Warplanes: F-35 Aircraft in Action


March 7, 2024: The F-35 is a 31-ton single engine, single-seat aircraft that entered service in different versions between 2015 and 2019. The first F-35s were built in 2006 for development purposes. The aircraft has stealth characteristics and is equipped with all the most modern avionics (aircraft electronics), sensors and capabilities. The F-35 has a max range of 2,800 kilometers for repositioning missions to a different country. For destinations more than 2,500 kilometers distant, the F-35 must land for refueling along the way. Combat range for ground attack missions is 1,2oo kilometers while carrying eight tons of missiles and bombs. Combat range for combat with other aircraft is 1,400 kilometers. The F-35 can carry 2,600 kg of weapons internally and 6,800 kg externally. Max speed is Mach 1.6 and max altitude is 15,000 meters. The F-35B is a STOVAL (short takeoff and landing) version that carries a third less fuel because of the STOVAL modifications. There is an F-35C aircraft carrier version that is like the F-35A but equipped with a tail hook and more rugged landing gear. The wings have larger control surfaces, and the outer portions of the wing can be folded so the aircraft takes up less space on the hanger deck.

Missiles and bombs that the F-35 is equipped to carry include air-to-air missiles like the AIM-9X Sidewinder, AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM, AIM-260 JATM, and MBDA Meteor. Air-to-surface missiles include AGM-88G AARGM-ER, AGM-158 JASSM, AGM-179 JAGM, SPEAR 3, and the hypervelocity Stand-In Attack Weapon. Anti-ship missiles include the AGM-158C LRASM and Joint Strike Missile. Bombs include the Joint Direct Attack Munition, Paveway Precision-guided glide bomb, AGM-154 JSOW, GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb, GBU-53/B Stormbreaker and the B61 mod 12 nuclear bomb.

Pilots benefit from several features that make their job easier and much more effective. The cockpit where the pilot sits features a bubble canopy providing excellent views of what is outside the aircraft. Cockpit controls have been reduced and made easier to see and use. This is done by using a 50 by 20 cm (20 by 8 inch) touch display that shows flight instruments, stores management, CNI information, and integrated caution and warnings. Pilots can customize the arrangement of the information. Below the main display is a smaller stand-by display. Pilots also have a helmet mounted on the visor, a display that enables the pilot to look at an enemy aircraft and fire a missile at it. This point and shoot capability is an enormous advantage in air-to-air combat. The F-35 electronics also provide a better view of ground targets and the ability to quickly select the most suitable ground attack weapon carried and use it.

The cockpit has a speech-recognition system but does not have a heads-up display. Instead, flight and combat information is displayed on the visor of the pilot's helmet using a helmet-mounted display system. The one-piece tinted canopy is hinged at the front and has an internal frame for structural strength. The Martin-Baker ejection seat is launched by a twin-catapult system housed on side rails. There is a right-hand side stick and throttle hands-on throttle-and-stick system. For life support, an OBOGS, or onboard oxygen-generation system is fitted and powered by the Integrated Power Package, with an auxiliary oxygen bottle and backup oxygen system for emergencies.

The radars and electronic countermeasures provide the pilot with an integrated view of the surrounding air space. This degree of situational awareness gives the pilot an enormous advantage in combat because the F-35 pilot can see, either with his eyes or via his sensors, more about what is in the area and in much greater detail than any enemy pilot.

About a thousand F-35s have been built so far and eventually, by 2044, at least 2,456 will be built. Production numbers will increase as more export customers order aircraft. So far F-35s have been exported to Britain, Australia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Norway, and the Netherlands. In 2023 Israel ordered another 25 F-35s. Israel already has fifty, organized into two squadrons. With the new aircraft there will be three squadrons. Israel was the first export customer to receive F-35s because it was the only export customer that was regularly involved in combat, including air-strikes. Israel was also the only export customer allowed to modify and upgrade their F-35s. For this reason, the Israeli aircraft is known as the F-35I. The United States initially opposed Israeli requests to carry out modifications and upgrades, but the Israelis had a record of doing this with F-16s and F-15s obtained from the United States, so F-35 manufacturer Lockheed Martin agreed to cooperate by making some modifications to the F-35Is before Israel received them. These included changes in command, control, and communications systems, including computers, and the thorough integration of intelligence collection, electronic warfare, and weapons systems. Israel agreed to not change anything inside the aircraft but was free to add capabilities on top of the existing infrastructure. Israel Aerospace Industries, for example, was already working on such systems for the F-35I. The F-35I was designed to allow software updates to electronic warfare and weapons systems. F-35I power and cooling systems were modified to allow incorporation of Israeli developed weapons. Israel has developed its own air-to-air missiles and GPS guided bombs.

Since 2021 there have been a lot more joint exercises involving Israeli and foreign F-35s. Details of these exercises have not been publicized but it apparently involves testing current and new F-35 capabilities and sharing that knowledge with other F-35 users. After Russia invaded Ukraine in February 2022 a lot of European nations sought to obtain F-35s while canceling plans to buy older models of American and European combat aircraft. F-35s are meant to eventually replace all F-16, F-15, and F-18 aircraft.

Ukraine’s ability to defeat the larger Russian air force, using Ukraine’s own Russian-designed aircraft, made it clear that the Ukrainian tactics carried out with F-35s would provide an enormous edge over air forces equipped with older aircraft. Even China has not yet produced a stealth aircraft as capable as the F-35, and now NATO nations with F-35s realize they have a substantial edge and have shared that knowledge with other NATO countries.

Israel demonstrated what the F-35 was capable of in 2019 when Israel had only 14 F-35I fighters and some had been operational for over a year. These F-35Is flew training missions near the Syrian border and then operational missions over Lebanon and Syria. This came after years of overcoming opposition from the United States to allowing Israel to modify the F-35A to use Israeli electronic warfare equipment and software, and also to handle Israeli-made missiles and smart bombs as well as a smart helmet, which was something Israel pioneered. This led to the Israeli aircraft being designated the F-35I, which have been in the air since 2018, often armed and within range of hostile radars and anti-aircraft missiles as well as the latest Russian electronic warfare equipment.

Israeli engineers also confirmed fears that the F-35 is eminently hackable. Other foreign users who have received their first F-35s agree that the heart of the F-35's superior capabilities are its software and digital communications with other aircraft and troops on the ground. Users are pointing out all manner of potential network vulnerabilities, and all are actively seeking which of these vulnerabilities are actual and fixable rather than potential and unlikely. F-35 software was designed over a decade ago when much less was known about how combat aircraft software could be hacked and already some basic changes in F-35 software architecture are underway to deal with that.

This brings up another major problem. The F-35 software is more complex and omnipresent throughout the aircraft than in any previous warplane. It’s a major effort to carry out and test any changes. Some major upgrades are needed in how F-35 software changes are made and how quickly. In wartime this would be essential, as otherwise vulnerable aircraft would be grounded when needed most. Foreign users have also provided useful advice on penetration or red team testing and this has become another major effort that was not anticipated.

The U.S. and other foreign users of the F-35 noted Israel’s F-35I experience, and the Israelis have increasingly been sharing it with allies. Israel got priority on deliveries because they are literally a combat zone. Initial reactions of Israeli F-35I pilots and air force commanders were positive. What the Israeli pilots and all others who have flown the F-35 agree on is that its software and degree of automation is spectacular, easy to use and very effective. The F-35 has a large number of sensors, as in receivers for electronic signals, as well as six cameras and a very capable radar. The fusion of all that data and presentation to the pilot based on the current situation is impressive and makes the F-35 much easier to fly than any other fighter, despite all the additional capabilities it has.

Israel has become something of an unofficial member of NATO and is sharing a lot of its F-35I knowledge with NATO nations. Israel not only has to deal with Russian aircraft and electronic systems in Syria, but an even more dangerous threat from Iran. Israel has established diplomatic and defense relationships with Arab countries who are also threatened by Iran. That made it possible for Israel to establish diplomatic relations with some Arab Gulf States and that led to Americans' willingness to sell F-35s to the UAE (United Arab Emirates).




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