415BC Desecration of the Herms at Athens [Alt]
334BC Battle of the Granicus: Alexander defeats the Persians [Alt]
0    National Maritime Day
0    Patriots' Day in Québec
871    Battle of Basing: The Danes defeat Ethelred I of Wessex
1176    Attempted assassination of Saladin at Aleppo
1200    Treaty of Le Goulet: between King John of England and Philip of France
1276    Pierre de Tarantaise elected Pope as Innocent V, later beatified (Jan 21-June 22, 1276)
1370    Jews are expelled from Brussels
1371    Coronation of King Robert II Stuart of Scots (1371-1390)
1455    First Battle of St. Albans: The Yorkists defeat the Lancastrians
1499    Battle of Calven Gorge: The Swiss defeat the Hapsburgs
1511    The French capture Bologna
1526    War of the League of Cognac/Fifth Italian War: Francis I breaks his word & resumes war against Spain for control of Italy, helped by the Pope & England
1760    Battle of Wandewash, India: British defeat the French
1771    Spain cedes the Falkland Islands to Britain
1790    Russians blockade the Swedish fleet in Viborg harbor (Swedes break out July 3)
1794    Battle of Tournai: Austro-Dutch defeat the French
1809    Battle of Aspern-Essling, Day 1: Napoleon v. the Austrians
1848    Battle of the Ponte di Caffaro: Italian Nationalists defeat the Austrians
1848    Second Battle of Vicenza: Veneto-Papal forces defeat the Austrians
1856    Slavocrat Rep. Preston Brooks brutally beats Sen. Charles Sumner in the Senate
1872    U.S. Grant signs the Amnesty Act, restoring full civil rights to most former Confederates
1890    José Marti forms nationalist La Liga Cubana, in NYC
1915    Gretna, Scotland: Local train collides with trooper, 226 die
1941    British troops take Baghdad, deposing pro-Nazi Iraqi regime
1942    Mexico declares war on Nazi Germany and Japan
1942    Ted Williams enlists in the US Marine Corps
1943    Stalin disbands the Comintern
1947    "Truman Doctrine" goes into effect, aiding Turkey & Greece
1959    Benjamin O Davis Jr. (USMA '36) becomes the first black U.S. major general
1962    Robert A Rushworth, USAF major, takes X-15 to 30,600m
1967    Egyptian president Nasser closes Straits of Tiran to Israel
1968    The USS 'Scorpion' (SSN-589) sinks in the Atlantic, 99 die.
1969    Stafford & Cernan pilot Apollo 10 LEM 9.4 mi (15km) above lunar surface
1970    A Palestinian terrorist attacks school bus in Israel; 9 children, 3 adults die
1985    US sailor Michael L Walker arrested for spying for USSR
1992    India launches its Agni rocket

1622    Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau, French soldier and explorer, Governor General of New France (1672-1682 & 1689-1698), d. 1698
1813    Richard Wagner, composer ("The Flying Dutchman," "The Ring Cycle"), d. 1883
1821    Alfred Sully, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1879
1859    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author ("Sherlock Holmes), d. 1930
1885    Toyoda Soemu, CinC Combined Fleet, 1944-1945, d. 1957
1885    Giacomo Matteotti, Italian socialist parliamentarian, murdered by the Fascists, 1924

337    Constantine I "the Great", 65, Roman Emperor (306-337), who adopted Christianity -- Learn More#
1068    Emperor Go-Reizei, 44, the 70th emperor of Japan (1045-1068)
1336    Count Louis IV of Loon (1323-1336)
1382    Giovanna I, inept & unlucky Queen of Naples (1343-1382), Countess of Provence and Forcalquier, Queen consort of Majorca and titular Queen of Jerusalem and Sicily (1343-1382), Princess of Achaea (1373-1381), murdered at 54 by Charles of Durazzo, her successor
1540    Francesco Guicciardini, historian, at 57
1667    Pope Alexander VII - Fabio Chigi (1655-1667), 69
1825    Laskarina Bouboulina, 54, Greek naval heroine, War of Independence, Russian admiral
1859    King Ferdinand II "Bomba" of the Two Sicilies (1830-1859), 49
1885    Victor Hugo, author ("Les Mierables", etc.), 83
1925    Sir John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, 72, inept Field Marshal