the French to take casualties. Although the Napoleonic armies would win battles by superior technique, they too were underpinned by seemingly endless manpower resources. But as the other powers adopted mass conscription, raising their MPRs to levels equaling or even exceeding that of France (by 1813 Prussia had 6-percent of its population under arms, Russia nearly 2-percent, but that working off an enormous base), France was no longer able to outspend its enemies in blood.

 

The Ballonabwehrkanone

Shortly after the Prussians invested Paris on September 20, 1871, during the Franco-Prussian War, the French resorted to the use of balloons to carry passengers, mail, and some specialized cargoes from the besieged city to the provinces. At least 66 balloons were lofted, including one that brought Leon Gambetta out on October 8, so that he could help organize new armies in the provinces that attempted to liberate the “City of Light.” Attempts to make return trips to Paris by balloon proved uniformly unsuccessful, but pigeons were used to carry correspondence into the city, using a special photographic process that reduced the documents to microscopic size.

The Prussian Army considered the balloons a very serious problem. Not only were they being used to reconnoiter the siege lines, but they enabled the besieged to coordinate their break-out efforts with the French armies still in the field. In addition, the balloons had caught the imagination of many people in neutral countries, raising sympathy for the French.

So the Prussians decided they needed a way to destroy the balloons. Now there had been earlier efforts at creating anti-balloon weapons. After all, the French had introduced the use of balloons in warfare during the 1790s. Hot air balloons, and later hydrogen balloons, had seen considerable use over the following decades, as recently as during the Lombardy-Venetia War (1859), the American Civil War (1861-1865), and even the Paraguayan War (1866-1869). Nor had efforts to develop weapons that could destroy aerostats (i.e., “balloons”) lagged long behind their introduction. But these had been improvised weapons, usually light artillery pieces mounted on special carriages. That would not do for the Prussian Army. In typical Prussian fashion, what the they wanted was a proper anti-balloon gun. So specifications were issued, bids received, and in a surprisingly short time, a contract was granted to the Krupp Works.

In an equally surprisingly short time, within weeks in fact, Krupp came up with a workable weapon, the Ballonabwehrkanone. The Ballonabwehrkanone was a rifled 36-mm (1.4-inch) breech loading gun. Mounted on a special carriage that made moving it easier than a normal artillery piece, it had a 360-degree traverse, and could be elevated to 85-degrees. The Ballonabwehrkanone, the first purpose-built anti-aircraft weapon in history, achieved only one “kill,” when it brought down the balloon Daguerre just west of Paris on November 12, 1870.
Previous

© 1998 - 2019 StrategyWorld.com. All rights Reserved.
StrategyWorld.com, StrategyPage.com, FYEO, For Your Eyes Only and Al Nofi's CIC are all trademarks of StrategyWorld.com
Privacy Policy