Attrition: What The USAF Learned From Iraq


November 17, 2010:  Over a third of U.S. Air Force (active and reserve) have taken the new PT (Physical Training), and the results are better than expected. As of September, only 17.5 percent failed the test. It was only four months ago that the air force began enforcing new physical fitness standards. Initially, a little over 20 percent failed.  The air force expected as many as 40 percent to flunk. Those who fail have 90 days to get ready for another try. An airman is subject to discharge if they fail two tests in a row, or four in 24 months. Each airman gets tested every six months, although tests are conducted every month so as not to overwhelm the testers, and the gyms. While 20 percent failed the new test, 40 percent scored 90 or over (on a 1-100 scale). A key factor in the higher failure rate was the use of civilian fitness specialists hired to conduct the tests, rather than local NCOs and officers. It was also noted that older airmen (especially officers) tended to get higher scores than the youngsters. There appears to be a generation gap here, with the those who came up before everyone had video games and Internet, were, and remain, in better physical shape. In any event, so far this year, gyms on air force bases have been mobbed, with a lot more people seen running outside or participating in sports. The troops got the message, and scores, and pass rates, have been going up each month.

A lot of this physical fitness mania has to do with too much food and not enough exercise. Overweight airmen are a growing problem. Some bases find that over 40 percent of their personnel are overweight. So the air force is changing menus in its dining halls, and what snacks are available in stores on base. More exercise programs are being created, and physical fitness standards are being enforced.

By service, the air force is the fattest (6.7 percent overweight) and the marines the thinnest (1.2 percent overweight.) Weight is more of a problem with older troops. Thus 6.6 percent those 40 or older are overweight, compared to only 1.6 percent of those under 20. As in the civilian world, women have a harder time with weight. Fifteen percent of military personnel are female, and 7.2 percent of them are currently overweight.

The military will discharge troops who are fat, although a fair amount of leeway is given. The military makes an effort to get chubby troops down to a safe weight. But each year, hundreds of overweight troops who fail to lose the pounds, are discharged from the service. For many of those who served in a combat zone, and dealt with the stress via food, they are just another casualty of war. A career dies, even if the soldier involved does not. Even before September 11, 2001, the air force brass were becoming alarmed at a weakening resolve, among their troops and commanders, to stay in shape. There has been an ongoing crackdown, and the new PT test is the latest result. The army and marines have always been more strict about staying in shape. But this time around, the air force and navy got religion as well. Both of these services have imposed more strict weight and physical fitness standards that must be met, otherwise you get discharged (fired).

In the air force, it was feedback from the thousands of air force personnel who were sent to help the U.S. Army carry out support functions in Iraq and Afghanistan, that helped spur the rise in physical fitness standards. Many air force personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan found that they were in poor physical shape, especially for service in a combat zone. They noted that army troops were in much better physical condition, even those doing the same support jobs the as air force "augmentees". Being in better shape helped you survive the dangers of combat.

The main reason for the latest changes (which only up the physical standards a bit) was the realization that many commanders were not pushing physical fitness as much as the brass wanted. The reason for that was a quiet revolt in the ranks against all the new emphasis on being buff. For many unit commanders, it was a morale issue, and the work doesn't get done as well when the troops are in a bad mood. It was expected that there would be a big increase in the number of troops failing the test because of the new rules.

The air force thought it would be able to tighten up physical standards partly because they have been shrinking their personnel strength over the past few years. Automation and downsizing have been having an impact, just as these trends have been showing up in so many civilian organizations. It still hurts when you lose scarce technical specialists, but these fellows are constantly tempted with higher paying civilian jobs anyway. Not so much now, with the recession going on, but the threat is always there. But the main reason for raising physical standards was the battlefield reality check thousands of air force augmentees received. Most airmen got the message as well, and turned around the air force image as soft and out-of-shape.



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