635    Arabs capture Pella (Tabaqat Fahl, Jordan) from the Byzantines
971    Battle of Shao: The Southern Han, with a corps of war elephants, are defeated by Song crossbowmen
1565    Battle of Talkota: The Moslem Deccans defeat the Hindu Vijayanagar
1640    Accession of King Garcia II of Kongo (1640-1661)
1643    Sir Thomas Fairfax's Parliamentarians take Leeds from the Royalists
1668    England, Netherlands, & Sweden sign the 'Triple Alliance' against France
1781    The 74 gun ship-of-the-line HMS 'Culloden' grounds in a storm on Montauk Point, Long I., NY, and is a constructive total loss, but there are no casualties
1790    Pitcairn's Is: the Mutineers burn HMS 'Bounty'
1793    Prussia & Russia effect the Second Partition of Poland
1865    Battle of Fort Brady/Trent's Reach, Va: Confederate ironclads begin a two day bombardment of Union lines on the James River, withdrawing on the 25th
1870    The "Marias Massacre": 173 Blackfoot (140 women & children) killed by US Army in Montana
1900    Battle of Spion Kop: Boers defeat the British; Winston Chruchill & Mohandas Gandhi are both present, but do not meet
1904    Great Fire of Ålesund, Norway: 10,000 people left homeless, though only one death
1913    Coup by Enver Pasha restores the Young Turks to power in Constantinople, pledged to renew the Balkan War
1920    The Netherlands refuses to turn over ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II to the Allies
1928    "Adventures of Good Soldier Schveik" premiers in Berlin
1932    El Salvador's army kills 4,000 protesting farmers
1937    Stalin's first "Purge Trial": Karl Radek & 16 others tried & shot.
1940    Ignace Paderewski named premier of the Polish govt-in-exile
1941    Charles Lindbergh advises Congress to conclude a non-aggression pact with Hitler, who has already violated about a dozen treaties -- Learn More
1942    Bataan: Japanese land in the rear at Quinauan and Longoskayan Points, as Fil-Am troops fall back from the main line
1942    Burma: Japanese cross the Sittang River, as 17th Ind Div collapses
1942    Malaya: another Indian brigade arrives at Singapore, as the Johore line crumbles
1942    Battle of Balikpapan: Nocturnal U.S DD and Dutch sub attack on Japanese shipping, six transports sunk
1943    British Eighth Army captures Tripoli
1943    Casablanca Conference: FDR & Churchill agree on the "unconditional surrender" of the Axis.
1943    Guadalcanal: the CAM Div overruns Kokumbona, as the USN bombards Japanese positions
1944    Burma: Americans insist Chinese commit their strategic reserve
1958    Venezuelan Dictator/President Marcos Perez Jiménez (1952-1958) flees
1960    Bathyscaph 'Trieste' reaches the bottom of the Marianas Trench, the deepest place in the ocean, at 10.91 km/6.78 mi
1962    Kim Philby, long-term spy in Britain, defects to the USSR
1968    North Koreans capture USS 'Pueblo' & 83 crew in the East Sea/Sea of Japan

1579    The Dutch Republic, formed by the Union of Utrecht:
1688    Queen Regnant Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (1718-1741)
1719    The Principality of Liechtenstein, within the Holy Roman Empire
1730    Joseph Hewes, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1779
1737    John Hancock, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1793
1828    Calvin Edward Pratt, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1896
1832    Édouard Manet, French impressionist ("The Kearsarge & The Alabama"), d. 1883
1896    Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg (1919-1964)
1897    Sir William Samuel Stephenson, Canadian soldier, the "Man Called Intrepid", who inspired Ian Fleming to create James Bond, d. 1989
1897    Subhas Chandra Bose, Indian nationalist, k. 1945
1898    Randolph Scott, AEF veteran, actor ("Gung Ho!"), d. 1987
1898    Sergei Eisenstein, Soviet film maker ("Battleship Potemkin", "Alexandr Nevski"), d. 1948
1899    Humphrey Bogart, steersman, USS 'Leviathan', WW I, actor ("Casablanca"), d. 1957
1914    Prince Imperial Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, d. 1997

1002    Otto III, King of the Germans, Holy Roman Emperor (983/996-1002), at 21
1199    Almohad Caliph Yaqub of Morocco and Andalus (1184-1199), c. 38
1516    King Ferdinand II of Aragon & Sicily (1497-1516), at 63 -- Isabella's husband
1567    Estacio de Sa, Portuguese explorer, d/w, Rio de Janeiro, c. 47
1570    Earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland (1567-1570), c. 39, assassinated, sparking civil war
1744    Giambattista Vico, 75, philosopher, jurist, historian
1795    John Sullivan, 54, Continental major general, Governor of New Hampshire, d. 1795)
1800    Edward Rutledge, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, at 50
1806    William Pitt the Younger, militiaman, PM (1783-1801, 1804-1806), at 46
1833    Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, 76
1926    Cardinal Désiré-Félicien-François-Joseph Mercier, 74, of Belgian, opponent of the German occupation of 1914-1918
1945    Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, politician, anti-Nazi, executed, 37
2004    Bob Keeshan, 76, marine, actor ("Claribell" & "Captain Kangaroo")