3761BC Creation of the world, in the Jewish chronology
0    Feast of Sts. Sergius and Bacchus, Roman soldiers and martyrs, Patrons of Soldiers and Arab Christians
316    Battle of Cibalae: Constantine defeats Licinius, supposedly with divine aid -- Learn More
1502    The Emola Conference: Cesare Borgia meets Florentine Ambassador Machiavelli & military engineer Leonardo da Vinci, even as San Leo, near Urbino, rises against him, initiating a general revolt in the Romagna and the precipitating the premature treason of his lieutenants
1513    Battle of La Motta/Schio/Vicenza: Heavily outnumbered Spaniards defeat the Venetians
1571    Battle of Lepanto: Turkish fleet defeated by an Italo-Spanish fleet
1683    First Battle of Barkam: Poles & Imperialists defeat the Turks
1690    English attack on Quebec fails
1759    Ex-King Carlo IV sails from Naples to become Carlos III of Spain
1777    Second Battle of Saratoga (Bemis Heights): Americans win
1780    Battle of King's Mountain: Tories defeated by Patriot militia
1864    Bahia, Brazil: USS 'Wachusett' "accidentally" disables CSS 'Florida'
1870    Leon Gambetta escaped Prussian besieged Paris aboard the balloon "Armand-Barbès" -- Learn More
1870    Garibaldi lands at Marseilles, to join France's war against Prussia with a band of volunteers, despite opposition from the French & Italian governments
1908    Cretan revolt against the Turks
1908    Serbia & Montenegro form an alliance against Austria-Hungary
1916    Gefreiter Adolf Hitler is wounded on the inner left thigh by a shell fragment during the Battle of the Somme
1926    Italian Fascist Grand Council meets for the first time
1935    Il Duce confers with J.F.C. Fuller in the Palazzo Venezia
1943    U.S. carriers and cruisers raid Wake Island
1944    Uprising at Birkenau concentration camp
1944    US a/c from Morotai begin raids on Japanese bases in the Philippines.
1949    Soviets establish the German Democratic Republic
1955    USS 'Saratoga' (CV-60) is launched at the Brooklyn Navy Yard
1985    PLO terrorists seize Italian cruise liner 'Achille Lauro' off the Egyptian coast
1990    Gulf War: Israel begins handing out gas masks to its citizens
2001    US & Allies initiate war in Afghanistan after the Taliban refuses to surrender Osama bin Laden

1728    Caesar Rodney, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1784
1748    King Charles XIII of Sweden (1809-18) & Norway (1814-18)
1817    Bushrod Rust Johnson, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1880
1821    Richard Heron Anderson, Lt Gen, C.S.A., d. 1879
1821    William Still, abolitionist, notable Underground Railroad Stationmaster, d. 1902
1826    William Brimage Bate, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1905
1841    Nikola I Petrovic-Njegoš, Prince (1860-1910), then King of Montenegro (1910-1918), d. 1921
1854    Christiaan de Wet, Boer General & politician, d. 1922
1923    Irma Grese, the ´Witch of Belsen', hanged in 1945
1931    Desmond Tutu, Bishop, Peace Nobelist (1982)
1934    Ulrike Meinhof, German anarchist terrorist, suicide 1976
1943    Oliver North, Marine LtCol, Iran-Contra figure, television personality

336    Pope St. Marcus (18 Jan 336-7 Oct 336)
610    Deposed Byzantine/Roman Emperor Phocas (602-610), c. 63, who had butchered his predecessor and ruined the Empire, personally beheaded by his successor, Heraclius
929    Charles III "the Simple," deposed King of France (898-922) and of Lotharingia (911-923), 50
1259    Ezzelino III da Romano, 65, Lord of Treviso (1223-1259), self-inflicted wounds while a prisoner to cheat the executioner, unmourned
1468    Sigismondo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini (1432-1468), condottiero, at 51
1571    Agosto Barbarigo, Venetian admiral, kia, Lepanto, Giovanni Contarini, Venetian admiral, Orazio Orsini, Patrician of Naples & Venice, Virginio Orsini, Patrician of Naples & Venice, his brother, plus 15 other Venetian captains, and c. 7,500 Italian & Spanish soldiers, marines, & sailors, as well as Ali Pasha and Mohammed Scirocco, Turkish admirals, and c. 80,000 Turkish soldiers, marines, & sailors
1777    Simon Fraser, 46, British brigadier, kia Saratoga
1780    Maj Patrick Ferguson, 36, British military reformer, kia, King's Mountain
1800    Gabriel, sometimes known as "Gabriel Prosser," c. 24, leader of the Richmond slave rebellion, hanged
1849    Edgar Allan Poe, West Point drop out, author & poet, of drink at 40
1999    Richard A. Hough, 77, sometime RAF fighter pilot, author, historian ("Dreadnought", "Admirals in Collision', etc.)