1132    Battle of Nocera: Count Ranulf II of Alife defeats Roger II of Sicily
1148    Second Crusaders besiege Damascus (withdraw the 28th)
1192    Saladin captures Jaffa
1216    Cencio Savelli elected Pope as Honorius III (1216-1227)
1505    Portuguese fleet sacks and burns Kilwa, East Africa
1567    Deposition of Queen Mary of Scots (1542-1547) and installation of her son as King James VI (1567-1625)
1603    James VI of Scots is crowned as King James I of England (1603-1625)
1692    Battle of Steinkirk: The French defeat William III of England
1704    British Admiral George Rooke takes Gibraltar from Spain
1813    Elijah Mix, USN, tries to mine HMS 'Plantagenet', Cape Henry, Va
1848    Skirmish at Salionze: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
1848    Skirmish at Staffalo: Piedmontese defeat the Austrians
1861    Skirmish at Blue Mills, Mo
1861    Skirmish at Taylor Mountain, WVa,
1864    Second Battle of Kernstown, Va: Jubal Early drives Union forces out of the Shenandoah into Maryland
1883    Arabi Pasha declares a holy war in Egypt against Britain and France
1900    Race riot in New Orleans
1915    Steamer 'Eastland' capsizes dockside in Chicago, 800 die
1919    Race Riot in Washington DC, 6 killed, 100 wounded
1923    Allied Powers & Turkey sign peace treaty at Lausanne
1929    Pres Hoover proclaims Kellogg-Briand Pact, which declares war naughty
1936    Spanish Nationalists form a junta to conduct the civil war with the Spanish Republic
1942    Australian Maroubra Force is forced back from Alawa by the Japanese.
1942    U.S. submarines begin operating in the Kurile Islands.
1943    RAF bombs Hamburg, initiating a firestorm.
1943    U.S. destroyers land supplies at Bairoko, on Kula Gulf.
1943    U.S. subs ordered to deactivate defective magnetic torpedo exploders.
1943    'U-459 sinks' when it shoots down an RAF Wellington that then crashes on her deck
1945    Over 1,500 Allied carrier aircraft raid Kure, sinking three battleships
1948    Soviets initiate a blockade of Berlin
1959    The Nick & Dick Show: VP Nixon's "Kitchen debate" with Soviet Premier Khrushchev at the US exhibition in Moscow
1969    Muhammad Ali is convicted of refusing induction in the US Army
1999    Debut of StrategyPage -- Learn More

1759    King Victor Emanuel I of Sardinia (1802-21)
1783    Simon Bolivar, Liberator of Peru, Bolivia, Gran Columbia, d. 1830 -- Learn More
1798    John Adams Dix, Maj Gen, U.S., who would say "If anyone attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." d. 1879
1802    Alexandre Dumas père, author ("The Three Musketeers", etc.), bon vivant, d. 1870
1827    Julius Adolph de Lagnel, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1912
1828    Cuvier Grover, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1885
1895    Robert Graves, soldier, poet, classicist, novelist ("Goodbye to All That," "I, Claudius"), d. 1985

478    St. Lupus of Troyes, holy enough to intimidate Attila
725    The Venerable Bede, c. 63, Anglo-Saxon historian
1424    Orso Orsini, c. 44, Lord of Monterotondo, drowned, Battle of Zagonara
1568    Don Carlos, 23, Prince of Asturias of Spain, probably retarded, not mad or a frustrated reformer, and not killed by his father Philip II
1794    Alexandre François Marie de Beauharnais, Vicomte de Beauharnais, 33, Josephine's first husband, guillotined
1862    Martin Van Buren, 79, militiaman, President (1837-1841) -- Learn More
1944    Jan Postma, Dutch resistance worker, executed by the Nazis
1992    Khaled Mahmoud Saeid, aide to Palestinian terrorist Abu Nidal, assassinated