by David M. Pritchard
Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019. Pp. xxiv, 290.
Illus., tables, gloss., notes, biblio., index. $29.99. ISBN: 1108435947
An Aggressive Democracy
Prof. Pritchard (Queensland), argues that just as democracy shaped the glories of Athenian art, philosophy, literature, and such, it also turned Athens into a major military and naval power with an appetite for expansion, leading to the creation of the “Athenian empire”. And he makes a very good case, while at the same time challenging the traditional claim that the rise of hoplite warfare led to the rise of democracy.
During the Fifth Century BC – “The Golden” – Athens was at war on average about two out of every three years, and despite the costs of the great religious, theatrical, and athletic festivals and the great architectural achievement, the polis spent more on war than anything else.
Pritchard examines in some detail the branches of the city’s forces, hoplites, fleet, cavalry, and archers, the latter two branches surprisingly neglected in the literature. He offers an analysis of the expense of maintaining these forces, particularly during the Peloponnesian War, and makes comparisons with the costs of other poleis.
In addition, Pritchard
draws attention to the social and culture influences of Athenian military
institutions, such how the city’s navy sailors were depicted in comedy and the
ties between sport and warfare.
Athenian Democracy at War throws a good deal of fresh light on the military aspects of Athenian democracy, and reminds us that historically – despite the claims of some pundits – democracies very often have made war, even against each other, and can be imperialistic.
Note: Athenian Democracy at War is also available in hard cover and several e-editions.
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