101BC Battle of Campi Raudii: The combined armies of G. Marius and Q. Lutatius Catulus annihilate the Cimbri, near Vercellae, in the Po Valley
634    Arabs defeat Byzantines at Agnadain, Palestine
657    Consecration of Pope Vitalian (657-672)
1291    Egyptian Mamlukes take Haifa
1371    Massacre of the mercenary Compagnia del Bruco at Florence
1419    The First Defenestration of Prague: Initiates the Hussite Wars
1588    Battle of Gravelines: Indecisive clash that decides the fate of the Spanish Armada
1609    Samuel de Champlain uses a musket to help the Huron defeat the Iroquois, initiating a 150-year Franco-Iroquois war
1638    Battle of Wittenweir: French defeat the Imperialists
1760    Three of London's four remaining medieval gates are sold for £416 10s, perhaps $1.0 million today
1839    "Mutiny" in the slave ship 'Amistad': Enslaved Africans liberate themselves
1863    Lincoln orders retaliation if Confederates kill black P/Ws
1864    Petersburg Campaign: Battle of the Crater
1866    White racists attack blacks in New Orleans
1898    Skirmish at Manila: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire
1909    US Army accepts delivery of its first military airplane
1913    Conclusion of Second Balkan War
1916    German saboteurs blow up munitions stored at Black Tom Island, NJ, 7 die, $20 million in damages (perhaps $1.5 billion today)
1918    1st Marine Aviation Force lands at Brest, France
1941    Japanese "accidentally" bomb USS 'Tutuila' (PR-4), Chungking, China
1942    German occupiers set curfew on Jews in the Netherlands
1942    The Nazis murder 25,000 Jews at Minsk, Belorussia
1942    USS 'Grunion" (SS-216) is declared "over due," probably lost to hazards of the sea.
1942    VAdm Mikawa arrives at Rabaul to assume command of the Eighth Fleet.
1943    New Georgia: Heavy fighting continues.
1943    U.S. DDs shell suspected Japanese positions on Kiska.
1944    US 6th Inf Div lands on the Vogelkop, NW New Guinea, and offshore islands
1945    British midget subs sink Japanese cruiser with mines in Singapore.
1945    Near Samarinda, Borneo, Japanese troops slaughter several hundred Dutch civilian men, women, and children interned since 1942.
1945    USS 'Indianapolis' (CA-35) torpedoed & sunk; nearly 900 die over the next four days, many in shark attacks
1966    US airplanes bomb demilitarized zone in Vietnam
1971    Japanese Boeing 727 collides with an F-86 fighter, 162 die
1971    US Apollo 15 (Scott & Irwin) lands on Mare Imbrium on the Moon
1997    Islamist suicide bombings in Jerusalem, 14 Israelis killed

1470    Emperor Hongzhi of China (1487-1505)
1549    Grand Duke Ferdinando I de'Medici of Tuscany (1587-1609)
1863    Henry Ford, American innovator, d. 1947
1881    Smedley Darlington Butler, maverick Marine, with the Brevet Medal and two Medals of Honor, d. 1940
1909    C. Northcote Parkinson, historian, literary critic ("The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower"), d 1993
1942    The U.S. Navy WAVES -- Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service

579    Pope Benedict I (575-579)
1388    James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas (1358-1388), 30, kia, Battle of Otterburn
1616    Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, Irish nationalist, at about 76
1741    Field Marshal Count Wirich Philipp von Daun, 71, Austrian conqueror of Naples, 1707-1708
1811    Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, father of Mexican independence, executed at 58
1875    George Edward Pickett, 50, US Army officer, Confederate Maj. Gen.
1898    Otto Eduard Leopold, Furst von Bismarck, 83, the "Iron Chancellor," who unified Germany
1912    Mutsuhito - the "Meiji" - 122nd Emperor of Japan (1867-1912), at 59
1918    Joyce Kilmer, 31, soldier-poet of the "Fighting 69th", kia, Battle of the Ourcq - Learn More
1967    Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, 66, the last sole propreitor of Krupp Industries; war criminal who got over
1978    Admiral Ben Moreell, 85, "Father of the SeaBees"