The Strategypage is a comprehensive summary of military news and affairs.
January 16, 2019

CIC 467

Past Issues
CIC 466
CIC 465
CIC 464
CIC 463
CIC 462
CIC 461
CIC 460
CIC 459
CIC 458
CIC 457
CIC 456
CIC 455
CIC 454
CIC 453
CIC 452
CIC 451
CIC 450
CIC 449
CIC 448
CIC 447
CIC 446
CIC 445
CIC 444
CIC 443
CIC 442
CIC 441
CIC 440
CIC 439
CIC 438
CIC 437
CIC 436
CIC 435
CIC 434
CIC 433
CIC 432
CIC 431
CIC 430
CIC 429
CIC 428
CIC 427
CIC 426
CIC 425
CIC 424
CIC 423
CIC 422
CIC 421
CIC 420
CIC 419
CIC 418
CIC 417
CIC 416
CIC 415
CIC 414
CIC 413
CIC 412
CIC 411
CIC 410
CIC 409
CIC 408
CIC 407
CIC 406
CIC 405
CIC 404
CIC 403
CIC 402
CIC 401
CIC 400
CIC 399
CIC 398
CIC 397
CIC 396
CIC 395
CIC 394
CIC 393
CIC 392
CIC 391
CIC 390
CIC 389
CIC 388
CIC 387
CIC 386
CIC 385
CIC 384
CIC 383
CIC 382
CIC 381
CIC 380
CIC 379
CIC 378
CIC 377
CIC 375
CIC 374
CIC 373
CIC 372
CIC 371
CIC 370
CIC 369
CIC 368
CIC 367
CIC 366
CIC 365
CIC 364
CIC 363
CIC 362
CIC 361
CIC 360
CIC 359
CIC 358
CIC 357
CIC 356
CIC 355
CIC 354
CIC 353
CIC 352
CIC 351
CIC 350
CIC 349
CIC 348
CIC 347
CIC 346
CIC 345
CIC 344
CIC 343
CIC 342
CIC 341
CIC 340
CIC 339
CIC 338
CIC 337
CIC 336
CIC 335
CIC 334
CIC 333
CIC 332
CIC 331
CIC 330
CIC 329
CIC 328
CIC 327
CIC 326
CIC 325
CIC 324
CIC 323
CIC 322
CIC 321
CIC 320
CIC 319
CIC 318
CIC 317
CIC 316
CIC 315
CIC 314
CIC 313
CIC 312
CIC 311
CIC 310
CIC 309
CIC 308
CIC 307
CIC 306
CIC 305
CIC 304
CIC 303
CIC 302
CIC 301
CIC 300
CIC 299
CIC 298
CIC 297
CIC 296
CIC 295
CIC 294
CIC 293
CIC 292
CIC 291
CIC 290
CIC 289
CIC 288
CIC 287
CIC 286
CIC 285
CIC 284
CIC 283
CIC 282
CIC 281
CIC 280
CIC 279
CIC 278
CIC 277
CIC 276
CIC 275
CIC 274
CIC 273
CIC 272
CIC 271
CIC 270
CIC 269
CIC 268
CIC 267
CIC 266
CIC 265
CIC 264
CIC 263
CIC 262
CIC 261
CIC 260
CIC 259
CIC 258
CIC 257
CIC 256
CIC 255
CIC 254
CIC 253
CIC 252
CIC 251
CIC 250
CIC 249
CIC 248
CIC 247
CIC 246
CIC 245
CIC 244
CIC 243
CIC 242
CIC 241
CIC 240
CIC 239
CIC 238
CIC 237
CIC 236
CIC 235
CIC 234
CIC 233
CIC 232
CIC 231
CIC 230
CIC 229
CIC 228
CIC 227
CIC 226
CIC 225
CIC 224
CIC 223
CIC 222
CIC 221
CIC 220
CIC 219
CIC 218
CIC 217
CIC 216
CIC 215
CIC 214
CIC 213
CIC 212
CIC 211
CIC 210
CIC 209
CIC 208
CIC 207
CIC 206
CIC 205
CIC 204
CIC 203
CIC 202
CIC 201
CIC 200
CIC 199
CIC 198
CIC 197
CIC 196
CIC 195
CIC 194
CIC 193
CIC 192
CIC 191
CIC 190
CIC 189
CIC 188
CIC 187
CIC 186
CIC 185
CIC 184
CIC 183
CIC 182
CIC 181
CIC 180
CIC 179
CIC 178
CIC 177
CIC 176
CIC 175
CIC 174
CIC 173
CIC 172
CIC 171
CIC 170
CIC 169
CIC 168
CIC 167
CIC 166
CIC 165
CIC 164
CIC 163
CIC 162
CIC 161
CIC 160
CIC 159
CIC 158
CIC 157
CIC 156
CIC 155
CIC 154
CIC 153
CIC 152
CIC 151
CIC 150
CIC 149
CIC 148
CIC 147
CIC 146
CIC 145
CIC 144
CIC 143
CIC 142
CIC 141
CIC 140
CIC 139
CIC 138
CIC 137
CIC 136
CIC 135
CIC 134
CIC 133
CIC 132
CIC 131
CIC 130
CIC 129
CIC 128
CIC 127
CIC 126
CIC 125
CIC 124
CIC 123
CIC 122
CIC 121
CIC 120
CIC 119
CIC 118
CIC 117
CIC 116
CIC 115
CIC 114
CIC 113
CIC 112
CIC 111
CIC 110
CIC 109
CIC 108
CIC 107
CIC 106
CIC 105
CIC 104
CIC 103
CIC 102
CIC 101
CIC 100
CIC 99
CIC 98
CIC 97
CIC 96
CIC 95
CIC 94
CIC 93
CIC 92
CIC 91
CIC 90
CIC 89
CIC 88
CIC 87
CIC 86
CIC 85
CIC 84
CIC 83
CIC 82
CIC 81
CIC 80
CIC 79
CIC 78
CIC 77
CIC 76
CIC 75
CIC 74
CIC 73
CIC 72
CIC 71
CIC 70
CIC 69
CIC 68
CIC 67
CIC 66
CIC 65
CIC 64
CIC 63
CIC 62
CIC 61
CIC 60
CIC 59
CIC 58
CIC 57
CIC 56
CIC 55
CIC 54
CIC 53
CIC 52
CIC 51
CIC 50
CIC 49
CIC 48
CIC 47
CIC 46
CIC 45
CIC 44
CIC 43
CIC 42
CIC 41
CIC 40
CIC 39
CIC 38
CIC 37
CIC 36
CIC 35
CIC 34
CIC 33
CIC 32
CIC 31
CIC 30
CIC 29
CIC 28
CIC 27
CIC 26
CIC 25
CIC 24
CIC 23
CIC 22
CIC 21
CIC 20
CIC 19
CIC 18
CIC 17
CIC 16
CIC 15
CIC 14
CIC 13
CIC 12
CIC 11
CIC 10
CIC 9
CIC 8
CIC 7
CIC 6
CIC 5
CIC 4
CIC 3
CIC 2
CIC 1

Short Rounds

Professional Courtesy?

In late 1934 the U.S. Navy announced plans to hold its annual fleet maneuvers in the North Pacific triangle, the area from the West Coast to Hawaii to the Aleutians. The announcement was widely criticized by some politicians, peace groups, religious leaders, and journalists, in both the U.S. and Japan, on the grounds that holding maneuvers “west” of Hawaii and “so near” Japan was "provocative." There was even speculation that the theater been chosen to deliver a not-so-subtle “threat” to Japan. And, since Japan had announced its own maneuvers were to be held in the Kurile Islands and North Pacific, some pundits prattled on about the possibility of an “accidental” encounter between American and Japanese ships that might initiate an international incident.

Responding to the claim that the choice of the Aleutians put the U.S. Navy in a position to “threaten” Japan, Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson pointed out that no American ships were to operate west of the 180th Meridian, and that the Aleutians were actually further from Japan than the Marshall Islands, where the Japanese had held their 1933 maneuvers, were from Hawaii. He also noted that not only did the defined boundaries of the maneuvering area put some 900 miles between the U.S. Fleet and Japanese territory, but that the Imperial Navy’s maneuvers were not to begin until some months after the U.S. Navy’s were over.

This may have helped calm the rhetoric somewhat, but probably the deciding factor was that, concerned about the shrillness of some of the critics, Japanese Navy Minister Mineo Osumi issued a statement that concluded “I do not believe naval leaders in Japan and the United States are worried over each other’s maneuvers. We realize the necessity of such training and also that the increasing range of modern warships is narrowing the oceans which separate us.”

 

Starting Out on the Right Foot

In 1944, Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny commanded a French army during the Anvil-Dragon landings in Southern France, and then led it into the heart of Germany. Later commanding French troops in Indochina, upon his death in 1952, de Lattre de Tassigny was posthumously promoted to Marshal of France. Now this was certainly a military career of some distinction. But then, one could expect no less from de Lattre de Tassigny, considering how he had opened his career.

The scion of an aristocratic family from French Flanders, de Lattre de Tassigny (1889-1952), graduated from the French Military Academy at St. Cyr in 1911 and entered the cavalry, for which purpose he attended the Cavalry School at Saumur. Graduating in 1912, the young sous lieutenant was assigned to the 12th Dragoons.

The 12th Dragoons was stationed at Pont-à-Mousson, in northeastern France, practically on the German border. Naturally, when war came in August of 1914, de Lattre de Tassigny was with his regiment. A unit of the 2nd Cavalry Division of the French Second Army, the regiment was assigned to screening and reconaissance. On August 11th, during a patrol, he was lightly wounded by a howitzer round. He shortly returned to active duty.

On September 14, 1914, while on a reconaissance near Pont- à-Mousson, de Lattre de Tassigny’s platoon became embroiled in a skirmish with elements of a German Uhlan regiment. The young officer was wounded by a lance thrust, though he personally accounted for three of the enemy with a saber that his grandfather had wielded as a Royal Dragoon under King Charles X over 70 years earlier. Although seriously wounded, he was saved from capture by a fellow officer, both men barely getting away as the Germans overran Pont-à-Mousson.

Recovering from his injuries, de Lattre de Tassigny was awarded the Légion d'honneur and promoted to captain. He accepted a transfer to the 93rd Infantry Regiment, in which he fought at Verdun in 1916, on the Chemin de Dames in 1917, and in many another battle, while rising to major and battalion commander before being assigned a staff job. By the end of the war he had accumulated three more wounds and seven more decorations.

 

Equipping Charlemagne’s Cavalry

In the 790s, King Charlemagne of the Franks revised the military laws of his nation. Since the army was still essentially a Germanic tribal host, Charlemagne wanted to regularize its equipment as much as possible, so that he would have a more reliable force with which to implement his rather ambitious plans for conquest.

As traditional in tribal levies, a man’s role, and thus the equipment he required, was based on the amount of land he held. Men holding four mansi, about 135 acres, were required to come equipped for mounted combat. This entailed a pretty elaborate outfit, that cost a considerable sum.


ItemSolidi
Helmet 6
Chain mail 12
Sword & scabbard 7
Leggings 6
Greaves 6
Spear & shield 2
Horse 12
Total45

Some idea of the investment involved in equipping a man as a “knight” can be gained by noting that a sound ox with horns normally cost 2 solidi, while a good cow could cost as much as 3, the same as a sound mare. So the price of a heavy cavalryman's equipment was about the same as the cost of 15 good mares or 23 oxen, an enormous sum. So great was the cost, in fact, that in 805 the regulations were modified, so that men who held less than twelve mansi, were permitted to dispense with the helmet.

Of course no self-respecting “knight” would have managed with just one horse. He’d probably have on war horse, plus a riding horse or two, plus, of course, a pack horse, not to mention a servant or two, who would also be mounted, and perhaps armed as well.

By the way, if you held less than four mansi you weren’t off the hook. As the king’s regulations noted, “He who has only one mansus of his own shall be joined to . . . three men who have the same and shall aid him, and the latter shall go alone; the three who have aided him shall remain at home.”

© 1998 - 2019 StrategyWorld.com. All rights Reserved.
StrategyWorld.com, StrategyPage.com, FYEO, For Your Eyes Only and Al Nofi's CIC are all trademarks of StrategyWorld.com
Privacy Policy