Japan and China have agreed to conduct joint naval exercises. This will be a first for the two nations. The operation will involve joint search and rescue exercises. It is hoped that this will lead to more joint exercises, concentrating on humanitarian operations.
Japan is currently the second largest naval power in the Pacific (after the United States), with a total of 32 destroyers, nine guided-missile destroyers, and nine frigates. The older Tachikaze-class guided-missile destroyers are being replaced by the new Atago-class destroyers. Japan also has 16 modern diesel-electric submarines.
The Chinese navy is larger in terms of ships. They have 25 destroyers and 45 frigates. However, of these 25 destroyers, 16 are the much older (than Japanese equivalent) Luda class. Most of the frigates are the obsolete Jianghu class ships. China has 60 diesel-electric submarines, but most of them are elderly Romeo and Ming class boats. Chinas Han class SSNs (nuclear attack subs) are old and noisy. In terms of modern vessels, China is not only outnumbered, but the Japanese ships spend more time at sea and the crews are better trained.
The Chinese are also at a disadvantage when it comes to naval air power. Most of Chinas naval fighters are old. They have a growing number of modern J-11s (a copy of the Russian Su-27) and the Su-30MKK. Japan is almost at parity in terms of numbers (187 F-15J/DJs and 140 F-2s to 400 Chinese J-11/Su-30MKKs). Japan has better trained pilots, although China is trying to close that gap as well.
The Chinese GDP is twice that of Japan, as is their defense spending. But China maintains eight times as many military personnel, and much larger ground forces. This consumes most of the Chinese military budget.