846    Moslem raiders desecrate the Vatican, but are repulsed from the walls of Rome
1071    Battle of Manzikert: Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine Army under emperor Romanus IV
1139    Afonso the Conqueror is proclaimed first King of Portugal (1139-1185)
1221    Battle of Mansura: Ayyubids defeat the Crusaders
1260    Guelfs capture San Zeno after a 6 month siege, to bag Alberigo da Romano and his family
1278    Battle of Durnkurut: The Habsburgs defeat the Bohemians
1278    Battle of the Marchfeld: Rudolf of Habsburg defeats Ottokar II
1346    Battle of Crecy: English longbows defeat the French
1549    Battle of Dussindale: The Earl of Warwick defeats Robert Kett
1652    Naval battle of Plymouth: The English fail to prevent a Dutch convoy from passing through the Channel into the Atlantic
1768    Capt James Cook departs Plymouth in HM Brig 'Endeavour' on his first voyage of exploration.
1775    First Congressional action on veterans' benefits
1782    French fleet captures Trincomalee from the British
1789    The "Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" approved by the French National Assembly
1813    Battle of Dresden, Day 1: Austro-Russo-Prussians attack Napoleon
1813    Battle of the Katzbach: The Prussians defeat the French
1839    US Revenue Cutter 'Washington' seizes the Spanish ship 'Amistad', manned by self-liberated slaves, off Montauk Point
1843    USS 'Missouri', the first steam warship to cross the Atlantic, and the most powerful frigate in the world, is destroyed by fire & magazine explosion at Gibraltar
1848    Battle of Morazzone: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
1861    Combat at Cross Lanes/Summerville, WVa
1863    Battle of Rocky Gap/White Sulphur Springs, WVa
1883    Krakatoa erupts, kills 36,000
1914    Battle of Le Cateau: desperate British rear-guard action against the Germans
1914    Battle of Tannenberg: German Eighth Army defeats Russian Narev Army
1914    German Togoland surrenders to Anglo-French forces after a three week campaign
1914    HM Light Cruiser 'Highflyer' sinks the German armed merchant cruiser/liner 'Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse' off Rio de Oro
1915    German troops capture Brest-Litovsk, Russia
1917    Arturo Toscanini (53), conducts an Italian army band under fire to celebrate the capture of Monte Santo, on the Bainsizza Plateau
1920    19th amendment to US Constitution takes effect, giving women the right to vote
1937    Franco's Nationalists capture Santander
1939    Belgium undertakes a preventive mobilization
1942    Australian troops at Milne Bay stoutly resist Japanese landing force.
1942    Japanese troops occupy Nauru Island
1942    Ramgarh, India: US opens a training center for Chinese troops, to be flown over the Hump
1942    Russian counteroffensive begins at Moscow
1942    Vichy French police round up 7,000 Jews
1943    Italian sub 'Torelli' reaches Sumatra, with critical materials
1943    U.S. bombers in China attack Japanese installations in Hong Kong.
1944    De Gaulle marches up the Champs-Elysees to Notre Dame under fire from Nazi snipers
1944    Filipino guerrillas receive orders for the coming battle for liberation.
1945    Soviet troops occupy Matsuma, in the southern Kuriles.
1966    Battle at Omugulugwombashe: Initiates the Namibian War of Independence from South Africa
1978    Albino Luciani is elected Pope as John Paul I (26 Aug - 28 Sep 1978)

1596    Frederick V Elector Palatine (1610-23), King Frederick I of Bohemia (1619-20), the "Winter King", d. 1632, having helped start the Thirty Years' War
1676    Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the first "prime minister", d. 1745
1740    Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, France, co-inventor with his brother Jacques-Étienne of ballooning, d. 1810
1743    Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist, war profiteer, guillotined 1794
1802    Mariano Arista, general and President of Mexico (1851-1853), d. 1855
1811    Danville Leadbetter, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1866
1819    Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince Consort to Queen Victoria, d.1861
1833    Charles Jackson Paine, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1916
1835    Theodore Washington Brevard, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
1901    Maxwell D Taylor, sometime commander, 101st A/B Div, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, d. 1987
1910    Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu - Mother Teresa, 1979 Peace Nobelist, d. 1997

796    King Offa of Mercia (757-796)
1260    Alberico II da Romano, c. 64, condottiero, poet, brother of Ezzelino "The Cruel," tortured to death after seeing his sons Alberico, Giovanni, Romano, & Ugolino be drawn & quartered, and wife Margherita and daughters Amabilia, Griselda, and Tornalisce, burned at the stake
1278    King Ottokar II of Bohemia (1253-78), Duke of Austria (1251-1276), Styria (1260-1276), Carinthia (1269-1276), and Carniola (1269-1276), kia
1346    King Jean "the Blind" of Bohemia (1335-1346), 50, Louis I of Nevers, c. 34, Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel(1322-1346), and some thousands of others, kia at Crecy
1486    Ernst I of Saxony (1464-86), at 45
1813    Karl Theodor Körner, Prussian war poet, kia at 22
1921    Matthias Erzberger, 45, German Minister of Finance, murdered by nationalists for having signed the Armistice of 1918
1921    Peter I Karadjordjevic, 77, sometime Foreign Legionaire, King of Serbia (1903-1918) and of the Serbs, Croats, & Slovenes (1918-1921) [8/16 OS]
1942    Benito Albino Mussolini, 26, illegitimate son of Mussolini and the Russian socialist Ida Dasler, in an insane asylum, possible murdered
1974    Charles Lindbergh, intrepid flyer, environmentalist, Nazi dupe, anti-Semite, at 72
1974    Prince Junio Valerio Borghese, Fascist condottiero, b. 1906
2010    William B Lenoir, 71, astronaut
2011    General Donn Albert Starry, soldier, scholar, military reformer, at 86