310    Accession of Pope St. Militades (or maybe 311), d. 314
1187    Saladin captures Tiberias, besieges the Citadel (falls 5th)
1214    Battle of La Roche-aux-Moines (Angers)
1247    Emperor Frederick II lays siege to Parma (lifted Feb 18, 1248)
1298    Battle of Goellheim\Worms: Albert of Austria defeats Adolf von Nassau Weilburg, his rival for Holy Roman Emperor
1431    Battle of Bulgneville: The Angevins defeat the Lorrainers
1461    Battle of Nidastore: The Malatesti of Rimini defeat Pope Pius II's forces
1600    Battle of Nieuport: Dutch defeat the Spanish
1625    Breda falls to the Spanish after a year's siege
1644    Battle of Marston Moor: Roundheads defeat the Royalists
1704    Battle of Schellenberg: Anglo-Imperialists defeat the Franco-Bavarians
1747    Battle of Lauffeld: Marshal Saxe's French defeat the Duke of Cumberland's Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverians
1776    Continental Congress declares the Thirteen Colonies independent
1777    Vermont abolishes slavery, the first "state" to do so
1814    Jacob Brown captures Ft. Erie, Ontario, from the British
1820    Carbonari coup at Naples installs a liberal Constitution
1861    Battle of Hoke's Run, WV
1862    Lincoln calls for an additional 300,000 volunteers
1863    Battle of Gettysburg, Day 2: A draw
1863    John Hunt Morgan's Burksville-Salineville Raid begins (to July 26)
1881    James Garfield, veteran, is mortally wounded by a disappointed office seeker
1898    Action at Cape Tunas, Cuba: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire
1898    Skirmishing at Santiago: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire, as US troops begin close investment of the town
1900    Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin's first airship, the LZ-1, flies
1903    US leases Guantanamo Bay from Cuba for $2,000 a year
1917    The "East St. Louis Massacre" -- rioting whites, aided by some National Guardsmen, attack blacks, killing nearly 100 and driving thousands more from their homes.
1923    Naval Research Laboratory established in Washington
1926    Congress authorizes the Distinguished Flying Cross.
1934    General Lazaro Cardenas elected president of Mexico
1941    Nazis murder 7,000 Jews in Lvov
1942    Chiang names Stilwell commander of Chinese forces in India.
1942    JCS authorize "Operation Watchtower," the seizure of Guadalcanal
1942    New York Times reports Nazi mass murder of Jews
1943    37th and 43rd Divs and Marines land on Munda on New Georgia
1943    Japanese cruisers and destroyers shell U.S. positions at Rendova
1943    Lt Charles Hall, 99th Pursuit Sqn, becomes the first black USAAF pilot to shoot down a Nazi plane, a Focke-Wulf 190 over Pantelleria
1944    Marshal von Kluge replaces von Rundstedt in command in France
1944    Saipan: Japanese retire northwards to make a last stand.
1944    US troops land on Noemfoor, off New Guinea.
1957    'Grayback' (SSG 574) launched, first sub designed to fire guided missiles
1957    'Seawolf '(SSN 575) completed, first sub with liquid metal cooled reactor
1959    "Plan 9 from Outer Space" released; perhaps the worst movie in history
1966    First French nuclear explosion, Mururoa atoll
1980    Pres Carter resumes draft registration for 18 year old men
1993    Moslem fundamentalists set hotel on fire in Sivas, Turkey, 36 die

419    Roman Emperor Valentinian III (425-455), arguably the most inept of the lot
1830    John Bordenave Villepigue, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862
1836    Henry Eugene Davies, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1894
1877    Hermann Hesse, German volunteer of 1914, German/Swiss novelist, pacifist, anti-Nazi, d. 1962
1903    King Olav V of Norway (1957-1991)
1923    Cyril M. Kornbluth, Battle of Bulge Bronze Star, American sciencefictioneer, d. 1958
1925    Patrice Lumumba, Congolese radical politician, murdered, 1960
1926    The Army Air Corps, declared formed as an arm of the Army by Act of Congress

783    Berthe de Laon or "Berthe Big Foot," wife to Pepin "the Short", mother of Charlemagne, at c. 63
936    Henry I "the Fowler", Duke of Saxony (912-36), King of the Germans (919-36)
1298    Adolf, graf von Nassau-Wiesbaden, Nassau-Weilburg, & Nassau-Idstein, King of the Germans (1291-1298), kia Goellheim/Worms
1504    Prince Stefan III "the Great" Bogdanowitz of Moldavia(1457-1504)
1778    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 68. Enlightment thinker
1822    Denmark Vesey, c. 55, and five others, hanged in Charleston for a slave conspiracy
1850    Sir Robert Peel, 62, founder of the London Police Force
1863    George Nixon, 42, 73rd Ohio, d/w at Gettysburg, g-g-father of a president, along with some thousands of others
1863    Strong Vincent, 26, Brig. Gen., U.S.A., posthumous, kia, Gettysburg
1903    Pope Leo XIII - Giacchino Pecci (1878-1903), anti-capitalist and anti-marxist pro-labor pontiff,
1915    Porfirio Diaz, revolutionary general, president of Mexico (1876-1880 & 1884-1911), in Paris, at 84, surrounded by his mistresses
1918    Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V Reshad (1909-18), at 77
1937    Amelia Earhart, 39, & Fred Noonan, 44, lost over the Pacific
1961    Ernest Hemingway, war correspondent, novelist, suicide, at 61
1987    Karl Linnas, 67, Lithuanian Nazi, of heart failure awaiting trial in Russia
2004    Marlon Brando, actor ("Morituri"), at 80