"So He is a Fool, and a Damned Fool!"
In 1823 war threatened between the Kingdom of Burma
and Britain. Fearing the worst, the government of Lord
Liverpool consulted the Duke of Wellington as to who would be the best man to
command in a campaign to capture Rangoon
and impose a favorable settlement on Burma.
promptly replied, "Send Lord Combermere."
"But," protested the Cabinet, "We have always
understood that your Grace considered Lord Combermere a fool?"
"So he is a fool, and a damned fool; but he can take Rangoon!" replied
Lord Combermere began life as Stapleton Stapleton-Cotton (1773-1865). The son of the Baronet of Combermere Abbey, Stapleton-Cotton
joined the British army through purchase in the early 1790s, and over the next 25
years had a career rather typical of a British aristocrat of his times, serving
variously in India, Africa, Ireland, and on the continent, and, from1808 in Spain
and Portugal, rising to command Wellington's cavalry. In the Peninsula
he earned the nickname "Golden Lion" from the French, both for his
battlefield prowess and his rather spectacular taste in uniforms -- reportedly
he could compete with Joachim Murat in sartorial splendor. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Cotton,
who had in the meanwhile succeeded to his father's baronetcy, was a lieutenant
general, a Knight of the Bath,
and the newly created Baron Combermere. After
which he was not present, Combermere -- as he was now known -- commanded the
British cavalry during the Allied occupation of France until 1817.
Over the following yeas, Combermere served as governor of Barbados, and
was later commander-in-chief in Ireland,
which was the post he held in 1823 when Wellington
proposed sending him to Burma
curious endorsement, the Cabinet decided not
to place Combermere in command of the Burmese expedition. Nevertheless, the First Burma War (1824-1826)
turned out favorably for Britain, and perhaps for Combermere as well, for he had
a more than adequate consolation prize, crowning his career with the capture of
Bharatpur, one of the stoutest fortified cities in India, on January 19, 1826,
liberating the infant maharaja from imprisonment by a usurper, for which he was
created First Viscount of Combermere.
Retiring from active service, over the following decades Combermere held
various posts of honor and was promoted to field marshal.
was the father of Wellington Henry
Stapleton-Cotton, the Second Viscount (1818-1891), who had an honorable if
unspectacular career in the British Army, rising to colonel in the Guards and
followed by many years of service in the House of Lords, who is nevertheless
today more famous than his father, his ghost having allegedly been photographed
sitting in the family home.
The Fleet Has a Busy Year, 1925
Between the world wars, the U.S. Fleet led a rather routine
existence, devoting itself to intensive training and only once engaging in a
major movement outside of the Western Hemisphere,
Fleet Problem V.
In preparation for the annual fleet maneuvers, the Battle Fleet,
composed of most of the battleships and supporting lighter forces, sailed from
the West Coast to the vicinity of Hawaii,
while the Scouting Fleet, a handful of older battleships and some lighter
forcer, sailed from the East Coast to Panama. With both forces in position by February 23rd,
the Battle Fleet undertook an offensive against Panama, which was defended by the
Scouting Fleet, with the maneuvers taking place in the Pacific west of Mexico.
Movement to San Francisco. On March 13th, the fleet exercises
over, the combined forces of the fleet, over 75 ships, proceeded from the
maneuver area to San Diego, for rest and replenishment, and thence to San
Francisco, for "Fleet Week" and final preparations for joint
maneuvers with the Army in Hawaii.
Grand-Joint Army and Navy Exercises No. 4. The fleet sortied from San Francisco on April 14th, and,
aided by surprise and the new aircraft carrier Langley (CV-1), by the 27th had
effected landings in Hawaii,
against resistance by local Army and Navy forces.
Tactical Exercises. After replenishment, various
elements of the fleet maneuvered against each other in routines exercises
designed to keep both parts of the fleet on the same sheet of music. These ended in on May 29th
Reorganization. Upon replenishment, the Scouting
Fleet steamed for home on the East Coast, arriving in mid-July, after making
several port calls, having traveled more than 30,000 miles since February,
while the Battle Fleet undertook extensive preparations for its next mission.
Antipodean Cruise. On July 1st the Battle Fleet, with
eleven battleships, four light cruisers,
about 32 destroyers, and thirteen auxiliaries, manned by some 27,000 personnel, departed from Hawaii for
a good will cruise to Samoa, New Zealand, and Australia, returning to San Diego
by the same route, save for a cruiser squadron that went home by way of Tahiti and the Marquesa Islands, to arrive in October, having covered
over 17,000 miles.
The Fleet's movement's in 1925 were extraordinary, and
fore-shadowed the great ocean-spanning operations that would take place during
the Second World War.