Armor: Finland Upgrades It Leopards


February 25, 2014: Finland is replacing its aging (bought second-hand from Germany in 2003) force of 124 Leopard 2A4 tanks with a hundred second hand Dutch Leopard 2A6NLs. This really does make sense because the Leopard 2A4s are all over 20 years old and heavily used most of the time. The Leopard 2 A6NLs are of more recent manufacture, have far fewer hours of use on them and have better protection, electronics and weapons than the A4 models. It would cost about $8 million per vehicle to refurbish and upgrade the elderly A4s to the A6 standard. The Dutch are selling their A6s for $2.6 million each. With this sale the Dutch have completed selling off all their Leopard 2 tanks. The Finns will not scrap their A4s but will keep them around for use as training vehicles and a source of spare parts.

Cold War surplus Leopard 2 tanks have been very popular in East Europe since the end of the Cold War. In 2013 Poland bought 119 more German Leopard 2 tanks for about $2 million each and the deal included lots of spare parts and support equipment. Most of these are 2A5s although 14 are older 2A4s. Back in 2003 Poland obtained 128 of these tanks from Germany for the bargain basement price of $21.6 million along with 23 MiG-29 fighters for only $30 million. The tanks were selected by Polish tank experts from among the three hundred Leopard 2s recently placed in storage after being taken out of service by the downsized German Army. The original 128 Leopards still had at least 75 percent of their operational life remaining. That deal includes 8 Buffel armored recovery vehicles, four Biber bridgelayers, four Keiler mine-clearing tanks, and ten M577 command post vehicles.

Most 2A models have a stabilizer (for firing on the move) and a thermal imager (for seeing through night, mist and sand storms.) Germany has been selling refurbed 2A4s since the 1990s, after the Cold War ended and the German army was much reduced in size. This enabled many nations to inexpensively upgrade their aging armored forces.

The German Leopard 2 often to replaces U.S. M-60 tanks (a 1960s design.) Already over 1,500 Leopard 2s have been sold to Austria, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Singapore, Denmark, Finland, Poland, Portugal, Greece, Chile, Turkey and Spain. Originally, West Germany bought 2,125 new Leopard 2 tanks, the Netherlands 445, Switzerland 370, Sweden 120, Spain 219 and Greece 170.

Until the 1980s, the Leopard I was considered one of the best tanks available. Entering service in the late 1960s, it was the first post-World War II German tank design. Although a contemporary of the American M-60A3, the German tank was considered superior. For this reason, Germany was able to export Leopards to many nations. Most of the 4,744 produced (plus 1,741 Leopard chassis adapted to other uses, like recovery and anti-aircraft) have since been retired (in storage) or scrapped. Many owners may have to melt down theirs Leopard Is, for there's not much of a market left for 44 ton tanks, even those equipped with a lot of nifty upgrades. The original buyers of Leopard I have already flooded the market but now only Leopard 2s are wanted.

Second hand Leopard 2A4 tanks provide Poland and Finland with a more powerful tank than anything the Russians have. Most current Polish tanks are PT-91s, a Polish made upgrade of the T-72. Most Polish forces are up to NATO standards, and all will be by the end of the decade. This is immensely reassuring to Poles, who have been threatened by their Russian neighbor for centuries, as has Finland.





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