|This is like which came first, the chicken or the egg.
IMHO, all intelligence is a failure, if the final analysis of the input is incorrect. It seems to me that with less input, the chances of failure increase. I agree that there is altogether too much duplication of effort and too little sharing of input, but again, believe that is caused by sincere and dedicated agencies competing for meager resources.
Under the best of circumstances, it is the nature of agencies and departments to protect their mission statement. It IS a policy of government to endorse this “territorial” protection, and it’s resulting competition, in order to promote better performance. Budget cuts severely compromise this policy. Congressional mandates of who, of what, of where and of why intelligence can be collected and be used emasculate this resource, and force departments and agencies to compete for, and hoard information.
I believe this is a direct result of Congressional action. During early Congressional hearings, I viewed a witness (CIA?) asked what he thought was the cause of "intelligence failure".
He replied "You!"
Thank you Bob Torecelli.