On War And Warfare

D-Day Outtakes from Dirty Little Secrets - World War II and Other Sources
Compiled by Albert A. Nofi


The D-Day Force Pool: Resources Available for the Normandy Invasion

The Normandy Invasion was the greatest military undertaking in history. While several other operations, notably on the Eastern Front, involved more troops, none involved so much risk to so many, nor the use of such massive naval and air forces. It was truly a "Mighty Endeavor."

Major Formations Available
DivisionsBrigades & Regiments Eqtd
Czech    1 .3
French 1    1
Netherlands    1 .3
Polish 1   11.3
U.S.1452 8 23.6
Germans5010  2 60.6
Key: Abbreviations are self-explanatory. "Brigades & Regiments" includes all non-divisional British, Canadian or Allied brigades plus independent U.S. regimens and Groups. "Eqtd Total" lumps divisions and separate brigades together.

The Allies had a total of 41 divisions and 27 separate brigades or regiments available in Britain for operations on the continent, equivalent to about 50 divisions. Most Allied divisions were more capable than their German counterparts. The only exceptions were the nine panzer divisions and the one panzer grenadier division (armored infantry), here included under armored divisions, and the three parachute divisions, included under infantry. The German paratroopers were much more heavily equipped than Allied airborne divisions, and in any case had no airborne training or capability. Actually, only 26 of the German divisions were capable of mobile operations; the panzers and panzer grenadiers, the parachute divisions, and thirteen of the infantry divisions, plus one parachute brigade (included under infantry). All Allied divisions were mobile, or had sufficient trucks available to quickly make them mobile. Most of the Germans walked, and had their heavy equipment hauled by horses and a few trucks.

It is interesting to note that Allied deception measures were so successful that the Germans overestimated the forces available in Britain for the invasion by abut 40 percent, believing that there were 85?90 infantry and armored divisions plus seven airborne ones. On D-Day itself, for example, Lt. Gen. George S. Patton's fictions "First U.S. Army Group" had under command eleven notional divisions (seven U.S. and four British), plus two-and-a-half real divisions (one British, the Guards Armoured Division, which the Germans were convinced would be in the first wave), plus the headquarters of the U.S. Ninth Army, a real outfit being held in reserve for later employment.

Aside from the 26 mobile outfits, all of the other German divisions were so-called "static" divisions, suitable for manning fixed defenses, but of limited mobility. Many of the troops in these static divisions were disabled to some degree (having been wounded on the Eastern Front), or Russian POWs who volunteered to switch sides. Altogether Germany had about 285 divisions at this time, of which 164 (57.5 percent) were in Russia.

The Allies had an additional eleven divisions (one Anglo-American airborne task force, two French armored divisions and three U.S. and five French infantry divisions) available in Italy, Sicily, and North Africa for the follow-up landings in the south of France. These are not shown here.

Manpower Pool
Ground Combatants1,000,000700,0001.43:1
Combat Replacements120,00020,0006.00:1

"Ground Combatants" refers to manpower available to engage in combat on the ground. "Combat Replacements" were troops available to replace losses among the Ground Combatants, in the British army these were called "Reinforcements," a more psychologically satisfactory term. "Other" are all other personnel, including service troops, airmen, and seamen directly involved in the operations. Not shown is another figure of importance, the Replacement Rate, the number of replacements which each side could accumulate each month, over and above those on hand at the onset of the campaign. For the Allies this ran about 55,000 men, about 90% of whom were American and the rest British, while for the Germans it ran to only about 6,000 men, for a ratio of 9.16:1.

Equipment Available
Battle Tanks5,5001,4003.93:1
Other AFV2,0008002.50:1

Battle Tanks were the principal medium and heavy tanks, such as the Shermans, Tigers, and so forth. Other AFV refers to miscellaneous light tanks, such as the Stuart and Tetrarch, plus armored cars, assault guns, and the like. Artillery includes guns, howitzers, and heavy mortars with the ground forces, but excludes the several hundred heavy naval guns carried on the six battleships, two monitors, 23 cruisers, and 73 destroyers which supported the landings, not to mention the numerous smaller vessels, such as rocket-firing landing craft and minesweepers. If the naval guns are included, as well as the superior fire control of the Allies and their more abundant supply of ammunition, the ratio approaches 3:1.

Combat Aircraft
Allied Total2,5463,4836,029
Note: French, Belgian, Dutch, Czech, and Polish air units are included with Commonwealth forces.

These figures represent total numbers of combat aircraft available in the general theater of operations in the opening days of the campaign. On D-Day the Allies attained a sortie rate (number of times an aircraft took off) of 10,000, since many airplanes went on more than one mission, while the Germans were only able to commit a handful of aircraft. In the days following the landings the Allied sortie rate fell to about 5,000 a day, while the Germans were able to build theirs up to about 250. In addition to combat aircraft, the Allies committed 1,628 transport aircraft (1,166 American) and 2,591 gliders (1,619 American) to the airborne operations, and there were also available about 2,000 additional fighters and 1,000 bombers committed to other operations at the time. Note that British figures include Allied contingents (French, Polish, Czech, Dutch, and Norwegian) as well as Canadian and other Commonwealth squadrons.


Outline Allied Order of Battle, June 6-13, 1944

Outline Allied Order of Battle, June 6-13, 1944 Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Forces, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower 21st Army Group, Gen. Sir Bernard L. Montgomery
U.S. First Army
VII Corps
4th Infantry Division (Utah Beach)
90th Infantry Division (Lands 6-9 June)
9th Infantry Division (Lands 10-13 June)
V Corps
1st Infantry Division (Omaha Beach)
29th Infantry Division (Omaha Beach)
2nd Infantry Division (Lands 7-8 June)
2nd Armored Division (Lands 10-13 June) *
Airborne Forces
82nd Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division
British Second Army
British XXX Corps
50th Infantry Division (Gold)
7th Armoured Division (Lands 8-10 June)
49th Infantry Division (Lands 12 June)
British I Corps
Canadian 3rd Infantry Division (Juno)
3rd Infantry Division (Sword)
6th Airborne Division
51st Infantry Division (Lands 9-11 June)
* Elements landed D-Day
Allied Expeditionary Air Forces, Air Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh- Mallory
Royal Air Force
2nd Tactical Air Force
U.S. Army Air Forces
Eighth Air Force
Ninth Air Force
Allied Expeditionary Naval Forces--Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay
Western Task Force (U.S.)
Eastern Task Force (British)


President Roosevelt's D-Day Prayer


On the morning of June 6, 1944, Americans awoke to the news that Allied forces were in the process of landing on the coast of France in Normandy. Later that morning, newspapers published a message from the President, which included a prayer for the success of the operation, and a request that the nation join him in prayer during his radio broadcast that evening.


My fellow Americans:

Last night, when I spoke with you about the fall of Rome, I knew at that moment that troops of the United States and our allies were crossing the Channel in another and greater operation. It has come to pass with success thus far.

And so, in this poignant hour, I ask you to join with me in prayer.




Almighty God:

Our sons, pride of our Nation, this day have set upon a mighty endeavor, a struggle to preserve our Republic, our religion, and our civilization, and to set free a suffering humanity.

Lead them straight and true; give strength to their arms, stoutness to their hearts, steadfastness in their faith.

They will need Thy blessings. Their road will be long and hard. For the enemy is strong. He may hurl back our forces. Success may not come with rushing speed, but we shall return again and again; and we know that by Thy grace, and by the righteousness of our cause, our sons will triumph.

They will be sore tried, by night and by day, without rest - until the victory is won. The darkness will be rent by noise and flame. Men's souls will be shaken with the violences of war.

For these men are lately drawn from the ways of peace. They fight not for the lust of conquest. They fight to end conquest. They fight to liberate. They fight to let justice arise, and tolerance and good will among all Thy people. They yearn but for the end of battle, for their return to the haven of home.

Some will never return. Embrace these, Father, and receive them, Thy heroic servants, into Thy kingdom.


And for us at home - fathers, mothers, children, wives, sisters, and brothers of brave men overseas - whose thoughts and prayers are ever with them - help us, Almighty God, to rededicate ourselves in renewed faith in Thee in this hour of great sacrifice.

Many people have urged that I call the Nation into a single day of special prayer. But because the road is long and the desire is great, I ask that our people devote themselves in a continuance of prayer. As we rise to each new day, and again when each day is spent, let words of prayer be on our lips, invoking Thy help to our efforts.

Give us strength, too - strength in our daily tasks, to redouble the contributions we make in the physical and the material support of our armed forces.

And let our hearts be stout, to wait out the long travail, to bear sorrows that may come, to impart our courage unto our sons wheresoever they may be.

And, O Lord, give us Faith. Give us Faith in Thee; Faith in our sons; Faith in each other; Faith in our united crusade. Let not the keenness of our spirit ever be dulled. Let not the impacts of temporary events, of temporal matters of but fleeting moment - let not these deter us in our unconquerable purpose.

With Thy blessing, we shall prevail over the unholy forces of our enemy. Help us to conquer the apostles of greed and racial arrogancies. Lead us to the saving of our country, and with our sister Nations into a world unity that will spell a sure peace - a peace invulnerable to the schemings of unworthy men. And a peace that will let all of men live in freedom, reaping the just rewards of their honest toil.

Thy will be done, Almighty God.



The Supreme Commander's Message to the Allied Expeditionary Forces

Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Forces: You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.

Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle-hardened. He will fight savagely.

But this is the year 1944! Much has happened since the Nazi triumphs of 1940-41. The United Nations have inflicted upon the Germans great defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the air and their capacity to wage war on the ground. Our Home Fronts have given us an overwhelming superiority in weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our disposal great reserves of trained fighting men. The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching together to Victory!

I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full victory!

Good Luck! And let us all beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking.


They Also Serve

The Allies had a tough time breaking out of their Normandy beachhead. The Germans were formidable defensive fighters and the broken terrain of Normandy favored the defense. By the end of June, the Allied timetable was already behind schedule and the situation didn't look good. The losses on both sides were heavy, and the British were facing a manpower shortage. Moreover, the Germans still had sufficient tanks and motorized unit to give any Allied units that did get rolling a rough time.

The Allies came up with an ingenious strategy to overcome these problems. The British forces, on the northern end of the beachhead (where the British landing beaches were), had more open terrain and were, of course, closer to Paris and the German rear area in general. The British proceeded to launch a series of armor attacks throughout July. This served several ends. By using a lot of tanks (five tank divisions with 2,134 medium and 473 light tanks and five tank brigades with 1,235 medium and 315 light tanks), they minimized personnel losses and forced the Germans to commit their scarce armor to either fight the British tanks, or stand by to counterattack a possible British breakout. While the British used a lot of infantry, it was the 4,000 tanks sent into these battles that got the German's attention. While most of these tanks got hit or destroyed, the personnel losses were relatively low, as men are lost less frequently than tanks. Using infantry instead would have increased personnel losses by a factor of twenty or more. At the time, and to this day, many feel that the British simply failed in their attempts to grab all the glory by smashing through the German lines and leading the race for Paris. But at the time, it was known that any breakout could be seriously compromised by one or more intact German tank divisions. The Allied strategy was to keep the German tanks facing the British while the Americans prepared for a breakout on their front. If the British managed to break through, fine, but the Allies weren't putting all their eggs in one basket.

The American force could launch a breakout also. American armor was much less plentiful in Normandy, with five tank divisions (930 medium and 385 light tanks) and 14 independent tank battalions (784 medium and 238 light tanks) plus 22 tank destroyer battalions (792 self-propelled anti-tank guns).

During July, three quarters of the German tanks were tied up with the British. The plan worked. On June 6th, the Germans had nearly 800 tanks in the area, by the end of July they had less than a hundred.

The American breakout itself used yet another special tactic; carpet bombing. The German unit defending the breakout area was the much depleted Panzer Lehr Division. In a seven by three kilometer area this division had 2,200 well fortified troops and 45 tanks. The Allies sent in 1,500 heavy (four engine) bombers to lay down a "carpet" of bombs. Then 380 medium (two engine) bombers went in, along with 550 fighter bombers, to hose the area down with a more precise application of firepower. Two American infantry divisions moved forward, and cleared out the few German survivors. Behind them came over 1,200 armored vehicles in four US armored divisions. Within a week the German line was broken and the road to Paris open. While the July fighting had cost the Allies 150,000 casualties, and the Germans 110,000, it was the special measures to deal with the German tanks that made the operation a success, and prevented the British from running out of infantry.


Australia and the Normandy Invasion

That American, British, Canadian, and French troops took part in the Normandy invasion is generally known. But that there were Australian personnel involved is less widely known - as their participation is never mentioned outside of the Antipodes. Nevertheless, there were nearly 20,0000 Aussies serving in Britain at the time of the landings, and many of them had a direct role in the invasion.

Royal Australian Navy . Perhaps 2,500 RAN personnel were involved. Several ships of the Royal Navy, including destroyers, minesweepers, and torpedo boats had Australian skippers, and there were other Australian officers and enlisted men serving in three British cruisers and three destroyers.

Australian Army. About 25 Australian Army officers served as observers with British units that took part in the landings. invasion.

Royal Australian Air Force. By mid-1944 there were the ten RAAF squadrons based in Britain, totaling about 14,000 men, including some 1,500 serving in the 282 RAF and Commonwealth squadrons that took part in the invasion.


D-Day Trivia

  • Field Marshal the Viscount Bernard Law Montgomery of Alamein, widely believed to have never owned a piece of civilian attire, wore "elevator" boots and shoes, with special inserts so that he could appear taller than he actually was.
  • The WW II U.S. infantry division possessed some 400,000 horsepower in its organic transport.
  • Of some 3,700,000 American troops committed to combat in northwestern Europe from D-Day to the end of the war, 43% landed across the beaches in Normandy or by way of the Mulberry harbors.
  • Told that he and his troops had landed about two thousand yards from where they were supposed to be on Utah Beach on D-Day, Brig. Gen. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., said "We will start the war from here," and proceeded to do so well that he was subsequently awarded the Medal of Honor.
  • George S. Patton was the only American ever granted the title "Master of the Sword" by the French Army Cavalry School at Saumur.
  • Among all the other equipment with which they were encumbered, the troops who landed on the Normandy Beaches on D-Day carried syringes with an anti-toxin for botulism, since the Germans were known to be experimenting with its potential uses as a biological weapon.
  • During operations over northwestern Europe the "Mighty Eighth" Air Force shot down 6,098 enemy fighter, about one for every 12,700 rounds of machine ammunition fired.
  • Fully 61 of the 164 men in the West Point Class of 1915 attained general's rank, including two generals of the army, Dwight D. Eisenhower, who organized and commanded the Allied forces on D-Day, and Omar Bradley, who commanded the American forces during the landings, plus two generals, seven lieutenant generals, and 50 lowly major generals and brigadier generals, earning them the collective nickname "The class that stars fell on."
  • Following four years of German occupation, young children in France during the Liberation sometimes had difficulties when they attempted to salute liberating Allied troops, often rendering the stiff-armed Nazi version before flipping up their fingers to give a "V for Victory" sign.
  • Hitler's Atlantic Wall, on which construction began in May of 1942, necessitated the movement of some 1.7 million cubic meters of earth and rock.
  • For the masterful devastation which he inflicted on the harbor installations at Cherbourg before its capture by American troops in June of 1944, German Adm. Walter Hennecke was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross by Adolph Hitler, a matter about which the American officer assigned to get the port back in service, Edward Ellsworth, who happened to be Jewish, is supposed to have remarked "it was the only time I found myself in complete agreement with the Fürher."
  • From D-Day to the surrender of Germany, Allied forces operating in Northwestern Europe were supplied with approximately 970,000 motor vehicles.
  • One out of every 35 men who landed on Omaha Beach on D-Day died there, a rate of loss significantly higher than that for the airborne forces, or the troops who landed on the other four beaches.
  • When John Eisenhower graduated from West Point, his father Dwight D. Eisenhower was unable to attend due to a previous engagement, the ceremonies being held on June 6, 1944.



D-Day Quotes

  • "In all of the far-flung operations of our own Armed Forces, the toughest job has been performed by the average, easy-going, hard-fighting young American who carries the weight of battle on his own young shoulders. It is to him that we and all future generations of Americans must pay grateful tribute." --Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • "Without the American army we would all be slaves." --Jacques H. Garain, native of Belgium, veteran of Patton's Third Army
  • "We shall attack and attack until we are exhausted, and then we shall attack again." --George S. Patton
  • "Why make peace, of course!," Reply of German Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt when a staff officer, reporting that the Allies seem to have secured a lodgment in Normandy, asked "What should we do?"


Normandy Invasion Medal of Honor Awards

* Indicates a posthumous award

Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near St. Laurent-sur-Mer, France, 6 June 1944. Entered service at: Albany, N.Y. Birth: Fulton, N.Y. G.O. No.: 78, 2 October 1944. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 6 June 1944, in the vicinity of St. Laurent-sur-Mer, France. On the morning of D-day Pvt. Barrett, landing in the face of extremely heavy enemy fire, was forced to wade ashore through neck-deep water. Disregarding the personal danger, he returned to the surf again and again to assist his floundering comrades and save them from drowning. Refusing to remain pinned down by the intense barrage of small-arms and mortar fire poured at the landing points, Pvt. Barrett, working with fierce determination, saved many lives by carrying casualties to an evacuation boat lying offshore. In addition to his assigned mission as guide, he carried dispatches the length of the fire-swept beach; he assisted the wounded; he calmed the shocked; he arose as a leader in the stress of the occasion. His coolness and his dauntless daring courage while constantly risking his life during a period of many hours had an inestimable effect on his comrades and is in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.

Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Co. E, 60th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Normandy, France, 14, 16, and 23 June 1944. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Birth: Medina, N.Y. G.O. No.: 58, 19 July 1945. Citation: Heroically led his platoon against the enemy in Normandy, France, on 14, 16, and 23 June 1944. Although painfully wounded on the 14th near Orglandes and again on the 16th while spearheading an attack to establish a bridgehead across the Douve River, he refused medical aid and remained with his platoon. A week later, near Flottemanville Hague, he led an assault on a tactically important and stubbornly defended hill studded with tanks, antitank guns, pillboxes, and machinegun emplacements, and protected by concentrated artillery and mortar fire. As the attack was launched, 2d Lt. Butts, at the head of his platoon, was critically wounded by German machinegun fire. Although weakened by his injuries, he rallied his men and directed 1 squad to make a flanking movement while he alone made a frontal assault to draw the hostile fire upon himself. Once more he was struck, but by grim determination and sheer courage continued to crawl ahead. When within 10 yards of his objective, he was killed by direct fire. By his superb courage, unflinching valor and inspiring actions, 2d Lt. Butts enabled his platoon to take a formidable strong point and contributed greatly to the success of his battalion's mission.

Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Co. C, 325th Glider Infantry, 82d Airborne Division. Place and date: Merderet River at la Fiere, France, 9 June 1944. Entered service at: Grand Island, N.Y. Birth: Grand Island, N.Y. G.O. No.: 22, 28 February 1946. Citation: He was a member of Company C, 325th Glider Infantry, on 9 June 1944 advancing with the forward platoon to secure a bridgehead across the Merderet River at La Fiere, France. At dawn the platoon had penetrated an outer line of machineguns and riflemen, but in so doing had become cut off from the rest of the company. Vastly superior forces began a decimation of the stricken unit and put in motion a flanking maneuver which would have completely exposed the American platoon in a shallow roadside ditch where it had taken cover. Detecting this danger, Pfc. DeGlopper volunteered to support his comrades by fire from his automatic rifle while they attempted a withdrawal through a break in a hedgerow 40 yards to the rear. Scorning a concentration of enemy automatic weapons and rifle fire, he walked from the ditch onto the road in full view of the Germans, and sprayed the hostile positions with assault fire. He was wounded, but he continued firing. Struck again, he started to fall; and yet his grim determination and valiant fighting spirit could not be broken. Kneeling in the roadway, weakened by his grievous wounds, he leveled his heavy weapon against the enemy and fired burst after burst until killed outright. He was successful in drawing the enemy action away from his fellow soldiers, who continued the fight from a more advantageous position and established the first bridgehead over the Merderet. In the area where he made his intrepid stand his comrades later found the ground strewn with dead Germans and many machineguns and automatic weapons which he had knocked out of action. Pfc. DeGlopper's gallant sacrifice and unflinching heroism while facing unsurmountable odds were in great measure responsible for a highly important tactical victory in the Normandy Campaign.

Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and dare: Near Goville, France, 9-10 June 1944. Entered service at: Manhattan, Kans. Birth: Junction City, Kans. G.O. No.: 91, 19 December 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 9-10 June 1944, near Goville, France. S/Sgt. Ehlers, always acting as the spearhead of the attack, repeatedly led his men against heavily defended enemy strong points exposing himself to deadly hostile fire whenever the situation required heroic and courageous leadership. Without waiting for an order, S/Sgt. Ehlers, far ahead of his men, led his squad against a strongly defended enemy strong point, personally killing 4 of an enemy patrol who attacked him en route. Then crawling forward under withering machinegun fire, he pounced upon the gun crew and put it out of action. Turning his attention to 2 mortars protected by the crossfire of 2 machineguns, S/Sgt. Ehlers led his men through this hail of bullets to kill or put to flight the enemy of the mortar section, killing 3 men himself. After mopping up the mortar positions, he again advanced on a machinegun, his progress effectively covered by his squad. When he was almost on top of the gun he leaped to his feet and, although greatly outnumbered, he knocked out the position single-handed. The next day, having advanced deep into enemy territory, the platoon of which S/Sgt. Ehlers was a member, finding itself in an untenable position as the enemy brought increased mortar, machinegun, and small arms fire to bear on it, was ordered to withdraw. S/Sgt. Ehlers, after his squad had covered the withdrawal of the remainder of the platoon, stood up and by continuous fire at the semicircle of enemy placements, diverted the bulk of the heavy hostile fire on himself, thus permitting the members of his own squad to withdraw. At this point, though wounded himself, he carried his wounded automatic rifleman to safety and then returned fearlessly over the shell-swept field to retrieve the automatic rifle which he was unable to carry previously. After having his wound treated, he refused to be evacuated, and returned to lead his squad. The intrepid leadership, indomitable courage, and fearless aggressiveness displayed by S/Sgt. Ehlers in the face of overwhelming enemy forces serve as an inspiration to others.

Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Carentan, France, 11 June 1944. Entered service at: San Antonio, Tex. Birth: Fort Sam Houston, Tex. G.O. No.: 79, 4 October 1944. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty on 11 June 1944, in France. Lt. Col. Cole was personally leading his battalion in forcing the last 4 bridges on the road to Carentan when his entire unit was suddenly pinned to the ground by intense and withering enemy rifle, machinegun, mortar, and artillery fire placed upon them from well-prepared and heavily fortified positions within 150 yards of the foremost elements. After the devastating and unceasing enemy fire had for over 1 hour prevented any move and inflicted numerous casualties, Lt. Col. Cole, observing this almost hopeless situation, courageously issued orders to assault the enemy positions with fixed bayonets. With utter disregard for his own safety and completely ignoring the enemy fire, he rose to his feet in front of his battalion and with drawn pistol shouted to his men to follow him in the assault. Catching up a fallen man's rifle and bayonet, he charged on and led the remnants of his battalion across the bullet-swept open ground and into the enemy position. His heroic and valiant action in so inspiring his men resulted in the complete establishment of our bridgehead across the Douve River. The cool fearlessness, personal bravery, and outstanding leadership displayed by Lt. Col. Cole reflect great credit upon himself and are worthy of the highest praise in the military service.

Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Vaubadon, France, 10 June 1944. Entered service at: Saugus, Mass. Birth: Saugus, Mass. G.O. No.: 1, 4 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, on 10 June 1944, near Vaubadon, France. As scouts were advancing across an open field, the enemy suddenly opened fire with several machineguns and hit 1 of the men. S/Sgt. DeFranzo courageously moved out in the open to the aid of the wounded scout and was himself wounded but brought the man to safety. Refusing aid, S/Sgt. DeFranzo reentered the open field and led the advance upon the enemy. There were always at least 2 machineguns bringing unrelenting fire upon him, but S/Sgt. DeFranzo kept going forward, firing into the enemy and 1 by 1 the enemy emplacements became silent. While advancing he was again wounded, but continued on until he was within 100 yards of the enemy position and even as he fell, he kept firing his rifle and waving his men forward. When his company came up behind him, S/Sgt. DeFranzo, despite his many severe wounds, suddenly raised himself and once more moved forward in the lead of his men until he was again hit by enemy fire. In a final gesture of indomitable courage, he threw several grenades at the enemy machinegun position and completely destroyed the gun. In this action, S/Sgt. DeFranzo lost his life, but by bearing the brunt of the enemy fire in leading the attack, he prevented a delay in the assault which would have been of considerable benefit to the foe, and he made possible his company's advance with a minimum of casualties. The extraordinary heroism and magnificent devotion to duty displayed by S/Sgt. DeFranzo was a great inspiration to all about him, and is in keeping with the highest traditions of the armed forces.

Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant (then Corporal), U.S. Army, Company E, 314th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division. Place and date: Fort du Roule, Cherbourg, France, 25 June 1944. Entered service at: Cambridge Springs, Pa. Birth: Venango Township, Pa. G.O. No.: 6, 24 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 25 June 1944, in the vicinity of Fort du Roule, Cherbourg, France, when Cpl. Kelly's unit was pinned down by heavy enemy machinegun fire emanating from a deeply entrenched strongpoint on the slope leading up to the fort, Cpl. Kelly volunteered to attempt to neutralize the strongpoint. Arming himself with a pole charge about 10 feet long and with 15 pounds of explosive affixed, he climbed the slope under a withering blast of machinegun fire and placed the charge at the strongpoint's base. The subsequent blast was ineffective, and again, alone and unhesitatingly, he braved the slope to repeat the operation. This second blast blew off the ends of the enemy guns. Cpl. Kelly then climbed the slope a third time to place a pole charge at the strongpoint's rear entrance. When this had been blown open he hurled hand grenades inside the position, forcing survivors of the enemy guncrews to come out and surrender The gallantry, tenacity of purpose, and utter disregard for personal safety displayed by Cpl. Kelly were an incentive to his comrades and worthy of emulation by all.

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Colleville-sur-Mer, France, 6 June 1944. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Born: 1 July 1917, Low Moor, Va. G.O. No.: 20, 29 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty on 6 June 1944, near Colleville-sur-Mer, France. 1st Lt. Monteith landed with the initial assault waves on the coast of France under heavy enemy fire. Without regard to his own personal safety he continually moved up and down the beach reorganizing men for further assault. He then led the assault over a narrow protective ledge and across the flat, exposed terrain to the comparative safety of a cliff. Retracing his steps across the field to the beach, he moved over to where 2 tanks were buttoned up and blind under violent enemy artillery and machinegun fire. Completely exposed to the intense fire, 1st Lt. Monteith led the tanks on foot through a minefield and into firing positions. Under his direction several enemy positions were destroyed. He then rejoined his company and under his leadership his men captured an advantageous position on the hill. Supervising the defense of his newly won position against repeated vicious counterattacks, he continued to ignore his own personal safety, repeatedly crossing the 200 or 300 yards of open terrain under heavy fire to strengthen links in his defensive chain. When the enemy succeeded in completely surrounding 1st Lt. Monteith and his unit and while leading the fight out of the situation, 1st Lt. Monteith was killed by enemy fire. The courage, gallantry, and intrepid leadership displayed by 1st Lt. Monteith is worthy of emulation.

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 314th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Fort du Roule, France, 25 June 1944. Entered service at: Fairmont, Ill. Born: 19 May 1917, Borton, Ill. G.O. No.: 49, 28 June 1945. Citation: On the morning of 25 June 1944, near Fort du Roule, guarding the approaches to Cherbourg, France, 1st Lt. Ogden's company was pinned down by fire from a German 88-mm. gun and 2 machineguns. Arming himself with an M-1 rifle, a grenade launcher, and a number of rifle and handgrenades, he left his company in position and advanced alone, under fire, up the slope toward the enemy emplacements. Struck on the head and knocked down by a glancing machinegun bullet, 1st Lt. Ogden, in spite of his painful wound and enemy fire from close range, continued up the hill. Reaching a vantage point, he silenced the 88mm. gun with a well-placed rifle grenade and then, with handgrenades, knocked out the 2 machineguns, again being painfully wounded. 1st Lt. Ogden's heroic leadership and indomitable courage in alone silencing these enemy weapons inspired his men to greater effort and cleared the way for the company to continue the advance and reach its objectives.

Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K 116th Infantry, 29th Infantry Division. Place and date: Grandcampe France, 8 June 1944. Entered service at: Charlottesville, Va. Born. 10 April 1915, Esmont, Va. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1945. Citation: On 8 June 1944, the 3d Battalion of the 116th Infantry was advancing on the strongly held German defenses at Grandcampe, France, when the leading elements were suddenly halted by decimating machinegun fire from a firmly entrenched enemy force on the high ground overlooking the town. After numerous attempts to neutralize the enemy position by supporting artillery and tank fire had proved ineffective, T/Sgt. Peregory, on his own initiative, advanced up the hill under withering fire, and worked his way to the crest where he discovered an entrenchment leading to the main enemy fortifications 200 yards away. Without hesitating, he leaped into the trench and moved toward the emplacement. Encountering a squad of enemy riflemen, he fearlessly attacked them with handgrenades and bayonet, killed 8 and forced 3 to surrender. Continuing along the trench, he single-handedly forced the surrender of 32 more riflemen, captured the machine gunners, and opened the way for the leading elements of the battalion to advance and secure its objective. The extraordinary gallantry and aggressiveness displayed by T/Sgt. Peregory are exemplary of the highest tradition of the armed forces.

Rank and organization: Technician Fifth Grade, U.S. Army, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Colleville-sur-Mer, France, 6 June 1944. Entered .service at: Burgettstown, Pa. Birth: McKees Rocks, Pa. G.O. No.: 1, 4 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty on 6 June 1944, near Colleville-sur-Mer, France. On D-day, Technician 5th Grade Pinder landed on the coast 100 yards off shore under devastating enemy machinegun and artillery fire which caused severe casualties among the boatload. Carrying a vitally important radio, he struggled towards shore in waist-deep water. Only a few yards from his craft he was hit by enemy fire and was gravely wounded. Technician 5th Grade Pinder never stopped. He made shore and delivered the radio. Refusing to take cover afforded, or to accept medical attention for his wounds, Technician 5th Grade Pinder, though terribly weakened by loss of blood and in fierce pain, on 3 occasions went into the fire-swept surf to salvage communication equipment. He recovered many vital parts and equipment, including another workable radio. On the 3rd trip he was again hit, suffering machinegun bullet wounds in the legs. Still this valiant soldier would not stop for rest or medical attention. Remaining exposed to heavy enemy fire, growing steadily weaker, he aided in establishing the vital radio communication on the beach. While so engaged this dauntless soldier was hit for the third time and killed. The indomitable courage and personal bravery of Technician 5th Grade Pinder was a magnificent inspiration to the men with whom he served.

Rank and organization: brigadier general, U.S. Army. Place and date: Normandy invasion, 6 June 1944. Entered service at: Oyster Bay, N.Y. Birth: Oyster Bay, N.Y. G.O. No.: 77, 28 September 1944. Citation: for gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 6 June 1944, in France. After 2 verbal requests to accompany the leading assault elements in the Normandy invasion had been denied, Brig. Gen. Roosevelt's written request for this mission was approved and he landed with the first wave of the forces assaulting the enemy-held beaches. He repeatedly led groups from the beach, over the seawall and established them inland. His valor, courage, and presence in the very front of the attack and his complete unconcern at being under heavy fire inspired the troops to heights of enthusiasm and self-sacrifice. Although the enemy had the beach under constant direct fire, Brig. Gen. Roosevelt moved from one locality to another, rallying men around him, directed and personally led them against the enemy. Under his seasoned, precise, calm, and unfaltering leadership, assault troops reduced beach strong points and rapidly moved inland with minimum casualties. He thus contributed substantially to the successful establishment of the beachhead in France .
Note: Award made posthumously, as the general died of a heart attack several days later.

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