The Strategypage is a comprehensive summary of military news and affairs.
October 22, 2020

CIC 477

Past Issues
CIC 476
CIC 475
CIC 474
CIC 473
CIC 472
CIC 471
CIC 470
CIC 469
CIC 468
CIC 467
CIC 466
CIC 465
CIC 464
CIC 463
CIC 462
CIC 461
CIC 460
CIC 459
CIC 458
CIC 457
CIC 456
CIC 455
CIC 454
CIC 453
CIC 452
CIC 451
CIC 450
CIC 449
CIC 448
CIC 447
CIC 446
CIC 445
CIC 444
CIC 443
CIC 442
CIC 441
CIC 440
CIC 439
CIC 438
CIC 437
CIC 436
CIC 435
CIC 434
CIC 433
CIC 432
CIC 431
CIC 430
CIC 429
CIC 428
CIC 427
CIC 426
CIC 425
CIC 424
CIC 423
CIC 422
CIC 421
CIC 420
CIC 419
CIC 418
CIC 417
CIC 416
CIC 415
CIC 414
CIC 413
CIC 412
CIC 411
CIC 410
CIC 409
CIC 408
CIC 407
CIC 406
CIC 405
CIC 404
CIC 403
CIC 402
CIC 401
CIC 400
CIC 399
CIC 398
CIC 397
CIC 396
CIC 395
CIC 394
CIC 393
CIC 392
CIC 391
CIC 390
CIC 389
CIC 388
CIC 387
CIC 386
CIC 385
CIC 384
CIC 383
CIC 382
CIC 381
CIC 380
CIC 379
CIC 378
CIC 377
CIC 375
CIC 374
CIC 373
CIC 372
CIC 371
CIC 370
CIC 369
CIC 368
CIC 367
CIC 366
CIC 365
CIC 364
CIC 363
CIC 362
CIC 361
CIC 360
CIC 359
CIC 358
CIC 357
CIC 356
CIC 355
CIC 354
CIC 353
CIC 352
CIC 351
CIC 350
CIC 349
CIC 348
CIC 347
CIC 346
CIC 345
CIC 344
CIC 343
CIC 342
CIC 341
CIC 340
CIC 339
CIC 338
CIC 337
CIC 336
CIC 335
CIC 334
CIC 333
CIC 332
CIC 331
CIC 330
CIC 329
CIC 328
CIC 327
CIC 326
CIC 325
CIC 324
CIC 323
CIC 322
CIC 321
CIC 320
CIC 319
CIC 318
CIC 317
CIC 316
CIC 315
CIC 314
CIC 313
CIC 312
CIC 311
CIC 310
CIC 309
CIC 308
CIC 307
CIC 306
CIC 305
CIC 304
CIC 303
CIC 302
CIC 301
CIC 300
CIC 299
CIC 298
CIC 297
CIC 296
CIC 295
CIC 294
CIC 293
CIC 292
CIC 291
CIC 290
CIC 289
CIC 288
CIC 287
CIC 286
CIC 285
CIC 284
CIC 283
CIC 282
CIC 281
CIC 280
CIC 279
CIC 278
CIC 277
CIC 276
CIC 275
CIC 274
CIC 273
CIC 272
CIC 271
CIC 270
CIC 269
CIC 268
CIC 267
CIC 266
CIC 265
CIC 264
CIC 263
CIC 262
CIC 261
CIC 260
CIC 259
CIC 258
CIC 257
CIC 256
CIC 255
CIC 254
CIC 253
CIC 252
CIC 251
CIC 250
CIC 249
CIC 248
CIC 247
CIC 246
CIC 245
CIC 244
CIC 243
CIC 242
CIC 241
CIC 240
CIC 239
CIC 238
CIC 237
CIC 236
CIC 235
CIC 234
CIC 233
CIC 232
CIC 231
CIC 230
CIC 229
CIC 228
CIC 227
CIC 226
CIC 225
CIC 224
CIC 223
CIC 222
CIC 221
CIC 220
CIC 219
CIC 218
CIC 217
CIC 216
CIC 215
CIC 214
CIC 213
CIC 212
CIC 211
CIC 210
CIC 209
CIC 208
CIC 207
CIC 206
CIC 205
CIC 204
CIC 203
CIC 202
CIC 201
CIC 200
CIC 199
CIC 198
CIC 197
CIC 196
CIC 195
CIC 194
CIC 193
CIC 192
CIC 191
CIC 190
CIC 189
CIC 188
CIC 187
CIC 186
CIC 185
CIC 184
CIC 183
CIC 182
CIC 181
CIC 180
CIC 179
CIC 178
CIC 177
CIC 176
CIC 175
CIC 174
CIC 173
CIC 172
CIC 171
CIC 170
CIC 169
CIC 168
CIC 167
CIC 166
CIC 165
CIC 164
CIC 163
CIC 162
CIC 161
CIC 160
CIC 159
CIC 158
CIC 157
CIC 156
CIC 155
CIC 154
CIC 153
CIC 152
CIC 151
CIC 150
CIC 149
CIC 148
CIC 147
CIC 146
CIC 145
CIC 144
CIC 143
CIC 142
CIC 141
CIC 140
CIC 139
CIC 138
CIC 137
CIC 136
CIC 135
CIC 134
CIC 133
CIC 132
CIC 131
CIC 130
CIC 129
CIC 128
CIC 127
CIC 126
CIC 125
CIC 124
CIC 123
CIC 122
CIC 121
CIC 120
CIC 119
CIC 118
CIC 117
CIC 116
CIC 115
CIC 114
CIC 113
CIC 112
CIC 111
CIC 110
CIC 109
CIC 108
CIC 107
CIC 106
CIC 105
CIC 104
CIC 103
CIC 102
CIC 101
CIC 100
CIC 99
CIC 98
CIC 97
CIC 96
CIC 95
CIC 94
CIC 93
CIC 92
CIC 91
CIC 90
CIC 89
CIC 88
CIC 87
CIC 86
CIC 85
CIC 84
CIC 83
CIC 82
CIC 81
CIC 80
CIC 79
CIC 78
CIC 77
CIC 76
CIC 75
CIC 74
CIC 73
CIC 72
CIC 71
CIC 70
CIC 69
CIC 68
CIC 67
CIC 66
CIC 65
CIC 64
CIC 63
CIC 62
CIC 61
CIC 60
CIC 59
CIC 58
CIC 57
CIC 56
CIC 55
CIC 54
CIC 53
CIC 52
CIC 51
CIC 50
CIC 49
CIC 48
CIC 47
CIC 46
CIC 45
CIC 44
CIC 43
CIC 42
CIC 41
CIC 40
CIC 39
CIC 38
CIC 37
CIC 36
CIC 35
CIC 34
CIC 33
CIC 32
CIC 31
CIC 30
CIC 29
CIC 28
CIC 27
CIC 26
CIC 25
CIC 24
CIC 23
CIC 22
CIC 21
CIC 20
CIC 19
CIC 18
CIC 17
CIC 16
CIC 15
CIC 14
CIC 13
CIC 12
CIC 11
CIC 10
CIC 9
CIC 8
CIC 7
CIC 6
CIC 5
CIC 4
CIC 3
CIC 2
CIC 1

Short Rounds

The Ultimate Führerbunker

As is well known, Hitler ended his days trapped in his lair, the Führerbunker. The underground complex under the Reichs Chancellery in Berlin was rather heavily fortified and lavishly appointed, with ample facilities for Hitler to carry on the war, and with comfortable quarters for him and his principal henchmen. But the Berlin bunker was by no means the only elaborate underground or fortified facility from which Hitler ran his war. In fact, in the course of the war some dozens of special headquarters were built for Hitler’s use. These were scattered all across Europe, from the outskirts of Smolensk to the Loire Valley, reflecting the focus of Hitler’s strategic interests at various times. Most of these Führerbunkeren were elaborate underground or otherwise fortified facilities, that provided space for the Hitler gang to live and work in relative comfort and safety. All had complex communications suites, extensive defenses, particularly anti-aircraft installations, and were surrounded by barracks for troops and security personnel. What seems to have been intended as the ultimate Führerbunker, was a site known as “Riese – Giant”, in a mountainous region of Lower Silesia near the eastern branch of the Neisse River. Intended as a general headquarters for the direction of the war on the Eastern Front, Riese was authorized in September of 1943, when the war had already turned against Germany, though perhaps not so decisively as to be irretrievable. Riese was actually not a single massive installation, but rather something like an entrenched camp, with interlinked facilities scattered over several square kilometers, all covering the critical central nodes. The total internal space of the facility was to run over 190,000 square meters – over two million square feet, more than 45 acres. Most of the space was intended to serve as barracks, defenses, storage, and so forth. Hitler himself was to have only a modest 5,240 square meters for his own use and that of his principal associates, plus about 5,000 more for his headquarters. The site was huge, because the garrison was intended to be huge. The facilities were planned to shelter some 27,000 personnel.
The Riese “Garrison”
Hitler and his inner circle c. 100
Führer headquarters c. 8,300
Army Headquarters c. 7,500
Luftwaffe Headquarters c. 2,400
SS Headquarters c. 1,800
Reich Government Officials c. 300
Anti-Aircraft Troops c. 6,600

It was an expensive project. The plans alone ran over a million Reichsmarks, and the initial estimated cost was something over 150 million. How much was actually spent is unknown. Hitler’s principal builder, Albert Speer, claimed that by the time construction had reached about 50-percent, in the autumn of 1944, the project was already well over-budget. He claimed to deplore the waste, arguing that more concrete – over 36,000 cubic meters – had been used in the project than had been used to build air raid shelters. Nor is the human cost known. By late 1944, when over 3.4 million man-days of work had been invested in bringing the project to about 50-percent completion, nearly 25,000 slave laborers and some thousands of others from the Todt Organization were engaged in the project. The death rate was staggering; perhaps 40-percent of the slave laborers perished.

Scheduled for completion in August of 1945, work on Riese was abandoned late in the winter of 1945, as the Red Army approached.

Note: For more about the Riese installation and Hitler’s other fortified headquarters, see Franz W. Seidler and Dieter Ziegert, Hitler's Secret Headquarters: The Fuhrer's Wartime Bases from the Invasion of France to the Berlin Bunker , translated by Geoffrey Brooks (London/Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books/Stackpole Books, 2004)

 

H.M.S. Captail Goes Down, and With Her a Bit of History

The brain child of Cowper Phipps Coles, a Captain in the Royal Navy, H.M.S. Captain was one of a number of radically innovative warships built during the early days of the ironclad revolution. Funded only after bruising parliamentary and press debates, and against the better judgement of the Admiralty, Captain sported two turrets of a novel design, each mounting two 12-inch muzzle loading rifled cannon. Intended to displace 6,950 tons and make nearly 16 knots, Captain had a number of flaws. One was that upon completion, she actually displaced 7,767 tons. This gave her a freeboard (height of her deck above water) of only 6½ feet, 18 inches less than intended. Moreover, due to poor construction, her metacentric height was about ten inches higher than as intended, making her roll a good deal. Finally, to top it all off, she was furnished with a full ship rig, and sails; her masts were the tallest and at 50,000 square feet her sail area the largest in the history of the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy’s ship design specialists concluded that the ship would prove unstable and dangerous in any weather, and would probably not recover if she rolled more than 20 degrees. Captain was commissioned in April of 1870. Surprisingly, she did well on initial trials, sailing as far as Gibraltar on several voyages. Then disaster struck. Late on September 6, 1870, Captain was cruising under sail with eleven other warships off Cape Finisterre, the westernmost part of France. Shortly after midnight on the 7th, a strong wind struck her and she began heeling over. Although the Captain ordered the sail cut away, before this could be done her roll increased and then very suddenly she capsized. Of some 500 officers and men aboard Captain, there were only 18 survivors, men who’d been lucky enough to be thrown clear when the ship rolled over. Among the dead were Coles himself, as well as Captain Hugh Talbot Burgoyne, the ship’s skipper, who had earned a V.C. in the Crimean War. In addition to the terrible loss of life, the sinking of H.M.S. Captain also represented a significant loss for students of ancient and ecclesiastical history, due to Lieutenant John Trevithick, the ship’s second lieutenant, who was among the dead In 1858, Trevithick had accompanied an expedition led by Lord Napier to explore and map portions of the Arabian Sea and adjacent waters. Being a man of antiquarian interests, Trevithick had spent part of his time buying up old manuscripts in local bazaars. He had an unknown number of these with him aboard Captain when she went down. Precisely what was lost can never be known, but a bit of barbarous vandalism on Trevithick’s part may provide a hint. It seems that shortly before Captain’s final voyage, Trevithick cut a parchment page from one manuscript and gave it as a gift to a fellow officer from another ship. It’s an attractive page, in two columns. One column is of text, in Coptic script carefully written in black ink with little red crosses for punctuation. The other column is an illuminated picture showing five women and a man placing a body in a tomb. This alone survived of Trevithick’s collection, and now rests in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. The page is from an ancient Ethiopian Life of Pontius Pilate.

 

© 1998 - 2020 StrategyWorld.com. All rights Reserved.
StrategyWorld.com, StrategyPage.com, FYEO, For Your Eyes Only and Al Nofi's CIC are all trademarks of StrategyWorld.com
Privacy Policy