The Indian Army is short 14,000 officers (mostly lieutenants, captains, and majors). The shortage is caused by improving economic opportunities and unhappiness with the steady casualties in counter-insurgency warfare. Another problem is that the Indian Army has two many colonels. Battalion commanders average 42 years old in India, 40 years in China, and 37 years in Pakistan. Having to wait an extra five years for their battalion commands causes many majors to opt out of the military and seek civilian careers.