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TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
363    Battle of Ctesiphon: Roman Emperor Julian defeats Shah Shapur II, but fails to take the city
757    Accession of Pope Paul I (757-67), later canonized
1108    Battle of Ucles: The Almoravids defeat the Castillians
1167    Battle of Monteporzio: Imperialists defeat the Romans
1176    Battle of Legnano: Lombards defeat Frederick Barbarossa
1217    Vlerdingen, the Netherlands: 1st contingent of the Fifth Crusade sets out
1405    Battle of Skipton Moor: Henry IV defeats Archbishop Richard Scrope of York
1416    Battle of Gallipoli: Venetian fleet annihilates the Turkish fleet
1453    The Byzantine Empire falls: Sultan Mehemet II captures Constantinople amid great slaughter -- Learn More
1652    Battle of Godwin Sands: Blake's English fleet defeats Tromp's Dutch off Dover
1660    The Restoration: Charles II ascends the English throne
1724    Pietro Francesco Orsini elected Pope as Benedict XIII (1724-1730)
1781    US frigate 'Alliance' captures HMSs 'Atalanta' & 'Trepassy' off Nova Scotia
1848    Battles of Curtatone & Montanara: Tuscans & Neapolitans defeat the Austrians
1859    Garibaldi liberates Como from the Austrians
1864    Archduke Maximilian of Austria arrives in Mexico to become Emperor
1877    HMS 'Shah' captures the mutinous Peruvian ironclad 'Huascar'; first use of mobile torpedo in combat, a miss
1899    Iosip Dzhugashvili is expelled from the Orthodox Seminary at Tiblisi, for failure to take exams; later adopts the name Stalin.
1905    Pogrom against the Jews of Brisk, Lithuania
1914    The British liner SS 'Empress of Ireland' is rammed and sunk in the St Lawrence, 1024 die
1940    Arthur Seyss-Inquart made Reichscommissar of The Hague, Netherlands
1943    Attu: Japanese make a major "Banzai" attack
1943    US initiates meat and cheese rationing
1944    Biak: Unsuccessful Japanese tank assault on American troops.
1945    Okinawa: 1st Marine Division Captures Shuri Castle
1957    Algerian Rebels kill 336 "collaborators"
1989    Student protesters in China erect a replica of the Statue of Liberty
1993    Neo-Nazis kill five Turkish women in Solingen, Germany

BORN
1439    Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini - Pope Pius III (22 Sep-18 Oct 1503)
1594    Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim, Imperial general, kia 1632
1630    King Charles II of England (1660-85)
1736    Patrick Henry, patriot, d. 1799
1810    Erasmus Darwin Keyes, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1895
1810    Solomon Meredith, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1875
1824    Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1890
1825    David Bell Birney, Maj Gen, U.S., d .1864
1827    Reuben Lindsay Walker, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1890
1880    Oswald Spengler, philosopher ("The Decline of the West"), d. 1936
1903    Bob Hope, USO entertainer, d. 2003
1917    John F. Kennedy, naval officer, president, k. 1963

DIED
1265    Dante, 56, sometime cavalryman, traveler, poet, who loved Beatrice,
1453    Constantine XI, 49, last Byzantine Emperor (1449-1453), kia defending the Romanus Gate
1500    Bartholomeu Diaz, c. 50, explorer, drowned
1546    Cardinal Beaton, c. 50, Archbishop of St Andrews (1537-1546), murdered
1606    Ranuccio Tomassoni, murdered by his rival Caravaggio in street brawl
1660    Prince Gyorgy II Rakoczi II of Transsylvania (1648-1660, with some interruptions), 39, d/w
1790    Israel Putnam, 72, American citizen-soldier, ranger, Patriot major general, d. May 29, 1790)
1814    Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress of the French (1804-14), at 50
1847    Emmanuel de Grouchy, 80, French marshal, who blew the big one in 1815
1866    Bvt Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, "Old Fuss and Feathers", greatest American general of the nineteenth century, 79
1877    Benny Havens, c. 90, tavern keeper to wayward West Pointers
1892    Mírzá ?usayn-`Alí Núr, known as "Bahá'u'lláh -- Glory of God", at 74, founder of the Bahá'í movement, d. 1894
1944    2nd Lt. Allen Brown, killed by a German sniper in Italy; step-son of George C. Marshall
1946    Martin Gottfried Weiss, by hanging at 40, former SS-concentration camp commandant (Neuengamme, Majdanek, Dachus)