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TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
1146    Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a Second Crusade before a large crowd in a field at Vézelay, including King Louis VII of France, who then takes the Cross
1152    King Baldwin III of Jerusalem exiles his mother, Melissande
1492    Ferdinand & Isabella of the Spains order the Jews of Spain to convert or leave, but allow Moslems to remain
1547    Accession of King Henry II of France (1547-1559)
1571    The English capture Dumbarton, Scotland
1644    Castro War: Peace of Ferrara - Pope Urban VIII agrees to "status quo ante" with Venice, Tuscany, Parma, & Modena -- Learn More
1745    Jews are expelled from Prague
1808    Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia orders Jews to adopt family names
1814    The Allies capture Paris, as Napoleon makes feeble efforts to stave them off
1822    The Massacre of Chios: Ottoman troops slaughter the rebellious populace, raising Western sympathy for Greek independence
1829    Francesco Xaverio Castiglione is elected Pope as Pius VIII (1829-1830)
1854    Commodore Perry forces Japan to open its ports to foreign trade
1865    Battle of Dinwiddie Court House, Va: Confederate's frustrate a Union attempt to turn their strategic flank at Petersburg
1866    Guano War: Spanish fleet bombards Valparaiso
1889    The Eiffel Tower is opened to the public
1907    Romanian Army puts down a revolt in Moldavia
1917    US gains possession of the Virgin Is from Denmark, for $25 million
1923    Essen: French troops fire on striking Krupp workers, 13 die
1939    Britain & France agree to support Poland if invaded by Germany
1941    Hawaii: Senior Army & Navy aviation officers warn of the danger of posisble Japanese carrier raids
1942    Burma: Japanese troops occupy Toungoo, unhinging the Prome-Toungoo Line.
1942    U.S. leases air base rights from Liberia
1943    USAAF accidentally bombs a residential area of Rotterdam, 326 die
1944    New Guinea: Fifth Air Force bombs Hollandia
1954    USSR offers to join NATO
1964    Rightist military coup outs Pres Joao Goulart of Brazil (1961-1964)
1966    Anti-war demonstration in NY, c. 250,000 march
1967    NATO HQ moves to Casteau-Maisisres, Belgium
1968    LBJ announces he will not seek re-election
1991    Georgia votes independence from the USSR

BORN
250    Flavius Constantius I, Roman Emperor (305-306), father of Constantine -- Learn More
1187    Prince Arthur, Duke of Brittany, nephew to Richard Lionheart, murdered by his Uncle John, 1203
1425    Bianca Maria Visconti, only child of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan, wife to the condottiero Francesco Sforza, d. 1468
1499    Giovanni Angelo Medici - Pope Pius IV (1559-1565).
1518    King Henri II of France (1547-1559)
1596    René Descartes, who thought and therefore was, until 1650, when he wasn't
1675    Propsero Lorenso Lambertini - Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)
1723    King Frederik V of Denmark & Norway (1746-66)
1732    Franz Joseph Haydn, composer, d. 1809 -- Learn More
1817    Richard D. Guyon, Hungarian patriot, "Red '48er", Turkish pasha, d. 1856
1840    John Herbert Kelly, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d/w 1864
1921    The Royal Australian Air Force
1948    Albert Gore Jr, sometime soldier, vice-president (1993-2001)

DIED
32BC Titus Pomponius Atticus, 82, Roman millionaire and scholar, wisely apolitical friend to everyone, survivor, suicide by fasting
1341    Grand Prince Ivan I Kalita of Vladimir (1328-41), at c. 37
1547    King Francis I de Valois of France (1515-1547), slow learner and no gentleman, at 53
1567    Count Philip "the Generous" of Hesse, at 62
1621    King Felipe III of Spain (1598-1621), at 42
1727    Isaac Newton, 84, scientist, d. 1727 [NS; Mar 20, 1726, Old Style]
1850    John C. Calhoun, notable Secretary of War, architect of secession, at 68
1944    Adm Mineichi Koga, 53, Commander, Combined Fleet, plane crash
1970    Marshal of the Soviet Union Semion Timoshenko, at 75 -- Learn More
1980    Jesse Owens, 66, who spoiled Hitler's Olympics