Although American commanders
and politicians are calling for more troops in Afghanistan, the U.S. Army
believes maintaining morale is more important than reinforcing Afghanistan
right away. So three more combat brigades won't arrive there for another 6-9
months. That's so troops back from Iraq will get at least a year at their home
bases before heading for Afghanistan. Another option would have been to
increase Iraq and Afghanistan tours to 15 months, but this is also bad for
commanders are also concerned with the cumulative effects of combat on the psychological health of soldiers. The stress of repeated trips
to combat zones like Iraq and Afghanistan is having an impact on American
troops, as mental health professionals expected. Currently, for every soldier
killed in combat, at least one is sent back to the United States because of
severe PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), and several others are treated in
the combat zone for less severe cases. During World War II, PTSD was a serious
problem. In the European Theater, 25 percent of all casualties were serious
PTSD cases. In the Pacific Theater, the rate varied widely, depending on the
campaign. In some of the most intense fighting, like Okinawa in 1945, PTSD
accounted for over a third of all wounded. In Iraq, less than ten percent of
the wounded are PTSD, but the more troops serve in a combat zone, in combat
jobs, the more likely they are to develop PTSD.
of combat, and how to deal with it, has been a hot research topic since World
War II. The war on terror is unique
because it is sending more troops into combat, for longer periods, than ever
before. As expected, the more time troops spend in combat, the more likely they
are to suffer from stress. The troops who have been in combat are being closely
monitored by mental health professionals, more so than at any other time in
history. There are two major theories to dealing with the stress (allowing
troops to recover before going back to the combat zone). On one hand, if troops
can stay at their stateside base for 18-24 months between 12 month tours, or 12
months between six month tours. Research indicates that the six month tours are
easier to recover from. With email and easy communications with people in the
combat zone, the shorter tours do not waste as much time, getting the lay of
the land, as in the past. Units know a year or more that they are going over
there, and who they are going to replace. The two units now get in touch months
before the relief, and bring the new crew up to date with written reports,
pictures and even videos. This preparation is also believed to lessen the
development of PTSD.
It's not the
prospect of getting killed that causes the stress, but rather the constant
state of alertness required to survive in combat. Death is always a factor in
military life. Over the last 25 years, the U.S. Army has always lost one or two
thousand dead each year to accidents, disease and suicide (in that order). That
meant about two troops per thousand died each year. In Iraq, the risk of
getting killed in combat is 2-3 percent for a one year tour. For the army
overall, the risk of death from combat is less than one percent. But it's the
stress that has the long term effects on the most people.
during World War II that researchers began compiling lots of data on troop
stress and its effects. It was discovered that most troops were likely to
develop debilitating PTSD after about 200 days of combat (that is, the stress
of having your life threatened by enemy fire). But today there are other
factors. Israel noted, after the 1982 war in Lebanon. That reservists were more
sensitive to the aftereffects of combat. The Lebanon conflict used a larger
number (than previous wars) of older reserve troops, who tended to be more
prone to coming down with stress disorders. This was probably due to the fact
the full time soldiers are constantly conditioned to deal with stress. While
this is often referred, often derisively, as "military discipline,"
it has been known for thousands of years that such practices reduce stress and
panic during combat. Apparently it reduces the chances of coming down with
stress problems as well.
army combat troops often get 200 days of combat in one 12 month tour, which is
more than their grandfathers got during all of World War II. Combat is less
intense in Afghanistan, but troops there still get more action, added to what
they have already experienced.
The army has
found ways to avoid the onset of stress problems (better accommodations, email
contact with home, prompt treatment for any problems), but many troops are
headed for uncharted territory, and an unprecedented amount of time in combat.
Thus new programs to spot stress related
problems, as early as possible, and new treatments as well. The stress angle
has been more intensively studied in Iraq than in any previous war. Naturally,
the more you look, the more you find. A recent survey of troops who had served
in Iraq and Afghanistan, found half of them still had some mental or physical
health problems six months after returning from overseas.
the money factor. Combat pay and re-enlistment bonuses for combat troops
provides a temptation to ignore stress symptoms and stay in a combat job. There
are plenty of non-combat jobs you can transfer to, and for many of those, there
are also large re-enlistment bonuses. This problem largely affects senior NCOs,
who take a decade or more to develop, and provide essential combat leadership.
Given the experience and maturity of these men, problems are not expected. But
the army and marines have to keep a close watch, because it's a unique
situation and no one is sure how it will all turn out.
reinforcements for Afghanistan also puts pressure on NATO nations, who have
been reluctant to send more troops to Afghanistan, partly because of political
opposition at home, but also due to a lack of combat ready troops. European
nations let their forces shrink, and become less combat ready, once the Cold
War ended in 1991. Now they are being reminded that this has consequences.