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TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
42BC Second Battle of Philippi: Marc Antony defeats Brutus
0    Feast of Saint John of Capistrano, Patron of Hungary and of Military Chaplains
12    Triumph of Tiberius for his victories in Pannonia and Dalmatia
1086    Battle of az-Zallaqahwas/Zalaqa/Sagrajas/Zalaca (Extremadura): Yusuf ibn Tashfin & Abbad III al-Mu'tamid defeat Alfonso VI of Castille
1157    Battle of Grathe Heath: Valdemar I of Denmark defeats Sweyn III
1448    Battle of Gretna/the River Sark: Earl Hugh Douglas of Ormonde defeats the Earl of Northumberland
1502    Long conference between Niccolo Machiavelli & Cesare Borgia, dominated by concern over the latter's treacherous lieutenants -- Learn More
1641    Irish Rebellion: Despite the arrest of their principal leaders the night before, Irish Catholic patriots revolt against English domination, leading to widespread massacres of Catholics by Protestants
1642    Edgehill, first battle of the English Civil War
1679    Protestant-inspired "Meal Tub Plot" against the Duke of York (later James II of England) is revealed
1702    Battle of Vigo Bay: George Rooke's Anglo-Dutch squadron annihilates François de Château Renault's Franco-Spanish one, but fails to capture the treasure it carries, some of which has either already been offloaded and some sunk to the bottom
1739    "War of Jenkins's Ear": England declares war on Spain (1739-1748, having merged into the War of the Austrian Succession)
1775    Congress bars blacks from the Continental Army, but the measure is generally ignored
1790    Slave revolt in Haiti
1861    Combat at West Liberty, Ky
1864    Battle of Westport: Samuel Curtis' Yanks defeat Sterling Price's Rebs near Kansas City
1865    Damaged by Haitian coast artillery, the paddle sloop HMS 'Bulwark' is scuttled; she is the only British warship lost to hostile action between 1856 and 1914
1912    First Balkan War -- Battle of Kumanovo: The Serbs crush the Ottomans in northern Macedonia
1942    Guadalcanal: Battle of Edson's Ridge - Japanese assault broken
1942    The British Eighth Army opens the Alamein offensive, during which the fictional Count Vincenzo Torlato-Favrini is wounded
1944    Battle of Leyte Gulf begins, as US submarines 'Dace' (SS 247) & 'Darter' (SS 227), torpedo three Japanese heavy cruisers, sinking 'Atago' & 'Maya'
1956    Hungarian Revolution begins (crushed by the Soviets by 4 November)
1957    Test firing of the Vanguard satellite launch vehicle TV-3
1962    USAF Major Robert A Rushworth takes X-15 to 40,800 meters
1983    The Beirut Barracks Bombing: 241 US & 58 French military peacekeepers, and 6 civilians are killed when two members o Islamic Jihad detaonate a truck bomb
1989    "Velvet Revolution" in Hungary ousts the Communist regime

BORN
64BC Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, school mate, general, admiral, factotum, and son-in-law, to the Emperor Augustus, d. 12 BC [Trad]
1698    Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French architect, designer of the Ecole Militaire and the Naval Ministry, d. 1782
1705    Maximilian Ulysses Browne, Irish soldier of fortune, Austrian field marshal and baron of the HRE, d. 1757
1715    Tsar Peter II of Russia (1727-30)
1766    Emmanuel de Grouchy, French marshal, who blew the big one in 1815, d. 1847
1820    James Monroe Goggin, Brig Gen, C.S.A. d. 1889
1824    Thomas Gamble Pitcher, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1895
1828    Turner Ashby, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia 1862
1844    Louis Riel, French Canadian nationalist rebel, executed, 1885
1925    Radu Florescu, in Bucharest, Romanian-American Balkan scholar ("The Struggle Against Russia in the Romanian Principalities," "In Search of Dracula," etc.), d. 2014

DIED
524    Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius, c. 50, philosoper and bureaucrat, executed for conspiracy by King Theodoric of the Ostrogoths [or maybe 525], later canonized
877    St. Ignatius of Constantinople, c. 80, Patriach of Constantinople (847- 858, 867- 877)
891    Yazman al-Khadim, ("the eunuch"), Abbasid Governor of Tarsus (882-891), general and admiral, k. by a Byzantein catapult bolt
1404    Paolo Colleoni, Lord of Solza & Chignolo, Condottiero, murdered by his cousins Giovanni & Paolo
1468    Bianca Maria Visconti, 43, only child of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan, wife to Francesco Sforza
1764    Emmanuel-Auguste de Cahideuc, Comte Dubois de la Motte, c. 80, French admiral, Seven Years' War.
1842    Bernardo O'Higgins, 64, sometime "Dictator Supreme" of Chile
1848    Juan Bautista Azopardo, 74, Maltese privateer and soldier-of-fortune, Argentine naval hero
1910    King Rama V Chulalongkon of Thailand (1868-1910), at 57
2002    Lady Elizabeth Longford, 96, historian ("Wellington")