By contrast, Korolev's counterpart in America, Wernher von Braun, was feted in his lifetime - appearing in Disney films about spaceflight despite a murky past as designer of Adolf Hitler's terror weapon, the V-2.
For Korolev, who had launched the first satellite and the first man into space, recognition was to come only after his death.
As an engineering graduate in Moscow during the 1930s, he co-founded an amateur rocket society with a colleague, Fridrikh Tsander, who, like Korolev, was inspired by ideas of space travel.
Their experiments with liquid fuelled rockets soon caught the eye of the military.
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