The Indian Army is refusing to buy any more BrahMos cruise missiles until the system has proved, via realistic testing, that it can do what it was designed to do. The army version of BrahMos failed its first operational test recently. While the Indian Navy is happy with the performance of its version of the missile (which is used to destroy enemy warships), the army version is equipped with a different terminal guidance system, that is supposed to enable the missile to hit a target in a cluttered environment. This is basically a video camera which broadcasts back to an operator images of what the missile is headed for. This is so minor adjustments can be made, to insure that the right, say, building can be hit. In addition to getting that new guidance seeker working, the army is also concerned with the high cost of each missile (over $2 million).
The Indian Army BrahMos is fired from a truck mounted launcher, and during the test, missed its target some 200 kilometers distant. The missile was accepted for service in the Indian Navy three years ago, but the first operational test of the army version was delayed as engineers fussed over technical issues. The missile had performed well in development tests. But an operational test means the missile is issued to a combat unit, and fired by a military crew. Russia has had problems like this before, as have all countries. But Russia has had more problems with high tech weapons, like BrahMos, than Western nations.
Last year, India ordered 800 more of the new PJ-10 BrahMos missiles. The Indian Army had planned to buy 80 launchers as well. Russia has not yet ordered any BrahMos, while India is also working on lighter versions for use by aircraft and submarines.
The 3.2 ton BrahMos has a range of 300 kilometers and a 660 pound warhead. Perhaps the most striking characteristic is its high speed, literally faster (at up to 3,000 feet per second) than a rifle bullet. Guidance is GPS or inertial to reach the general area of the target (usually a ship or other small target), then radar (in the navy version) that will identify the specific target and hit it. The warhead weighs 660 pounds, and the high speed at impact causes additional damage (because of the weight of the entire missile.)
India and Russia developed the weapon together, and now offer the BrahMos for export. The high price of each missile, about $2.3 million, restricts the number of countries that can afford it. Different versions of the PJ-10 can be fired from aircraft, ships, ground launchers or submarines. The maximum speed of 3,000 kilometers an hour makes it harder to intercept, and means it takes five minutes or less to reach its target. The air launched version weighs 2.5 tons, the others, three tons or more.
The 29 foot long, 670mm diameter missile is an upgraded version of the Russian SS-NX-26 (Yakhont) anti-ship missile, which was in development when the Cold War ended in 1991. Lacking money to finish development and begin production, the Russian manufacturer made a deal with India to finish the job. India put up most of the $240 million needed to finally complete two decades of development. The PJ-10 is also being built in Russia. Efforts are being made to export up to 2,000. China and Iran have also expressed interest in the weapon, but only Malaysia, Chile, South Africa, Kuwait and the UAE (United Arab Emirates) have been approached with a sales pitch. Russia and India are encouraged enough to invest in BrahMos 2, which will use a scramjet, instead of a ramjet, in the second stage. This would double speed, and make the missile much more difficult to defend against.
The large order from India indicates it plans to make the missile a major weapon system. The BrahMos can carry a nuclear warhead, but is designed mainly to go after high value targets that require a large warhead and great accuracy. The BrahMos could take out enemy headquarters, or key weapons systems (especially those employing electronic or nuclear weapons.)