198    Triumph of Septimius Severus for his victories over the Parthians - Learn More
1077    The Humiliation of Canosa: Pope Gregory VII humbles Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich IV
1099    First Crusaders lay siege to Hosn-el-Akrad, Syria
1393    "Le Bal des Ardents": disastrous ballroom fire kills 4 & costs King Charles VI of France what's left of his mind
1495    Pope Alexander VI gives his son Cesare Borgia as hostage to Charles VIII of France
1547    Accession of Edward VI (age 9) as King of England (1547-1553)
1830    Auber's opera "Fra Diavolo" premiers in Paris
1846    Battle of Allwal: British defeat the Sikhs
1860    Britain formally returns the Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua
1865    CSA Pres Jefferson Davis names three peace commissioners
1871    Paris, besieged since July 19th, surrenders to the Prussians
1915    SS 'William P Frye', torpedoed while carrying wheat to Britain - 1st US ship lost in WW I
1916    German colony of Cameroon surrenders to Britain & France
1918    Strike at Berlin munitions factories
1932    Japanese capture Shanghai
1941    Japan sponsors an armistice ending the Franco-Thai War (1940-1941)
1942    Bataan: Japanese attack the new US/Philippine defenses
1942    USN Ens. Donald Mason radios, "Sighted sub, sank same."
1942    German troops capture Benghazi, Libya
1942    Malaya: British forces begin to withdraw towards Singapore
1943    Guadalcanal: the CAM Div advances across the Nueha River.
1943    New Guinea: Japanese attack Australian Kanga Force at Wau
1944    RAF puts 683 bombers over Berlin
1981    William J Casey begins six years as director of the CIA
1982    Italian police rescue Brig Gen James L. Dozier from 42 days imprisonment by Red Brigades
1986    Space Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after launch, seven die.
1991    Dictator Siad Barre flees Somalia, replacing 22 years of misrule with decades of chaos

58BC Livia Drusilla, wife to Augustus, mother of Tiberius, d. AD 29
1225    St. Thomas Aquinas, son of Count Landulf of Aquino, Doctor of the Church, d. 1274
1312    Queen Regnant Joan II of Navarre (1328-1349), wife to King Louis X of France
1457    Henry VII, first Tudor king of England (1485-1509)
1600    Giulio Rospigliosi - Pope Clement IX (1667-69)
1693    Tsarina Anna Ivanovna of Russia (1730-40) (OS, 2/7 NS)
1717    Ottoman Sultan Mustapha III (1757-74)
1768    King Frederick VI of Denmark (1808-39), Napoleon's ally
1815    Andrew Jackson Hamilton, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1875
1825    George Edward Pickett, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1875
1828    Thomas Carmichael Hindman, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1868
1831    Henry Brevard Davidson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1899
1833    Charles George 'Chinese' Gordon, kia, Khartoum, 1885.
1841    Henry M. Stanley, CS & US veteran, journalist, explorer, exploiter, d. 1904
1853    Jose Marti y Perez, Cuban poet, nationalist, kia 1895
1909    Lionel Crabb, British diver, disappeared 1957
1915    US Coast Guard created from the Life Saving and Revenue Cutter Services
1920    The Spanish Foreign Legion -- "Viva la Muerte!" -- Learn More
1936    Alphonso D'Abruzzo - Alan Alda, actor ("M*A*S*H")
1948    Mamoru Mohri, Japanese astronaut
1950    David Carl Hilmer, Marine, astronaut

592    Saint Guntram, c. 60, King of the Burgundians (561-592)
814    Charlemagne, c. 66, King of the Franks (768-814), Emperor of the Romans (800-814) -- Learn More
876    Louis II the Bavarian, King of Eastern Francia (843-876), c. 70
1061    Duke Spytihnev II of Bohemia (1055-1061), c. 30
1256    Wilhelm II Count of Holland (1238-1256), King of Germany (1247-56), at 28
1330    Ramberto dei Malatesti, Lord of Ciola, Castiglione, & Roncofreddo, murdered by his cousin Malatestino
1393    Huguet de Guisay and le Count de Joigny, burned to death in the "Bal des Ardents"
1547    King Henry VIII of England (1509-47), at 55
1621    Pope Paul V - Camillo Borghese (1605-21), at 68
1725    Tsar Peter I the Great of Russia (1682-1725), 52 -- Learn More
1810    Andreas Hofer, 42, Tyrolian resistance fighter, shot by Napoleon
1829    William Burke, c. 37, serial killer, in the interests of medical research and profit, hanged
1895    Marshal Francois Canrobert, who commanded the French in the Crimea, 85
1918    Cpl. Roberto Sarfatti, 17, son of Margherita Sarfatti, mistress to Mussolini, kia on the Asiago Front, earning the Medaglia d'oro for bravery.
1965    Maxim Weygand, 98, French general who couldn't cope in 1940 -- Learn More
1986    Gregory Jarvis, NASA engineer(41), Christa McAuliffe (37, elementary school teacher); Dr. Ronald E McNair, NASA physicist (35); Ellison S Onizuka, USAF(39); Judith Arlene Resnik, NASA engineer (35); Francis R Scobee (46), USAF; Michael J Smith, USN (40) - the Challenger
1996    U San Yu, soldier, Dictator-President of Burma (1981-88), at 77