51BC Cicero reviews his army at Iconium -- Learn More
0    Feast of St. Augustine of Hippo, Doctor of the Church, Patron of Brewers, Theologians, Printers, and more
1105    Third Battle of Ramalah: Crusaders defeat the Fatimids
1238    Jaime I of Aragon liberates Valencia from the Moors
1364    Battle of Cascina: the Florentines ambush the Pisans, who are bathing in the Arno
1397    Battle of Governolo: Anti-Visconti League defeats the Visconti
1434    Battle of Castel Bolognese: The Visconti defeat the Anti-Visconti League
1503    Guidbaldo di Manfredo recaptures Urbino from Cesare Borgia
1512    Papal-Spanish Army captures Prato from the Florentines amid great slaughter.
1513    Battle of Norham: King James IV of Scotland defeats the English
1619    Ferdinand II elected Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637)
1640    Battle of Newburn: Scots defeat English to capture Newcastle
1652    Naval Battle of Plymouth: de Ruyter's Dutch defeat the English
1739    Battle of Stavuchany: Russians drive the Turks into the Danube.
1812    Treaty of Abo: Prince Bernadotte of Sweden & Tsar Alexander of Russia ally against Napoleon
1861    Union forces invest Ft. Clark, Hatteras, NC, which falls the next day
1862    Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, Va
1862    Rebel spy Belle Boyd released from the Old Capitol Prison
1862    Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas/Gainesville/Bristoe Station), Day 1 of 3: Union advances
1867    Capt William Reynolds takes possession of Midway for the US
1914    Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium
1916    Germany declares war on Romania
1916    Italy declares war on Germany
1938    Mauthausen concentration camp opens in Austria
1939    First successful jet flight, a Heinkel He 178
1939    The Netherlands undertakes a preventive mobilization
1939    The Royal Navy quietly issues mobilization orders
1940    French colonies of Cameroon & Congo throw in with de Gaulle's Free French
1942    "Tokyo Express" lands reinforcements on Guadalcanal.
1942    USS 'Washington' (BB-56) enters the Pacific via the Panama Canal.
1942    Milne Bay: Aussie & US troops beat off Japanese attacks.
1943    Elms 43rd Div advance on Arundel against light Japanese resistance.
1943    Denmark: A general strike protests Nazi occupation
1943    Marines occupy Nanomea in the Ellice Islands unopposed.
1944    B-24 raid on the Kuriles, Japanese Submarine Chaser No. 77 is sunk.
1944    'LSM-270' commissioned at Newark, under Ens. Owen R. Meredith, USNR
1963    The March on Washington: Martin Luther King delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial
1986    Former Navy WO Jerry Whitworth convicted of spying for the USSR
1988    Ramstein air show: Italian stunt jets collide, 70 die
1990    Iraq declares Kuwait its 19th province

132    Emperor Go-Reizei, the 70th emperor of Japan (1045-1068)
1592    George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, murdered 1628
1728    John Stark, Continenal major general, Hero of Bennington, d. 1822
1749    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German author, statesman, philosopher, d. 1832
1798    Gershom Jaques Van Brunt, Capt, U.S.N., d. 1863
1828    Count Leo Tolstoy, soldier, novelist ("War and Peace"), d. 1910
1828    William Alexander Hammond, Brig Gen, US, Surgeon General, d. 1900

388    Magnus Clemens Maximus, c. 52, usurping Roman Emperor (383-88) & his son Flavius Victor, executed by Theodosius the Great
430    St. Augustine of Hippo, 75, Bishop, theologian ("The Confessions," "The City of God," etc.)
876    Louis I the German, c. 70, King of Bavaria (817-843) and of Eastern Francia (843-876)
1354    "Fra Moriale" - Giovanni di Montréal du Bar - mercenary, Captain of the "Great Company", beheaded in Rome by Cola di Reinzo
1481    King Afonso V of Portugal (1438-1477, desposed & restored, 1477-1481)
1504    The Chevalier Orsini, assassinated by order of Cesare Borgia
1551    Fabrizio Colonna, Roman Noble, condottiero, kia by the Farnese, Vigolana
1645    Huig de Groot, "Hugo Grotius", father of international law, at 62 -- Learn More
1793    French General Adam Philippe, le comte de Custine de Sarreck, guillotined at 53 for not being aggressive enough
1943    Boris III of Saxe-Coburg, 49, King of Bulgaria (1918-43)
1944    Ernst Thaelmann, 58, German communist, in Buchenwald
1955    Emmett Till, 14, black American, lynched in Money, Mississippi
1978    Bruce Catton, Civil War historian ("A Stillness at Appomattox"), at 78
2010    Wing Commander John Freeborn, 90, the RAF pilot with the most air time in the Battle of Britain, and 12 kills