1192    Minamoto no Yoritomo becomes the first Kamakura Shogun (1192-1199)
1321    160 Jews burned at the stake in Chinon, France
1482    Battle of Civita Latina/Campomorto ("Field of the Dead"): Roberto Malatesta's Papal Army defeats the Neapolitans, to recover Rome for the Pope
1568    Battle of Nijmegen: Spanish defeat the Dutch
1680    Pueblo Indians capture Santa Fe from the Spanish
1740    Admiral Lord Vernon institutes the daily issue of grog in the Royal Navy, which continues until 1970
1799    Russian Marshal Suvorov captures Alessandria, Italy, from the French
1800    First public concert by the U.S. Marine Corps Band, Washington, DC
1808    Battle of Vimiero: Wellington forces the French to abandon Portugal
1831    Nat Turner initiates a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia
1860    Anglo-French force captures the Taku Forts at Tientsin
1861    James A. Garfield is commissioned Lt Col of the 42nd Ohio -- Learn More
1863    Quantrill's Confederate brigands raid Lawrence, Ks
1864    Battle of Summit Point, Va
1866    Battle of Bezzeca: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
1914    Battle of Jaroslavice/Wolczkowce, Galicia: The Russian 10th Cavalry Division clashes with the Austro-Hungarian 4th Cavalry Division in the largest mounted battle of the Great War
1938    Italy bars Jewish teachers in public education
1942    Australian 18th Brigade reinforces Milne Bay.
1942    Battle of Isbuscenskij: The charge of the Italian 'Savoia Cavalry Regiment' routes the Russian 812th Siberian Infantry Regiment
1942    German alpine troops plant the Nazi flag on Mt. Elbruz, the Caucasus
1942    Guadalcanal - Battle of the Tenaru River: Marines crush the Ichiki Detachment on Alligator Creek
1942    New Guinea: Japanese land reinforcements at Basabura
1942    US DDs and APDs resupply Guadalcanal, with loss of one destroyer.
1943    Andrei Gromyko named Soviet ambassador in Washington
1943    Heavy Allied air raids on Wewak, New Guinea.
1943    Japanese a/c raid shipping off Vella Lavella, with little effect.
1944    B-29s from Ceylon begin raids on Japanese installations on Sumatra.
1945    Pres Truman ends the Lend-Lease program
1953    Sultan Sidi Mohammed Am Joessoef V of Morocco deposed
1983    South Korean 747 airliner is shot down by Russian aircraft after straying into Soviet airspace, 269 die
1987    Marine Sgt Clayton Lonetree convicted of spying for the KGB while an embassy guard in Moscow
1991    Communist coup is crushed in USSR after two days
1991    Latvia declares independence from the USSR

1165    King Philip II Augustus of France (1179-1223), the first Capetian
1579    Henri II, Viscount, later Duke of Rohan, French soldier & Huguenot leader, d. 1638
1643    Afonso VI, insane king of Portugal (1656-67)
1670    James FitzJames, the Duke of Berwick, bastard son of James II and Arabella Churchill, later Marshal of France, kia 1734 -- Learn More
1765    William IV of Great Brtian (1830-1837), the first "Sailor King" -- Learn More
1810    Thomas Jefferson McKean, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1870
1821    William Barksdale, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia 1863
1824    John Sanford Mason, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
1858    Rudolf von Habsburg, Archduke of Austria & Crown Prince of Hungary, suicide 1889

1131    Baldwin II of Rethel, second Count of Edessa (1100-1118), third King of Jerusalem (1118-1131)
1157    King Alfonso VII of Castille (1126-1157), at c. 52
1190    Godfrey III, Count of Louvain, Landgrave of Brabant, Margrave of Antwerp, and as Godfrey VIII Duke of Lower Lorraine (1142-1157)
1425    Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425), at c. 75
1553    John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, c. 51, father-in-law and mentor of "Lady Jane Grey," beheaded in the Tower
1614    Countess Elizabeth Báthory de Ecsed, 54, blue blooded serial killed with a body count into the hundreds, after being incarerated for four years
1940    Leo Trotsky, at 62, a day after being axed in the head
1982    King Ngwenyama Sobhuza II of Swaziland/Ngwane (1921-82), 82
1983    Benigno Aquino, Jr., 50, Philippine presidential candidate, assassinated