Piracy has been making a
comeback in the last decade. This was initially because Somalia, a state
without a government, provided small ports on the coast of East Africa where
pirates could bring the merchant ships they had captured, and keep them there,
safe from rescue attempts, until a ransom could be negotiated. Now, off West
Africa, pirates have come up with another angle. These pirates, believed to be only
one well-organized gang at the moment, target small oil tankers operating in
the Gulf of Guinea (where Nigeria and its neighbors have oil fields). The
pirates quickly board and seize control of a tanker at night. The crew is
locked up in an internal space and the tracking devices are disabled. Then the
tanker is taken to rendezvous with another tanker, which takes the oil from the
hijacked tanker, along with the pirates and their other loot and makes for a
port where oil brokers willing to buy stolen oil (at a steep discount) take the
pirated cargo, pay the pirates, and perhaps tip the pirates off on another small
tanker that could be hit.
The hijacked tanker was stripped of portable
items of value and then set adrift, where it would soon be found and the crew
released. Normally, pirates attack merchant ships anchored near the coast, grab
all the valuable portables and take off. This is considered armed robbery,
although some pirates will kidnap a few of the ships officers and hold them for
ransom. But this requires a good hideout and more resources. The pirates who steal
oil cargoes require even more technical organization and connections. But
because the payoff is so high (millions of dollars for a stolen oil tanker
cargo), a growing number of skilled gangsters are being attracted to the
All this is something of a piracy revival.
Piracy hit a trough from the late nineteenth century into the later twentieth.
That was because the Great Powers had pretty much divided up the whole planet and then policed it. Piracy began to revive in a modest way beginning in the
1970s, with the collapse of many post-colonial regimes.
Note that what constitutes an act of piracy is
not clearly defined. It essentially comes down to non-state sanctioned use of
force at sea or from the sea. This could include intercepting a speedboat to
rob the passengers, but that's usually just thought of as armed robbery. And
something like the seizure of the Achille Lauro in 1985, is considered
terrorism, rather than piracy. In the past some marginal states have
sanctioned piratical operations, like the North African Barbary States, but
that is rare any more. The trend, however, is definitely up.
Pirates usually function on the margins of
society, trying to get a cut of the good life in situations where there aren't
many options. This is usually in areas where state control is weakest or
absent, in failing and "flailed" states (a flailing state is
something like Nigeria, Indonesia, or the Philippines, where the government is
managing to just barely keep things together, unlike a failed state such as
Somalia, where there isn't any government at all).
The solution to piracy is essentially on land, go into uncontrolled areas and institute some law and order. This has been the
best approach since the Romans eliminated piracy in the Mediterranean over
2,000 years ago. Trying to tackle piracy just on the maritime end can reduce
the incidence of piracy but can't eliminate it. In the modern world the
"land" solution often can't be implemented. Who wants to put enough
troops into Somalia to eliminate piracy? And flailing states are likely to be
very sensitive about their sovereignty if you offer to help them control
A new industry has developed that attempts to
"pirate proof" ships operating off Somalia. The most successful (and
most expensive) technique is to put a small number of armed guards on each
ship. That, and warship patrols, has greatly reduced piracy off East Africa
But off West Africa (especially the Gulf of
Guinea) the piracy threat is growing because pirates have found ways to get
more valuables off ships before security forces (police, coast guard, or navy)
can show up.