0    Feast of St. Margaret of Cortona.,Patron of Single Mothers and more, and that of St. Baradates the Hermit.
577    Emperor Wu captures Ye, unifying Northern China
1071    Battle of Cassel: Robert I "the Frisian" of Flanders defeats his nephew Arnulf III of Flanders, to sieze the country
1076    Pope Gregory VII excommunicates and deposes the Emperor Henry IV
1281    Simon de Brie is elected as Pope as Martin IV (1281-1285)
1288    Girolamo Masci elected Pope as Nicholas IV (1288-1292)
1349    Jews are expelled from Zurich
1358    Rising of the Guilds of Paris against the Crown of France
1371    Accession of Robert II as King of Scots (1371-1390), the first Stuart
1495    King Charles VIII of France entered Naples, to claim the throne -- Learn More
1744    Battle of Toulon/Cape Sicie: Outnumbered Spanish fleet defeats the British off Provence
1746    the Jacobites abandoned Aberdeen, as their uprising failed -- Learn More
1746    The French capture Brussels
1775    Jews expelled from Warsaw
1797    the Last Invasion of Britain took place, as 1,500- Franco-Irish trops landed near Fishguard, Wales, to be defeated in the 24th
1805    British and East India Company troops stormed Bharatpur, in Rajasthan, India -- Learn More
1812    Battle of Grado: Napoleon's Royal Italian Navy loses a 74 to Britain's Royal Navy - largest naval action in the Adriatic during the Napoleonic Wars
1819    Adams-Onis Treaty: Spain cedes Oregon & West Florida to the US
1821    Spain sells East Florida to United States
1847    the Battle of Buena Vista began as Santa Anna's Mexicans attacked Zachary Taylor's Americans -- Learn More
1864    Battle of Okolona, MS
1865    Battle of Wilmington, NC: Fort Anderson occupied by Federals
1891    Battle of Halat: Italians defeat Ras Sebath's Abyssinians
1896    Battle of Gulusit: Sudanese Mahdists defeat the Italians
1909    The Great White Fleet returns to Hampton Roads after its world cruise
1915    Germany begins "restricted" submarine warfare
1918    Germany claims the Baltic States, Finland, & Ukraine from Russia
1935    Airplanes are prohibited from flying over the White House
1939    The Netherlands recognize the Franco regime in Spain
1940    Finnish troops evacuate Koivisto Island
1940    A Stuka of Kampfgeschwader 30 sinks two destroyers in a single attack in the North Sea off Borkum, both German, the 'Lebrecht Maas' and 'Max Schultz'
1941    Germans begin rounding up Jews in Amsterdam
1941    Rommel's First Offensive: El Agheila
1942    FDR orders MacArthur to leave the Philippines for Australia
1942    Japanese 48th Div arrives at Balikpapan from the Philippines.
1943    The USS 'Iowa' (BB 61) was commissioned, in Brooklyn -- Learn More
1943    Nazi Propaganda Minister Josef Goebbels gives Japanese violinist Nejiko Suwa a 1722 Stradivarius, probably looted from a Jewish family, which postwar she uses to entertain imprisoned Japanese war criminals
1944    Japanese aircraft lose heavily in attack on TF 58 off the Marianas
1944    US Eighth Air Force erroneously bombs Enschede, Arnhem, & Nijmegen, the Netherlands, c. 800 die
1945    Burma: British troops take Ramree Island
1945    Iwo Jima: Marines make slow gains against heavy resistance
1948    Arab terrorist attack in Jerusalem, 50 die
1958    Egypt and Syria merge to form the United Arab Republic; Syria secedes in 1961
1974    First woman naval aviator: Lt, j.g., Barbara Ann Allen
2012    Mass shooting at a spa in Norcorss, Georgia, 4 die

1403    King Charles VII of France (1422-1461)
1440    Duke Ladislaus "the Posthumous" of Austria (birth-1457), King Ladislas V of Hungary (1444-1457), King of Bohemia (1453-1457)
1514    Shah Tahmasp I of Persia (1524-76)
1732    George Washington, "First in War, first in Peace, first in the hearts of his Countrymen", d. 1799 -- Learn More
1797    Wilhelm I, King of Prussia (1861-88), German Emperor (1871-88)
1798    Charles Mynn Thruston, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1873
1827    James Barnet Fry, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1894
1828    Robert Alexander Cameron, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1894
1857    Robert Baden-Powell, soldier, Boy Scout, d. 1941
1881    James Reese Europe, American jazzman, bandmaster of the 369th Infantry in the Great War, d. 1919 --
1897    Karol Waclaw Swierczewski, soldier, Red Army, International Brigades, Poland, d. 1947
1908    Rómulo Betancourt, Pres of Venezuela (1945-48, 1958-64)
1921    Jean-Bedel Bokassa, sometime President/Strongman of the Central African Republic (1966-1976), Emperor Bokassa I of Central Africa (1976-1979), deposed, d. 1996
1932    Edward "Ted" Kennedy, sometime soldier, senator, d. 2009

606    Pope Sabinian (604-06)
965    Otto of Paris, Duke of Burgundy (957-965), c. 21
1071    Count Arnulf III "the Unlucky" of Flanders, Arnulf I of Hainaut (1070-1071), c. 17, kia at Cassel
1111    Roger Borsa, c. 50, Duke of Apulia (1085-1111), inept heir to Robert the Weasel
1371    King David II Bruce of Scots (1331-71), at 46
1503    Cardinal Giovanni Battista Orsini of Florence, c. 53, of neglect or poison in Cesare Borgia's prison.
1512    Amerigo Vespucci, explorer, at 61
1797    Karl Friedrich Hieronymus Freiherr von Münchhausen - "Baron Münchhausen", 86, German soldier, adventurer, and fabulist
1829    Adam Albert, Count von Neipperg, 53, Austrian soldier and diplomat, lover and second husband to Maria Louisa, the erstwhile Mrs. Napoleon I
1898    F. B. Baker, black postmaster, & his wife Dora, lynched in Lake City, SC
1913    Francisco Indalecio Madero, ousted President of Mexico (1911-1913), 39, and his vice-president, José María Pino Suárez, 43, assassinated
1923    Théophile Delcassé, 70, French statesman, engineer of the "Entente cordiale"
1932    Robert Short, Boeing saleman, shot down by Yoshiro Sakemago near Soochow, China, while demonstrating a new fighter
1942    Stefan Zweig, 60, Austrian author, critic, novelist (stories incorporated in "The Grand Budapest Hotel", etc), anti-Nazi, and his wife Lotte Altmann, 33, suicide in Brazil
1943    Hans Scholl (24), his sister Sophie (21), and their friend Christoph Probst (23), German "White Rose" Resistance fighters, guillotined by the Nazis
2000    Lt Gen Hafiz al-Assad, 69, Dictator of Syria (1971-2000)
2002    Jonas Savimbi, perennial Angolan rebel, b. 1934
2007    CPL Howard V. Ramsey died at 107, the last veteran of the American Expeditionary Forces -- Learn More
2007    George Jellicoe, 88, only son of ADM of the Fleet Jellicoe, Guardsman, SBS veteran, diplomat, cabinet member