0    Feast of St Julian the Hospitaler, Patron of Knights
881    Coronation of Charles III "the Fat" as Holy Roman Emperor (881-888)
1049    Bruno of Egesheim elected Pope as Leo IX (1049-1054), later canonized
1111    Uncrowned HRE Henry V kidnaps Pope Paschal II
1429    Battle of Rouray/Battle of the Herrings: Sir John Fastolf's supply column defeats a French ambush
1430    Battle of Serchio: The Visconti defeat the Florentines
1706    Battle of Frauenstadt: 10,000 Swedes rout 20,000 Russians & Saxons in 15 minutes
1762    Admiral Rodney captures Martinique from the French -- Learn More
1771    Accession of Gustav III as King of Sweden (1771-1792), assassinated, inspiring Verdi's "Un ballo in maschera".
1806    French invest Gaeta (falls July 18) -- Learn More
1817    Battle of Chacabuco: Chileans defeat Spanish royalists near Santiago
1818    Chile declares independence from Spain
1839    The "Aroostook War" begins: Maine-New Brunswick dispute their common boundary -- settled by Federal and Crown intervention and later treaty
1861    Arkansas state troops seize US arsenal at Napoleon
1862    US Grant begins the siege of Ft Donelson, which surrenders on the 16th after an unsuccessful break out attempt
1874    King Kalakaua of Hawaii becomes the first reigning sovereign to visit the US
1893    Lt. Col. Joseph Joffre and a column of French troops capture Timbuktu
1895    Battle of Weihaiwei: the Japanese defeat the Chinese
1901    Delaware ratifies the XIII Amendment, that abolished slavery in 1865
1912    Sun Yat-sen proclaims a republic in China, forcing Emperor Pu Yi to abdicate
1919    Massacre of Bratislava/Pressburg/Pozsony: German & Hungarian socialists protesting incorporation into Czechoslovakia are fired on by security forces, 9 die
1934    Sporadic fighting breaks out across Austria between Socialist supporters and security forces, initiating a four day "civil war"
1935    USS 'Macon' (ZRS-5) crashes into Pacific Ocean, only 2 die
1942    Bataan: Fil-Am troops mop up isolated Japanese pockets in their rear
1942    The "Channel Dash": German battleships 'Scharnhorst' & 'Gneisenau', & heavy cruiser 'Prinz Eugen' escape from Brest to Germany
1944    Burma: British begin moving to support the 7th Indian Div
1944    U.S. Marines occupy Umboi Island, west of New Britain.
1945    'Batfish' (SS-310), sinks its 3rd Japanese sub in 4 days ('I-41', 'Ro-112', & 'Ro-113')
1948    First black Regular Army Nurse is commissioned: 1st Lt Nancy Leftenant; retires 1965 as major, USAF
1949    Unidentified aircraft bomb Jerusalem
1955    Pres Eisenhower sends US advisors to South Vietnam

41    Britannicus, son of Claudius & Messalina, poisoned by Nero in AD 55, one day short of his 14th birthday
1074    Conrad II, King of the Germans (1087-1098), King of Italy (1093-1098), deposed, d. 1101
1211    Henry II/VII von Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily, titular King of the Germans (1220-35)
1218    Kujo Yoritsune, Shogun of Japan (1226-1244), abdicated, d. 1256
1443    Giovanni II Bentivoglio, condottiero, Lord of Bologna (1463-1506) until deposed by Pope Julius II, d. 1508
1768    Francis II, last Holy Roman Emperor (1792-1806), Emperor Francis I of Austria (1804-1835), father-in-law to Napoleon
1809    Abraham Lincoln, militiaman, volunteer of 1832, President (1861-1865)
1809    Charles Darwin, scientist, author ("On the Origin of Species", etc.), d. 1882
1828    Robert Ransom Jr., Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
1838    Charles Carroll Walcutt, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1898
1884    Johan Laidoner, Tsarist soldier, C-in-C, Estonian Army (1918-1920, 1924-1925, 1934-1940), d. 1953 in the GULAG.
1893    General of the Army Omar Bradley, 'The GI General', d. 1981 -- Learn More
1915    Andrew J Goodpaster, American general, NATO Supreme Commander (1969-1974), d. 2005

1294    Kublai Khan, 79, fifth Great Khan of the Mongols (1260-1294)
1554    Lady Jane Grey, c. 16-17, Queen of England-for-a-Little While (c. July 10-19, 1553), and her husband Guilford Dudley, 18, executed for treason in the Tower by Queen Mary
1771    King Adolf Frederick of Sweden (1751-1771), 50, having eaten 14 helpings of his favorite dessert, on top of a sumptuous meal
1836    Copenhagen, who had carried the Duke of Wellington for 16 hours at Waterloo, at about 30 -- Learn More