India is having a problem with the last dozen or so of the 45 Russian MiG-29K carrier fighters it received. Because of arms embargoes Ukraine and other Western nations have imposed on Russia since 2014 the most recent MiG-29Ks delivered to India arrived missing a lot of essential components. When India buys Russian warplanes it often specifies some Western components, especially electronics. The solution as simple. It was discovered that the missing components could be purchased by India for delivery to India and no one was going to make a fuss if those items were then installed on newly arrived MiG-29Ks that needed them. India has been using MiG fighters for half a century and MiG-29Ks for several years already.
In 2004 India bought its first 16 MiG-29Ks and received its first twelve MiG-29K fighters in 2009. These are regular MiG-29s modified to operate from aircraft carriers. The MiG-29K made its first flight in 2008, about fifteen years later than originally planned. India plans to buy enough MiG-29Ks for use on two or more aircraft carriers.
It was in the early 1990s that work began on creating a variant of the MiG-29 for carrier use. These were to be used on the Kuznetsov class carriers. These were conceived of as 90,000 ton, nuclear powered ships, similar to American carriers (complete with steam catapults). Instead, because of the cost, and the complexity of modern (American style) carriers, the Russians were forced to scale back their goals, and ended up with the 65,000 ton (full load) ships that lacked steam catapults, and used a ski jump type flight deck instead. Nuclear power was dropped, but the Kuznetsov class was still a formidable design that ended up carryings a dozen navalized Su-27s (called Su-33s), 14 Ka-27PL anti-submarine helicopters, two electronic warfare helicopters and two search and rescue helicopters. The ship was designed to carry up to 36 Su-33s and sixteen helicopters.
The Su-33 is larger than the MiG-29K, and both types of aircraft were to operate from the three 65,000 ton Kuznetsovs. But when the Cold War ended, only the Kuznetsov was near completion. The second ship in the class, the half built Varyag, was later sold to China. The smaller Gorshkov was rebuilt and sold to India, who believed the smaller MiG-29K was more suitable for this carrier.
The 21 ton MiG-29K modifications included arrestor gear and stronger landing gear for carrier landings, folding wings, and rust proofing to reduce corrosion from all that salt water. Anti-radar paint is also used, to reduce the radar signature. Fuel capacity was increased 50 percent and more modern electronics installed. A more powerful engine is used, which enabled the aircraft to carry over five tons of weapons (air-to-air and anti-ship missiles, smart bombs). The Indians will operate twelve MiG-29Ks on their refurbished Russian carrier, supported by a pair of two seater MiG-29Ks for training.