March Military History

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1 1449 Lorenzo de'Medici, "Il Magnifico", unofficial lord of Florence, patron of the arts, d. 1492
  1456 King Wladyslaw Jagiello of Bohemia (1471-1516) & Hungary (1490-1516)
  1528 Duke Albrecht V "the Generous" von Wittelsbach of Bavaria (1550-1579)
  1769 François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, French soldier, general of division, m/w 1796
  1794 William Worth, US soldier and Brig. Gen, 1812, Mexico, d. 1849 --
  1808 William Radford, Rear Adm, U.S., d. 1890
  1811 Robert Christie Buchanan, Brig. Gen. U.S., d. 1878
  1822 Albin Francisco Schoepf, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1886
  1822 Charles Champion Gilbert, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1903
  1828 James Fleming Fagan, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1893
  1831 Hiram Bronson Granbury, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1864
  1852 Théophile Delcassé, statesman, architect of the "Entente Cordiale", d. 1923
  1899 Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Nazi thug-in-uniform, d. in prison 1972
  1904 Glenn Miller, military bandmaster, MIA, 1944
  1922 Yitzak Rabin, Israeli general, PM (1974-1977 & 1992-1995), 1994 Peace Nobelist, assassinated, 1995
  1924 Donald "Deke" Slayton, USAF, astronaut (Apollo-Soyuz), d. 1993
2 1316 King Robert II "the Steward" of Scots (1371-90)
  1383 Count Amadeus VI of Savoy (1343-1383)
  1409 Duke John II of Alençon, Count of Perche (1415-1476), comrade to Joan of Arc
  1459 Adrian Dedel - Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523)
  1481 Franz von Sickingen, knight, adventurer, intriguer, kia 1523
  1770 Louis Gabriel Suchet, Marshal of France, d. 1826
  1793 Samuel P. Houston, President of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44)
  1810 Giacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci - Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
  1824 Henry Beebee Carrington, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1912
  1828 Jefferson Columbus Davis, Brig Gen, U.S., unindicted murderer of Maj.Gen. William "Bull" Nelson, d. 1879
  1829 Carl Schurz, "Red '48-er", Maj Gen, U.S., Senator, d. 1906 at 77
  1876 Eugenio Pacelli - Pope Pius XII, (1939-58) (see Events)
  1904 "Dr. Seuss" - Theodor Seuss Geisel, who fought Nazis with a pen, and amused generations of children, d. 1891
  1931 Mikhail Gorbachev, last General Secretary of the CPUSSR (1985-1991) & last President of the USSR (1988-1991), 1990 Peace Nobelist.
3 1455 King John II "the Perfect Prince" of Portugal (1477, 1481-1495)
  1847 Alexander Graham Bell, in Scotland, inventor of the practical telephone, d. 1922
  1895 Matthew Ridgeway, who commanded the 82nd A/B at Normandy, and rose to C/S of the US Army, d. 1993
  1899 Alfred Gruenther, US, NATO commanding general (1953-56), d 1983
  1901 Claude Stanley Choules, who would become the last combat veteran of WW I, the last veteran of the Grand Fleet, & the last veteran to fight in both World Wars, d. 2011
  1942 Vladimir V Kovalyonok, cosmonaut (Soyuz 25, 29, T-4)
4 1394 Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal, d. 1460
  1747 Kasimir Pulaski, Polish and American patriot, kia Savannah, 1779 -- Jeszcze Polska Nie Zginela!
  1798 John Joseph Abercrombie, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1877
  1826 John Buford, Maj Gen, U.S., who opened the ball at Gettysburg, d. 1863
  1828 Elisha Franklin "Bull" Paxton, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia, Chancellorsville, 1863
  1864 David W. Taylor, sailor, naval architect, inventor of the model towing basin, d. 1940
  1903 Luis Carrero Blanco, Spanish admiral and Premier (1967-1973), assassinated 1973
5 1133 King Henry II of England, (1154-1189), not to mention Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, etc., etc., husband to Eleanor of Aquitaine, father to Richard Lionheart, d. 1189
  1324 King David II Scots (1331-71)
  1326 King Ladislas I "the Great" of Hungary (1342-82) & Poland (1370-82)
  1512 Gerardus Mercator - Gheert Cremer, mapmaker, d. 1594
  1574 William Oughtred, inventor of the slide rule, d. 1660
  1585 Elector Johan Georg I of Saxony (1611-56)
  1825 John Dunovant, Brig Gen, C.S.A., KIA 1864
  1853 Howard Pyle, illustrator ("The Pirates"), d. 1911
  1898 Chou En-lai/Zhou Enlai, Premier of the People's Republic of China (1949-1976), d. 1976
  1898 Soong May-ling, Madam Chiang Kai-Shek, d. 2003
  1924 Christopher Hibbert, soldier with the Military Cross, historian - "Il Duce," "Garibaldi & His Enemies," d. 2008
  1942 The US Navy Seabees
  1953 Valery Grigoriyevich Korzun, Russian cosmonaut
6 1340 John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, d. 1399
  1405 King Juan II of Castille (1406-1454)
  1475 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti, military engineer, d. 1564
  1483 Francesco Guicciardini, diplomat, historian ("History of Florence & the Affairs of Italy"), d. 1540
  1619 Cyrano de Bergerac, soldier, poet, d. 1655
  1779 Antoine-Henri Jomini, soldier, military thinker ("The Art of War"), who probably did more harm than good, d. 1869
  1786 Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Napier, d. 1860
  1820 Horatio Gouverneur Wright, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1899
  1831 Philip "Little Phil" Sheridan, Gen, U.S., d. 1888
  1835 Charles Ewing, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1883
  1844 Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov, naval officer, composer (NS = 3/18), d. 1908 --
  1919 Hercule-Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, French dramatist and duelist, d. 1655
  1923 Ed McMahon, Marine aviator, California Air Guardsman, TV personality, d. 2008
7 189 P. Septimius Geta, 22, Roman co-Emperor, Feb 4 to Dec 19, 211, when he was murdered by his brother Caracalla
  1693 Carlo della Torre Rezzonico - Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769)
  1707 Stephen Hopkins, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1785
  1785 Alessandro Manzoni, Risorgimento poet & novelist ("The Betrothed"), d. 1873
  1827 Henry DeLamar Clayton, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1889
  1831 John Bratton, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1898
  1832 Orlando Metcalfe Poe, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1895
  1904 Reinhard Heydrich, Nazi, assassinated 1942
  1940 Viktor Petrovich Savinykh, cosmonaut (Soyuz T-4)
8 1286 Duke John/Yann III "the Good" Brittany (1312-1341)
  1702 Anne Bonny, noted lady pirate, d. >1720, traditionally as late as 1782
  1726 Richard Howe, later admiral of the fleet, d. 1799 - senior British naval commander early in the American Revolution --
  1748 Prince Wilhelm V of Orange-Nassau, Stadtholder of the United Netherlands, (1751-1806; from 1795 in exile)
  1799 Simon Cameron, crooked SecWar (1861-1862), d. 1889
  1836 Matthew Calbraith Butler, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1909
  1841 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., one of those "touched by fire", Supreme Court Justice, d. 1935
  1891 Sam Jaffe, actor ("Gunga Din"), d. 1984
  1952 Aleksandr A Volkov, Russian cosmonaut
9 1213 Duke Hugh IV of Burgundy (1218-1271), crusader
  1454 Amerigo Vespucci, explorer, d. 1512
  1629 Tsar Alexis I of Russia (1645-1676) [OS]
  1753 Jean Baptiste Kléber, soldier of fortune, Volunteer of '91, assassinated, Cairo, 1800
  1839 Felix Huston Robertson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., the only Texas-born general in the Civil War. d. 1928
  1873 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police
  1881 Enver Pasha, Young Turk, kia 1922
  1890 Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, henchman to Stalin, the oldest "Old Bolshevik", d 1986
  1900 Duke Aimone of Spoleto, King Tomislav II of Croatia (1941-43), d. 1948
  1922 Hiroo Onoda, later a Japanese Army officer, who did not surrender until 1974, on his 52nd birthday, d. 2014
  1924 Yuri Gagarin, cosmonaut, first man in space, d. 1968
  1928 Gerald Vincent Bull, amoral artillery designer, assassinated 1990 while working for Saddam Hussein
  1946 German Semyonovich Arzamazov, Russian cosmonaut
  1959 Barbie
  1970 Melissa Rathburn-Nealy, American soldier, POW, Iraq, 1991
10 1415 Grand Prince Vasili II "the Blind" of Moscow (1425-1462)
  1452 King Ferdinand II "the Catholic" of Aragon and Sicily, husband to Isabel of Castile, d. 1516
  1503 Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1558-64)
  1538 Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk; executed by Queen Elizabeth, 1572
  1776 Queen Louise of Prussia (1797-1810), "The only man in Prussia" - Napoleon
  1824 Thomas James Churchill, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1905
  1830 Robert Lowry, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1910
  1831 The French Foreign Legion --
  1832 William Henry Penrose, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1903
  1845 Tsar Alexander III (1881-94)
  1964 Prince Edward Antony Richard Louis Windsor, the Earl of Wessex, sometime Royal Marine
  1966 Pavel Petrovich Mukhortov, Russian cosmonaut
11 1544 Torquato Tasso, greatest Italian poet, beloved even by bandits, d. 1595 --
  1731 Robert Treat Paine, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1814
  1811 Marsena Rudolph Patrick, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1888
  1818 John Wilkins Whitfield, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1879
  1822 Allison Nelson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862
  1832 William Ruffin Cox, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1919
  1840 Edmund Kirby, Jr, Brig Gen, U.S., d/w 1863
  1890 Vannevar Bush, chairman of the National Defense Research Committee (1940-1945), d. 1974
  1892 Raoul Walsh, director ("Battle Cry", "Captain Horatio Hornblower"), d. 1980
  1892 Wladyslaw Anders, Polish General, Conqueror of Cassino, d. 1970
  1899 King Frederick IX of Denmark (1947-72)
  1907 Helmuth von Moltke, politician, anti-Hitler conspirator, k. 1945
12 1336 Duke Edward of Gelre (1361-71)
  1479 Giuliano de'Medici, Duke of Nemours (1515-1516), d. 1516
  1816 David Stuart, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1868
  1818 John Lorimer Worden, who would command the 'Monitor', d. 1897
  1821 Prince-Regent Luitpold of Bavaria (1886-1912), d. 1912
  1823 William Flank Perry, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1901
  1827 John Robert Jones, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1901
  1827 William Richard Terry, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1897
  1830 William Felix Brantley, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1870
  1863 Gabriele D'Annunzio, poet & condottiero, d. 1938
  1864 Charles Young, USMA 1889, the first black colonel in the Regular Army, d. 1922
  1877 Wilhelm Frick, Nazi "Protector" of Bohemia and Moravia, executed, 1946
  1881 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Ottoman general, father of modern Turkey, d. 1938 --
  1911 President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz of Mexico (1964-1970), d. 1979
  1923 Walter "Wally" Schirra, Jr, USN, astronaut, d. 2007
13 1615 Antonio Pignatelli - Pope Innocent XII (1691-1700)
  1696 Louis, duc de Richelieu, Marshal of France, d. 1788 --
  1763 Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, Marshal of France, suicide 1815
  1764 Charles, 2nd Earl Grey, Prime Minister (1830-34), d. 1845
  1818 Albion Parris Howe, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1820 Louis Hebert, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1901
  1913 William J Casey, CIA director (1981-87), d. 1987
  1914 Edward H. "Butch" O'Hare, naval ace, MoH, mia 1943.
  1942 The U.S. Army K9 Corps
14 1804 Johann Strauss "the Elder", composer ("The Radetzky March"), d. 1894
  1808 Catharinus Putnam Buckingham, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1888
  1816 Montgomery Dent Corse, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1895
  1820 King Victor Emanuel II of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78). See 1844
  1823 Roswell Sabine Ripley, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1887
  1833 John Sappington Marmaduke, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1887
  1844 Umberto I, King of Italy (1878-1900), on his father's brithday. Assassinated, 1900, after four or five earlier unsuccessful attempts
  1879 Albert Einstein, greatest scientist of the twentieth century, d. 1955
  1903 Mustafa Barzani, Kurdish nationalist, d. 1979
  1928 Frank Borman, astronaut
  1933 Michael Caine, actor ("Zulu")
  1934 Eugene Cernan, USN, astronaut
  1939 William B Lenoir, astronaut, d. 2010
  1958 Prince Albert II of Monaco (2005-)
15 1493 Anne Pierre Adrien, Duke of Montmorency, Marshal of France, d. 1567
  1638 Shunzhi, Emperor of China (1643-1661)
  1767 Andrew Jackson, soldier and president (1828-37), d. 1845 --
  1811 Robert Allen, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1886
  1831 Edward Aylesworth Perry, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1889
  1905 Count Berthold von Stauffenberg, soldier, unsuccessful assassin, executed, 1944
  1905 Joe Ross, actor ("Sgt Ritzik" - the Phil Silvers Show), d. 1982
  1924 Richard Topus, in Brooklyn, senior US Army pigeonmaster, 1942-1945, d. 2008
  1932 Alan Lavern Bean, USN, astronaut (Apollo 12, Skylab 3)
  1947 Larisa Grigoriyevna Pozharskaya, Russian cosmonaut
16 1739 George Clymer, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1813
  1751 James Madison, militiaman, President (1809-1817), d. 1836
  1802 George Archibald McCall, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1868
  1812 Henry Dwight Terry, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1869
  1822 John Pope, Maj Gen, U.S., who did very badly at Second Bull Run, d. 1892
  1832 Charles Camp Doolittle, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1903
  1856 Prince Imperial Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, "Napoleon IV", kia Zululand, 1879 --
  1878 Clemens August Graf von Galen, Bishop & Cardinal of Munster (1933-1946), anti-Nazi, d. 1946
  1878 Reza Pahlawi, Shah of Persia/Iran (1925-1941), d. 1944
  1911 Josef Mengele, Nazi war criminal, d. 1979
  1927 Vladimir M Komarov, Russia cosmonaut
  1932 Walter M Cunningham, USMC, astronaut (Apollo 7)
17 1473 King James IV of Scotland (1488-1513)
  1804 James Bridger, mountain man, d. 1881
  1828 Patrick Cleburne, Maj. Gen., C.S.A., kia, 1864
  1832 Walter Quintin Gresham, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1895
  1930 James B Irwin, USAF, astronaut (Apollo 15)
  1936 Thomas K Mattingly II, USN, astronaut
18 1286 Alexander III, King of Scotland (1281-1286)
  1609 King Frederick III of Denmark & Norway (1648-70)
  1765 Baron David Henri de Chassé, Dutch general, ally, then enemy of Napoleon, d. 1849 --
  1782 John Caldwell Calhoun, greatest Secretary of War, architect of secession, d. 1850
  1829 William Robertson Boggs, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1911
  1837 Grover Cleveland, draft dodger, president (1885-89, 93-97) --
  1838 Sir Randal Cremer, 1903 Nobel Peace Prize, d. 1908
  1839 Francis Fessenden, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1906
  1848 Nathaniel Herreshoff, yacht & torpedo boat designer, d. 1938
  1858 Rudolph Diesel, who made a little engine, d. 1913
  1869 Neville Chamberlain, British Prime Minister (1937-40), d. 1940, appeaser, or wily politician
  1892 Robert Tristram Coffin, American war poet and correspondent, Poetry Pulitzer in 1936, d. 1955
  1893 Wilfred Owen, soldier-poet ("Anthem for a Doomed Youth"), kia 1918
  1920 Karol Wojtyla - Pope John Paul II (1978-2005)
19 1603 King John IV "the Fortunate" of Portugal (1640-56)
  1734 Thomas McKean, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1817
  1813 David Livingstone, who got "lost" in Africa, d. 1873
  1817 Lewis Henry Little, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862
  1819 David Henry Williams, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1891
  1821 Francis Barretto Spinola, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1884
  1821 Sir Richard Francis Burton, soldier, adventurer, litterateur, d. 1890
  1827 Alexander Shaler, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1911
  1837 Robert Daniel Johnston, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1919
  1848 Wyatt Earp, lawman, gambler, d. 1929
  1860 William Jennings Bryan, sometime colonel, U.S.V., perennial presidential candidate, d. 1925
  1883 Gen. Joseph "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, US/Chinese commander, CBI, d. 1946
  1889 King Manoel II of Portugal (1908-10)
  1905 Albert Speer, Nazi armaments minister & con artist, d. 1981
  1906 Adolf Eichman, Nazi mass murderer, executed 1962
  1925 Brent Scowcroft, Air Force general, NSA advisor
20 -43 Pubius Ovidius Naso -- Ovid, racy poet, d. in exile AD 17
  41 Marcus Didius Falco, soldier, detective, fictionally, d. c. 100
  1497 Atahualpa, the last Inca Emperor (1532-July 26, 1533)
  1725 Sultan Abdül-Hamid I of Turkey (1774-89)
  1804 Neal Dow, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1811 "L'Aiglon" - Napoléon II François Charles Joseph Bonaparte, King of Rome, Duke of Reichstadt, d. 1832
  1812 George Bibb Crittenden, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1880
  1820 Prince Alexander Ian Cuza of Moldavia-Wallachia (Romania) (1859-1866), d. 1873
  1823 John Echols, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896
  1825 William Nelson Rector Beall, Brig Gen, C.S.A.
  1830 Eugene Asa Carr, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1910
  1856 James Webb Cook Hayes, presidential son, businessman, soldier with a Medal of Honor, d. 1934 --
  1870 Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, brilliant German commander in East Africa, 1914-1918, d. 1964
  1882 Rene Coty, President of France (1953-58), d. 1962
  1917 Dame Vera Lynn, singer ("The White Cliffs of Dover") --
  1918 Donald F. Featherstone, British author of militaryhistorian and pioneer wargamer, d. 2013
21 1076 Duke Robert I Burgundy (1072-1076)
  1274 King Robert I the Bruce of Scotland (1306-1329).
  1306 Duke Robert II of Burgundy (1272-1306)
  1521 Duke Maurice of Saxony (1547-53)
  1609 Cardinal Jan II Kazimierz, King of Poland (1648-68)
  1713 Francis Lewis, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1803
  1806 Benito Juarez, President of Mexico (1858-72)
  1839 Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky, army officer, composer ("Pictures at an Exhibition") d. 1881
22 1459 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg (1493-1519)
  1797 Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany (1871-88)
  1813 Gabriel Rene Paul, Brig Gen, U.S., blinded at Gettysburg, d. 1886
  1817 Braxton Bragg, Gen, C.S.A., d. 1876
  1819 William Wirt Adams, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1888
  1822 Seth Williams, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1866
  1824 William Henry Chase Whiting, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1865
  1834 Francis Asbury Shoup, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896
  1837 Virginia Oldoini, later the Countess de Castiglione, seducer of emperors & kings, d. 1899
  1869 Emilio Aguinaldo, Philippine nationalist, d. 1964.
  1882 John W. Wilcox, Jr., later Rear Adm, USN, lost at sea, 1942
  1907 James "Slim Jim" Gavin, sometime commander, 82nd Airborne Division, d. 1990
  1910 Nicholas Monsarrat, naval officer, novelist ("The Cruel Sea"), d. 1979 --
  1913 Karl Malden (Mladen George Sekulovich), actor ("Patton"), d. 2009
  1918 Cheddi Jagan, Guyanese premier (1953, 1957-64), d. 1997
  1924 Paul Fussell, who would earn a Bronze Star and two Purple Hearts in the ETO, historian ("The Great War in Modern Memory"), d. 2012
  1931 William Shatner, actor ("Captain Kirk"); see 2233
  1972 Prince Pieter Christian of the Netherlands
  2228 Capt. James Tiberius Kirk of the 'Enterprise'., RIverside , Iowa
23 1514 Lorenzino de' Medici, author, later murderer of his kinsman Duke Alessandro "il Moro" de' Medici of Florence in 1537, murdered in turn by his kinsman Duke Cosimo I de' Medici of Florence in 1548
  1754 Baron Jurij Vega, Hapsburg artilleryman, d. 1802
  1818 Don Carlos Buell, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1898
  1825 Edward Lloyd Thomas, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1898
  1883 Faisal ibn Hussein ibn Ali, King of Syria (1920), King of Iraq (1921-1933), friend to Lawrence
  1887 Prince Felix Yussupov, who would kill Rasputin, d. 1967
  1912 Werner von Braun, Nazi rocket scientist who got over, d. 1977
24 1188 Ferrand of Portugal, Count Consort of Flanders (1212-1233, from 1214-1226 as a P/W in France)
  1441 Elector Ernst I of Saxony (1464-86)
  1607 Michiel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral, kia 1676
  1693 John Harrison, inventor of the "Longitude Clock" (the chronometer), dies this date 1776
  1821 George Hector Tyndale, Brig Gen, U.S., d.1890
  1873 Georgi Rosenblum, in Odessa, better known as Sidney Reilly, "Ace of Spies," executed by Stalin, 1925
  1884 Eugène Gabriel Gervais Laurent Tisserant, soldier, scholar, diplomat, cardinal, d. 1972 --
  1898 Dorothy Stratton, first head of the SPARS, d. 2006
25 1133 King Henry II of England (1154-89)
  1252 Conradin, king-aspirant of Naples & Sicily (1262-1266), beheaded at Naples in 1268
  1347 St. Catherine of Siena, fierce lady, Doctor of the Church, Patron of Italy, d. 1380
  1413 Pietro Maria II de'Rossi "il Magnifico" of San Secondo, d. 1482
  1767 Joachim Murat, Marshal of France, King of Naples (1808-15), shot 1815 --
  1782 Caroline Bonaparte, Napoleon's sister, Mrs. Murat, d. 1839
  1818 Isaac Ingalls Stevens, Maj Gen, U.S, KIA, Chantilly, 1862
  1820 Count Frédéric-François-Xavier Ghislain de Mérode, Belgian Minister of Defense, d.1874
  1823 William Thompson Martin, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1910
  1867 Arturo Toscanini, conductor, anti-fascist, d. 1957
  2184 Pavel Andreivich Chekov, Star Fleet officer
26 1479 Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow (1505-33)
  1773 Nathaniel Bowditch, oceanographer ("American Practical Navigator"), d 1838
  1813 Thomas West Sherman, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1879
  1817 Herman Haupt, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1905
  1868 King Fuad I of Egypt (1922-36)
  1875 Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea (1948-1960), d 1965
  1914 William Westmoreland, General, d. 2005
  1919 Sterling Hayden, OSS agent, actor ("Dr Strangelove", "The Godfather"), d 1986
  1962 Yuri Pavlovich Gidzenko, Russian cosmonaut
27 1746 Carlo Maria Buonaparte, who had a famous son, d. 1785
  1785 Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, who didn't become King Louis XVII of France, d. 1795.
  1823 Samuel Kosciusko Zook, Brig Gen, U.S., d/w, Gettysburg, 1863
  1893 Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic, Chetnik and Nazi collaborator, executed 1946
  2007 Charlotte Winters, last surviving WW I "Yeomanette", at 109
28 1 Jesus [Alt Trad]
  1468 Duke Charles I of Savoy (1482-1489)
  1515 St. Teresa of Avila, d. 1562
  1660 Duke and Elector Georg of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) (1698-1772), King George I of Great Britain (1714-1727)
  1727 Elector Maximilian III Joseph of Bavaria (1745-77)
  1818 Wade Hampton, Lt Gen, C.S.A., d. 1902
  1840 Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer/Mehmet Emin Pasha, German adventurer, d. 1892
  1862 Aristide Briand, Nobel Peace Prize in 1926 for "Outlawing" war, d. 1932
  1872 Jose Sanjurjo y Sacanell, Spanish general and conspirator, d. 1936
  1912 Claretta Petacci, mistress to Benito Mussolini, k. 1945
  1928 Zbigniew Brzezinski, national security advisor (1977-1981)
29 603 K'inich Janaab' Pacal, Lord of Palenque (615-683)
  1769 Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult, soldier, looter, and political chameleon, Duke of Dalmatia, Marshal-General of France, d. 1851 --
  1790 John Tyler, militiaman, president (1850-1853), d. 1862 --
  1816 James Gallant Spears, Brig Gen, U.S., court martialed and dismissed for insubordination, 1864, d. 1869
  1821 Joshua Thomas Owen, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1887
  1829 Robert Emmett Rodes, Maj Gen, C.S.A., kia 1864
  1899 Lavrenty Beria, Chekist, Stalin's henchman, executed, 1953
  1947 Aleksandr Stepenovich Viktorenko, Russian cosmonaut
30 1135 Moses Maimonides [Moses ben Maimon], philospher, physician, d. 1204
  1432 Ottoman Sultan Mehemet II "the Conqueror" (1444-1446, 1451-81) --
  1746 Francesco Jose de Goya, artist ("The Horrors of War"), d. 1828
  1785 Field-Marshal Henry Viscount Hardinge, of the Peninsular War and Sutlej Campaign, d. 1856
  1790 Joseph Smith, naval officer, U.S., d. 1877
  1823 Joseph Farmer Knipe, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1901
  1824 Innis Newton Palmer, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1900
  1825 Samuel Bell Maxey, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1895
  1880 Walter Short, US Army commander at Pearl Harbor, who didn't understand the words "war warning", d. 1949 --
  1957 Yelena Vladimirovna Kondakova, Russian cosmonaut
31 250 Flavius Constantius I, Roman Emperor (305-306), father of Constantine --
  1187 Prince Arthur, Duke of Brittany, nephew to Richard Lionheart, murdered by his Uncle John, 1203
  1425 Bianca Maria Visconti, only child of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan, wife to the condottiero Francesco Sforza, d. 1468
  1499 Giovanni Angelo Medici - Pope Pius IV (1559-1565).
  1518 King Henri II of France (1547-1559)
  1596 René Descartes, who thought and therefore was, until 1650, when he wasn't
  1675 Propsero Lorenso Lambertini - Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)
  1723 King Frederik V of Denmark & Norway (1746-66)
  1732 Franz Joseph Haydn, composer, d. 1809 --
  1817 Richard D. Guyon, Hungarian patriot, "Red '48er", Turkish pasha, d. 1856
  1840 John Herbert Kelly, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d/w 1864
  1921 The Royal Australian Air Force
  1948 Albert Gore Jr, sometime soldier, vice-president (1993-2001)

1 492 Pope St Felix III (483-492).
  589 Saint David, c. 88, Patron of Wales (b. 500)
  965 Anti-Pope Leo VIII (963-65)
  986 King Lothair of France (954-986), c. 45
  1131 King Stefan II of Hungary (1116-31)
  1233 Count Thomas I of Savoy (1189-1233), c. 55
  1383 Count Amadeus VI "Il Conte Verde" of Savoy, at 49
  1510 Francisco d'Almeida, Portuguese Viceroy of India, kia at c. 59
  1792 HRE Leopold II, King of Hungary (1790-1792), Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany (1765-1790), 44
  1844 Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno, Marshal of France, 76
  1870 Francisco Solano Lopez, Marshal-President of Paraguay (1862-70), kia at 43
  1920 Joseph Trumpeldor, c. 40, killed defending Tel Mai Kibuttz
  1938 Gabrielle d'Annunzio, poet and condottiero, at 74
  1979 Mustafa Barzani, 75, Kurdish nationalist leader
  1985 Eugene List, concert pianist, GI, who played for the "Big Three" at Potsdam and for several presidents, b. 1918
2 254 Pope St Lucius (253-254)
  1121 Count Floris II de Vette of Holland (1091-1121), c. 35
  1127 Count Charles I "the Good" of Flanders (1119-1127), c. 44, assassinated, later beatified
  1333 Wladyslaw I "the Elbow-high" Grand Duke (1306-1320) and King (1320-1333) of Poland, at c. 72
  1830 HRE Francis II (1792-1806), Emperor Francis I of Austria (1804-1830), history's only "Double Emperor" (1804-1806), 67, Napoleon's father-in-law
  1855 Tsar Nicholai I of Russia (1825-55), 58
  1895 Khedive Ismail Pasha of Egypt (1863-79), at 64
  1921 Nicholai, Prince (1860-1910) and King of Montenegro (1910-1918), 79, poet, exile, father-in-law to Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
  1939 Howard Carter, 64, who found Tut's tomb in 1922. Allegedly dead by an ancient curse, albeit a slow acting one
  1987 Randolph Scott, 89, AEF mortarman, actor ("Gung Ho!")
3 262 St. Marinus, Christian soldier, martyred for refusing to sacrifice to the Emperor
  268 Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, Emperor (253-268), assassinated at Milan at c. 50
  493 Odoacer, c. 62, self-proclaimed King of Italy (476-493), executed by Theoderic of the Ostrogoths [Alt]
  1111 Prince Bohemund I of Taranto and of Antioch, c. 53
  1239 Grand Prince Vladimir III Rurikovich of Kiev (1223-1235), c. 52, deposed
  1539 Sir Nicholas Carew, c. 45, courtier and diplomat of Henry VIII, beheaded
  1554 Duke and Elector John Frederick of Saxony (1532-1554), c. 50, head of the Schmalkaldic League
  1707 Shah Aurangzeb/Alamgir I, 88 or 89, Mogul Emperor of India since 1659
  1728 Camille, Duc de Tallard, c. 76, Marshal of France
  1937 Amelia Earhart (39) & Fred Noonan (45), lost over the Pacific
4 561 Pope Pelagius I (556-561)
  1172 King Stephan III of Hungary (1162-72), c. 25
  1193 Kurdish Sultan Saladin Yusuf ibn Ayyub of Egypt & Syria, at Damascus, c. 55 --
  1238 Grand Prince Yuri/George II of Vladimir-Suzdal (1212-1216, 1218-1238), kia, Sith River
  1303 St. Daniel Aleksandrovich, 42, Grand Prince of Muscovy (1263-1303)
  1484 St Casimir Jagiellon, 25, Prince of Poland
  1794 Count Henri de Larochejacquelin, counterrevolutionary, executed at 21
  1858 Commo Matthew C. Perry, 63, who opened Japan
  1883 Alexander Hamilton Stephens, 71, sometime Vice-President of the Confederate States of America
  1906 John McAllister Schofield, 74, soldier, Secretary of War
  1916 Franz Marc (1880-1916), German artist, kia
  2011 Mikhail Simonov, 81, Russian airplane designer -- Su-24 bomber, Su-25, Su-27, etc.
5 1223 King Afonso II of Portugal (1212-1223), c. 37
  1291 Sa'ad al-Dawla, c. 50, Jewish grand vizier of Persia (1289-1291), assassinated
  1588 Henry I, Prince of Condé, 26, Huguenot leader,
  1605 Pope Clement VIII - Ippolito Aldobrandini (1592-1605), at 69
  1622 Duke Ranuccio I Farnese of Parma, Piancenza, and Castro (1592-1622), 52, famed for staging mass executions
  1625 King James VI of Scots (1567-1625) & I of England (1603-25), 58, who authorized the translation of the Bible
  1644 Ferrante Pallavicino, 29, Marquis of Scipione, Benedictine Canon, beheaded at Avignon, for satirizing the Barberini family.
  1649 Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham (40), James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton (43), & Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland (c. 60), beheaded by the Puritans, the Old Palace Yard, London
  1770 Crispus Attucks (c. 47), James Caldwell, Samuel Gray, Samuel Maverick, and Patrick Carr, shot by the Redcoats
  1778 Thomas Arne, composer ("Rule Britannia"), at 67
  1895 Sir Henry Rawlinson, 84, soldier, politician, archaeologist, and scholar
  1903 George Francis Robert Henderson, 49, British soldier, scholar ("Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War")
  1953 Josef V Stalin, Soviet dictator (c. 1926-1953), mass murderer, in bed at 73
  1953 Sergei Prokofiev, 61, composer ("Peter and the Wold"), sometime victim of Stalin
  1964 Gustavo Adolfo Salinas Camiña, 70, former head of the Mexican Air Force, & the first airman to attack a ship (Apr 14, 1914)
  2010 Andree Virot [Peel], Anglo-French Resistance worker, who won the Legion of Honor for rescuing 102 Allied pilots, and survived Buchenwald, at 105
  2013 Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, 58, airman, putchist, President/Strongman of Venezuela (1999-2013)
6 1490 Prince Ivan "the Young" of Tver (1485-1490), 32
  1836 Jim Bowie (39), William Barret Travis (26), James Butler Bonham (29), David Crockett (49), & c. 190 other Texians
  1881 Horatia Nelson Ward, daughter of Lord Nelson & Lady Hamilton, at 80 --
  1932 John Philip Sousa, soldier, sailor, marine, bandmaster, composer, at 77
  1933 Mayor Anton J Cermak of Chicago, 59, wounded Feb 15 by an assassin who was trying to kill FDR.
  1964 King Paul of Greece (1947-64), 62
  1984 Martin Niemöller, WW I U-boat skipper, anti-Nazi clergyman, at 92
7 -322 Aristotle, philosopher, tutor to Alexander the Great, c. 62
  161 Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161), at 74
  413 Heraclianus, Roman Emperor-Aspirant (Summer 412-March 413), executed
  851 Nominoe, the first Duke of Brittany (826-851)
  1040 King Harold I of England (1035-40), c. 35
  1274 St Thomas Aquinas, brainy theologian and noted gourmand, at 48
  1606 Bogislaw XIII, 61, Duke of Pomerania (1603-1606)
  1724 Pope Innocent XIII - Michelangelo dei Conti (1721-1724), at 68
  1737 Count Guido Starhemberg, Imperial Field Marshal, at 79
  1810 Admiral Lord Collingwood, friend to Nelson, b 1748 --
  1862 Brig. Gen. Ben McCulloch, CSA, 49, kia, Pea Ridge/Elkhorn Tavern
  1862 Brig. Gen. McIntosh, CSA, c. 34, kia, Pea Ridge/Elkhorn Tavern
  1932 Aristide Briand, 1926 Peace Nobelist for helping to "outlaw" war, at 69
  1941 Gunther Prien, daring skipper of 'U-47', kia at 34
  1951 Sepahbod Haj Ali Razmara, PM of Iran (1950-51), c. 50, assassinated
  1999 Stanley Kubrick, director ("Paths of Glory"), b. 1928
8 1126 Queen regnant Urraca of León, Castile, and Galicia (1108-1126), 46, in childbirth
  1144 Pope Celestine II - Guido del Casetllo (1143-1144)
  1202 King Sverre Sigurdsson of Norway (1184-1202), c. 50
  1403 Ottoman Sultan Bajazet I "Ylidirim" (1387-1403), c. 45, at Antioch
  1460 King James II of Scots (1437-1460, c. 29, accidental cannon explosion at Roseburgh
  1466 Duke Francesco Sforza of Milan (1450-1466), condottiero, at 65
  1702 King William III of England (1689-1702), at 51
  1844 Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, 81, sometime Marshal of France, King Charles XIV John of Sweden and Norway (1818-1844) --
  1862 Nathaniel Gordon, c. 28, slave smuggler, hanged in New York
  1874 Millard Fillmore, militiaman, president (1850-53), at 74 --
  1889 John Ericsson, 85, designer of the 'Monitor'
  1917 Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, 78, soldier, aviation pioneer
  1921 Spanish Premier Eduardo Dato (1913-1915, 1917, 1920-1921), 54, assassinated in Madrid by anarchists
  1930 William Howard Taft, 72, President (1909-1913), SecWar (1904-1908), Chief Justice (1921-1930)
  1996 Lt Col John "Mad Jack" or "Fighting Jack" Churchill, DSO, MC, 89, who fought WW II with a longbow, claymore, & bagpipes
  2013 Mildred Dalton Manning, 98, sometime Army Nurse, last surviving "Angel of Corregidor"
  2013 Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist, 90, German officer, anti-Hitler conspirator, last surviving veteran of the "July Plot"
9 1062 Count Herbert II of Maine (1058-1062)
  1566 David Rizzio, 33, private secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, murdered
  1649 Henry Rich, Earl of Holland, c. 60, inept Royalist commander, executed by the Puritans
  1661 Giulio Raimondo Mazarino -- Cardinal Mazarin, 58, chief minister of France, sometime soldier
  1857 James Duff, 4th Earl of Fife (1811-1857), KT, GCH, Spanish major general, Member of Parliament, 80
  1888 Wilhelm I von Hohenzollern, 90, soldier, Regent (1858-1861) and King of Prussia (1861-1888), German Emperor (1871-1888)
  1949 Walter Short, 68, sometime Commander, Hawaiian Department, who didn't understand the words "war warning", d. 1949 --
  1964 Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, gifted German colonial soldier, at 93
  1992 Menachem Begin, 78, Irgunist, Prime Minister of Israel (1977-1983), 1979 Peace Nobelist with Anwar Sadat
  2005 Redmond A. Simonsen, innovative wargamer, S&T art director, at 62
10 483 Pope St. Simplicimus (468-483)
  1333 Wladyslaw I/Ladislas I "the Elbow-High" Grand Duke of Poland (1306-1320)
  1391 Tvrtko I, Ban (1353-1366, 1367-1377) and King of Bosnia (1377-1391), 52
  1823 George Elphinstone, Viscount Keith, British admiral, 77
  1826 King João VI of Portugal (1816-26), at 56
  1864 King Maximilian II Joseph of Bavaria (1848-64), at 52
  1872 Giuseppe Mazzini, the 'Spirit' of Italian unification, at 66
  1913 Harriet Tubman, intrepid Underground Railroad conductor, at c. 93
  1985 Konstanin Chernenko, 73, head of the Soviet Union (1984-1985)
11 -1425 Pharaoh Thutmose III "The Great", over 60
  222 Elagabalus, very strange Roman Emperor (218-222), decapitated at 19 by the Praetorians, along with his mother Julia Soaemias, c. 42
  1034 Mieszko II Lambert, King and Grand Duke of Poland (1025-34), c. 44
  1486 Albrecht III Achilles of Brandenburg, at 71
  1927 Xenophon Stratigos, 57, aptly named modern Greek general, Balkan & Anatolian wars
  1936 Admiral of the Fleet David Richard Beatty, Earl Beatty, 65, who commanded the British battle cruisers at Jutland --
  1944 Hendrik van Loon, 62, historian ("Van Loon's Lives")
  1948 Jan Garrigue Masaryk, 62, Czech Foreign Minister (1940-1948), "accidental" fall from a window
  1949 Henri-Honoré Giraud, French General, at 70
  1957 Richard E Byrd, Rear Adm, US, arctic explorer, at 68
  2012 Whitney Houston, 48, vocalist, who put "The Star Spangled Banner" into the Top 100 for nearly two years --
12 417 Pope Innocent I (401-417)
  604 Pope St Gregory I "the Great" (590-604), at 64
  1507 Cesare Borgia - "The Prince" - kia, siege of Vicuña, Navarre, at 31
  1889 Emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia (1872-89), c. 58, kia against the Mahdists
  1925 Sun Yat-Sen, 58, founder of the Chinese Republic
  1944 Col. John W. Thomason, USMC, 51, "The Kipling of the Corps"
  1945 Anne Frank, of typhus at 14
  2008 Lazare Ponticelli, 110, the last French, last Foreign Legion, and last Italian veteran of WW I
13 565 Flavius Belisarius, brilliant Roman general, c. 65, in disgrace, but not blind, Constantinople --
  1202 Grand Duke Mieszko III "the Elder" of Poland (1173-77, 1200-02), c. 75
  1516 King Vladislav II Jagiello of Bohemia (1490-1516), at 60
  1528 Vespasiano Colonna, duca di Gaeta, conte di Fondi, signor d'Itri, condottiero
  1569 Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, 58, Huguenot leader, kia
  1858 Felice Orsini, Italian patriot who had attempted to assassinate Napoleon III, executed at 38
  1881 Tsar Alexander II of Russia (1855-1881), 62, assassinated
  1901 Benjamin Harrison, 67, veteran and president (1889-1893) --
  1918 Cesar Antonovich Cui, 83, Russian fortification engineer, composer --
  1941 A Coenradi, Bernard Iron, E Hellenbyn, and J Eyl, Dutch resistance fighters, executed by the Nazis
  1943 Stephen Vincent Benét, poet ("John Brown's Body"), b. 1898
  1945 Charles Dick, 87, militiaman, congressman, senator, - "Father of the National Guard" --
  1945 Gaspare Arduino (43), Vera Arduino (19), Libera Arduino (15), Pierino Montarolo, Italian Resistance fighters, shot by Fascist troops
  1946 Werner von Blomberg, German War Minister, at 67
  1955 King Yung Deva of Nepal (1911-55), at about 48
  1986 Alvaro Fayad Delgado, 39, "El Turco", leader of Colombian M-19 rebels
14 -4 King Herod the Great of Judea (58 BC-4 BC), c. 70
  1490 Duke Charles I of Savoy (1482-1490), at 21
  1573 Duke Claude II of Aumale (1550-1573), 46, cannon balled at La Rochelle
  1590 Philip van Egmont, Prince of Gavere, kia at 30
  1647 Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel (1625-1647)
  1751 British Field Marshal George Wade, at 80, after 58 years in the service
  1883 Karl Marx, who inspired the greatest exploitation of the masses, b. 1818
  1989 Zita, last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary (1916-1918), at 96 --
15 -44 G. Julius Caesar, 55 -- "Et tu, Brute?"
  752 Pope Zachary (741-52)
  963 Byzantine Emperor Romanus II (959-63), at 25
  1311 Walter V of Brienne, c. 36, Duke of Athens (1308-1311), kia, Halmyros
  1849 Cardinal Caspar Mezzofanti, 75, fluent in 27 languages, & could get by in c. 20 more
  1944 Otto von Below, 87. German general, Victor of Caporetto --
16 455 Emperor Valentinian III (424-455), b. 419, assassinated, too late to help save the empire in the West
  1185 King Baldwin IV "the Leper" of Jerusalem (1174-1185), c. 25
  1286 King Alexander III of Scotland (1249-1286), 44
  1536 Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha of the Ottoman Empire, murdered, c. 45
  1838 Nathaniel Bowditch, oceanographer ("American Practical Navigator"), at 64
  1914 Gaston Calmette, 55, editor of 'Le Figaro,' shot by Mdm. Henriette Caillaux, wife of France's finance minister, over some indiscrete letters he had published, initiating a scandalous trial that would preoccupy public attention until the outbreak of war in late July
  1930 Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 60, Spanish general and dictator (1923-30)
  1978 Aldo Moro, 61, former prime minister of Italy, assassinated by terrorists
  1995 Simon Frazier, Lord Lovat, commando (Loflotten, Hardelot, Dieppe, Relief of Pegasus Bridge at Normandy), at 83
17 -45 P. Attius Varus & Titus Labienus, Pomepeian generals, kia at Munda, Gnaeus Pompeius, executed
  461 St Patrick
  1058 King Lulach I of Scotland (Aug 15, 1057-Mar 17, 1058), at c. 28
  1516 Giuliano de' Medici, Lord of Florence, at 37
  1704 Baron Menno van Coehoorn, fortification engineer, at 63
  1891 Prince Napoleon "Plon-Plon" Bonaparte, at 68
  1933 Charles King, 88, soldier, author, arguably the last Civil War veteran to serve in uniform --
  1957 Pres Ramon Magsaysay of the Philippines (1953-1957), 49, plane crash
18 37 Roman Emperor Tiberius (14-37), 77, reportedly smothered
  180 Marcus Aurelius, soldier-philosopher, Roman Emperor (161-180), of plague at 58, Vienna
  235 Roman Emperor Alexander Severus (222-235), 27, and his mother, Julia Avita Mamaea, c. 50, murdered at Moguntiacum (Mainz) by mutinous troops
  978 St Edward the Martyr, King of the Anglo-Saxons (975-78), murdered at 15
  1227 Pope Honorius III - Cencio Savelli (1216-1227), c. 78
  1584 Tsar Ivan IV "the Terrible" of Russia (1547-1584), at 53
  1913 King George I of Greece (1861-1913), assassinated at 67
  1918 Cesar Antonovich Cui, 83, Russian composer, fortification engineer --
  1933 Luigi di Savoia, Duca degli Abruzzi, naval officer, explorer, at 60
  1936 Eleftherios Venizelos, 71, Prime Minister of Greece (1910-1920, 1928-1932) --
  1965 King Farouk of Egypt (1936-52), at 45
  1983 King Umberto II of Italy (May 9-June 12, 1946), 78
19 1279 Emperor Bing, 8, the last Song (May 10, 1278-March 1279), suicide by jumping into the sea to avoid capture by the Mongols after the decisive Battle of Yamen. gold
  1330 Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, 29, beheaded
  1643 Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton, 42, kia Hopton Heath
  1687 René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, 43, murdered by his own men, on the Mississippi
  1721 Pope Clement XI - Giovanni Albani (1700-21), at 71
  1930 Arthur Balfour, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1902-1905), Foreign Secretary (1916-1919), at 81
  1950 Edgar Rice Burroughs, war correspondent, novelist ("John Carter of Mars", "Tarzan"), 74
  2008 Arthur C. Clarke, sometime RAF man, inventor, science fictioneer ("2001", et.), at 90
20 268 Roman Emperor Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (253-268), c. 50, assassinated at Milan [Alt]
  842 King Alfonso II "the Chaste" of the Asturias (791-842), c. 83
  1191 Pope Clement III - Paolo Scolari (1187-91), c. 60
  1351 Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq of Delhi (1325-1351), c. 50
  1415 King Henry IV Bolingbroke of England (1399-1413), at 45
  1568 Albrecht von Hohenzollern, 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1511-1525), first Duke of Prussia (1525-1568), 77
  1619 Matthias, 61, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia (1611-19), King Matthias II of Hungary (1608-1619)
  1703 Forty-six of the "Forty-seven" ronin, ritual suicide
  1894 Lajos Kossuth, 91, Hungarian patriot
  1920 Pres Venustiano Carranza of Mexico (1915-20), murdered at 60
  1929 Ferdinand Foch, 78, Marshal of France
  1939 Lt. Cdr Percy Thompson Dean, who had won a VC at Zeebrugge in WW I, Member of Parliament, at 62
  2004 Juliana Luise Emma Marie Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau, 95, sometime Queen of the Netherlands (1948-1980)
  2005 Andrew Toti, inventor of the "Mae West" life jacket, at 89
21 1330 Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, beheaded at 28
  1556 Thomas Cranmer, 66, Archbishop of Canterbury (1533-1555), burned at Oxford
  1604 Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort, 86, General and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1592-1594)
  1656 James Ussher, 74, Protestant Primate of All Ireland (1625-1656), who "calculated" the age of the universe
  1663 Charlotte de la Tremoüille Stanley, Countess of Derby, c. 65, who defended Latham House against the Parliamentarians (1644)
  1804 Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc d'Enghien, 31, executed at Vincennes by Napoleon
  1880 Hussein bin Muhammed, Sherif of Mecca (1877-1880), murdered by a religious fanatic
  2013 Herschel Schacter, 95, sometime US Army Chaplain who directed relief efforts at Buchenwald and later headed the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
22 337 Roman Emperor Constantine I "the Great" (306-337), at c. 57 --
  606 Pope St. Sabinianus (604-606)
  1312 Jacques De Molay, 23rd & last Grand Master of the Templars (1292-1312) & 39 Knights, barbequed
  1322 Thomas Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Lancaster (c. 44), baronial leader, beheaded at Pontefract
  1421 Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence, c. 34, brother to Henry V, kia, the Bauge, Anjou
  1471 George of Kunstát and Podbrady, c. 70, King of Bohemia (1458-1471)
  1589 Ludovico Guicciardini, art historian, at 67
  1820 Commo. Stephen Decatur, 41, in a duel with Commo. James Barron --
  1852 Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, 77, Marshal of France --
  1861 Commo. Uriah P. Levy, USN, highest ranking Jewish officer in US military service until the twentieth century, 69
  1924 Robert Nivelle, 67, inept French general
  1932 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 82, German author, statesman, philosopher
23 1369 King Pedro "the Cruel" of Castille & Leon (1350-1369), 34, murdered
  1555 Pope Julius III - Gianmaria Ciocchi del Monte (1550-1555), at 67
  1653 Johan van Galen, Dutch admiral, kia at c. 48
  1801 Tsar Paul I (1796-1801), strangled at 46
  1819 Augustus Frederick von Kotzebue, German dramatist, 56, assassinated by a theology student at Mannheim
  1842 Stendhal (Marie-Henri Beyle), author ("The Charterhouse of Parma"), at 59
  1994 Luis Donaldo Colosio, 44, Mexican presidential candidate, assassinated in Tijuana
  2006 Desmond Doss, 87, Pacifist who earned a MOH on Okinawa
24 809 Haroun-al-Raschid, twenty-fifth Caliph (786-809), at 44
  1005 King Kenneth III of Scotland (997-1005), kia Monzievaird
  1455 Pope Nicholas V - Tommaso Parentucelli (1447-1455), at 57
  1869 Baron Antoine-Henri Jomini, military thinker ("The Art of War"), b 1779.
  1905 Jules Verne, visionary author ("20,000 Leagues Under the Sea", etc), at 77
  1916 Composer Enrique Granados, his wife, and c. 50 others, in the 'Sussex'
  1928 Prince Wilhelm of Urach, Count of Württemberg, Duke of Urach, 63, German general, perennial candidate for thrones --
  1944 British Maj. Gen. Orde Wingate (41) and nine Americans, B-25 crash in Burma
  1945 Maj Gen Thomas Rennie, cdr, British 51st Highland Div, kia at 45
  1953 Mary of Teck, wife to King George V of the UK, at 86
  1976 Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, at 88 --
  1980 Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez, 62, Archbishop of San Salvador, assassinated at mass by rightist terrorists
  1984 Sam Jaffe, actor ("Gunga Din", etc.), at 93
  1993 John Hersey, war correspondent, at 78
25 33 Jesus [Alt]
  493 Odoacer, c. 62, self-proclaimed King of Italy (476-493), executed by Theoderic of the Ostrogoths
  1223 King Afonso II of Portugal (1211-23), at 36
  1609 Duke John William of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1592-1609), 45, leaving no clear heir, setting off the War of the Jülich-Berg Succession (1609-1614)
  1697 Hendrik Casimir II, 38, Prince of Nassau-Dietz and Stadholder of Friesland and Groningen (1664-1696),
  1751 King Frederik of Sweden (1720-51), at 74
  1911 146 employees of the Tirangle Shirtwaist Company, in New York City
  1931 Ida Wells-Barnett, 68, civil rights advocate
  1948 Adm. Joseph M. Reeves, USN, 75, "The Father of Carrier Aviation" --
  1949 Hanns Albin Rauter, 54, SS-commandant in the Netherlands, executed
26 752 Pope Stephen II (23-26 Mar 752)
  1051 Count Hugh IV of Maine (1036-1051), c. 30-35.
  1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, composer ("Wellington's Victory"), at 56 --
  1892 Walt Whitman, 72, war poet, journalist, anti-Catholic --
  1902 Cecil Rhodes, imperialist, at 48
  1948 Adm. Joseph Mason Reeves, 75, "Father of Carrier Aviation" --
  1973 Noel Coward, actor ("In Which We Serve"), at 73
  1975 King Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz of Saudi Arabia (1964-75), c. 68, murdered
  1983 Anthony F Blunt, 76, British art historian, Soviet spy
27 -47 Ptolemy XIII of Egypt (c. 15), brother and husband to Cleopatra, drowned in the Nile fleeing Caesar's troops
  965 Count Arnulf I "Le Vieux" of Flanders, c. 75
  1211 King Sancho I of Portugal (1185-1211), at 56
  1350 King Alfonso XI of Castile, León, and Galicia (1311-1350), c. 48, of Plague at Gibraltar
  1378 Pope Gregory XI - Pierre Roger de Beaufort (1371-1378), c. 42, who ended the "Babylonian Captivity" of the Papacy in Avignon
  1701 Anne Hilarion de Cotentin, the Count of Tourville, French Admiral, at 58
  1729 Duke Leopold of Lorraine and Bar (1690-1729), 49
  1836 James Walker Fannin, Jr. (c. 32), inept commander, and c. 320 other Texians, executed at Goliad
  1854 Duke Carlo III Ferdinando of Parma & Piacenza (1848-1854), 31, assassinated
  1900 Pieter Joubert, Boer Commander, at 69
  1942 John W. Wilcox, Jr., 60, Rear Adm, USN, washed overboard from the stern of the battleship 'Washington' (BB 56) in the North Atlantic
  1968 Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, 31, the first man in space, airplane crash
  1991 Aldo Ray (Aldo Da Re), 64, veteran, actor ("What Did You Do in the War, Daddy")
28 193 Roman Emperor Publius Helvius Pertinax (Jan 1-Mar 28 193), 66, murdered by the Praetorians --
  592 King Guntram of the Burgundians (561-592), c. 67
  1241 King Valdemar II of Denmark (1202-1241), 71
  1285 Pope Martin IV - Simon de Brie (1281-1285), c. 65-70
  1361 John FitzWalter, 3rd Baron FitzWalter (1328-1361), c. 46, kia, Ferrybridge
  1461 John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford (1455-1461), c. 25, Lancastrian, kia, Ferrybridge
  1462 Grand Prince Vasily II Vasiliyevich "the Blind" of Moscovy (1425-1462), 47
  1757 Robert Francois Damiens, 42, having been being skinned, doused with molten lead, castrated, and drawn and quartered, for attempting to kill Louis XV in January
  1801 Lt Gen Sir Ralph Abercrombie, 69, kia, Battle of Alexandria
  1850 Paolo Bartolomeo Avitabile, Neapolitan lieutenant, Persian colonel, Punjabi general, at c. 58
  1868 Lt Gen James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, 70, inept cavalryman at Balaklava
  1881 Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky, Russian Army Officer, composer ("Night on Bald Mountain"), at 42 and one week
  1915 Leon C. Thrasher, an American mining engineer, drowned in St. Geroge's Channel when a German U-boat sinks the British liner 'Falaba' -- the first American civilian killed in WW I
  1944 The Chief Rabbi of Kovono, killed by the Nazis
  1969 Dwight Eisenhower, soldier, president (1953-1961), at 78 --
  1987 Maria - "Sound of Music" - von Trapp, at 82 --
  2013 Robert Remini, 91, US Navy veteran, historian ("The Life of Andrew Jackson", etc.
29 -87 BC - Emperor Wu of Han (141-87 BC), c. 70
  1058 Pope Stephen [IX] X - Frederick of Lorraine (1057-1058), c. 38
  1745 Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, 68, the first British PM (1721-1742)
  1792 King Gustav III of Sweden (1771-92), 46, wounded by an assassin on the 16th (the inspiration for "Un Ballo in Mascera")
  1837 "Mrs. Fitzherbert" [Mary Anne Smythe], sometime wife of George IV, at 81, matriarch of the American Ord family
  2007 Lloyd Brown, last US Navy veteran of WW I, at 109
30 -317 BC - Phocion, Strategos of Athens, executed at c. 85, having run afoul of his political enemies
  988 Count Arnulf II of Flanders, c. 28 (965-988)
  1484 Filippo Savelli di Rignano, Marshal of the Holy See, assassinated
  1707 Sebastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban, fortification engineer, b. 1633
  1840 George Bryan "Beau" Brummell, 61, sometime officer, 10th Royal Hussars, English fashionista
  1840 George Bryan "Beau" Brummell, 61, sometime officer, 10th Royal Hussars, English fashionista
  1945 Maj Gen Maurice Rose (45), 3rd Arm Div, killed while being captured - the highest ranking American Jewish casualty in WW II
  1948 Mohandas Ghandi, The Mahatma, 78, assassinated in New Delhi
  1950 Leon Blum, 77, French Popular Front premier (1936-1937, 1938), appeaser
  1986 James Cagney, actor ("The Fighting 69th", "The Gallant Hours"), 86
  1986 John Ciardi, B-29 pilot, poet, translator of Dante, at 69
  2002 Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, at 101
31 1341 Grand Prince Ivan I Kalita of Vladimir (1328-41), at c. 37
  1547 King Francis I de Valois of France (1515-1547), slow learner and no gentleman, at 53
  1567 Count Philip "the Generous" of Hesse, at 62
  1621 King Felipe III of Spain (1598-1621), at 42
  1727 Isaac Newton, 84, scientist, d. 1727 [NS, Mar 20, 1726, Old Style]
  1850 John C. Calhoun, notable Secretary of War, architect of secession, at 68
  1944 Adm Mineichi Koga, 53, Commander, Combined Fleet, plane crash
  1970 Marshal of the Soviet Union Semion Timoshenko, at 75 --
  1980 Jesse Owens, 66, who spoiled Hitler's Olympics

1 -752 Romulus celebrates the first Roman triumph, for the defeat of Caenina --
  -86 BC - Sulla captures Athens, deposing the tyrant Aristion, but refrains from slaughtering thousands or making away with lots of loot, though he does take Aristotle's library
  0 Festival of Mars, Roman God of War
  350 Troops at Mursia (Pannonia) proclaim the magister militum Vetranio emperor (Mar 1-Dec 25, 350), abdicates, retires comfortably, d. c. 356
  492 Election of Pope Gelasius I (492-496), later canonized
  705 Accession of Pope John VII (705-707)
  1244 The Crusaders take Montsegur from the Albigensians amid great slaughter
  1260 Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis, takes Damascus amid great slaughter
  1324 Naval Battle of Lutocisterna: The Aragonese defeat the Pisans
  1382 Charles VI suppresses the Maillotin Rising at Paris with great slaughter
  1634 Battle of Smolensk: Poland's Wladyslaw IV defeats the Russians
  1652 Vassy Massacre: The Duc de Guise slaughters c. 1000 Huguenots, initiating the French "First War of Religion"
  1780 Pennsylvania adopts "gradual emancipation" of slaves
  1781 Continental Congress adopts the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union."
  1793 Republican France declares war on Britain & the Dutch Republic
  1811 Egyptian Pasha Mehemet Ali initiates a widespread massacre of the Mamlukes --
  1812 Jose de San Martin returns to Argentina after long service in the Spanish Army
  1815 Napoleon returns to France after his escape from Elba
  1836 Texas Convention meets at Washington-on-the-Brazos to consider Independence from Mexico
  1854 SS 'City of Glasgow' sinks in Liverpool harbor, 373 die
  1896 Battle of Adwa: 80,000 Ethiopians defeat 20,000 Italo-African troops
  1913 Federal income tax takes effect, as per 16th amendment
  1920 Arabs attack the Jewish settlement of Tel Mai
  1921 Anti-communist sailors' revolt in Kronstadt; suppressed with great bloodshed by the 19th
  1923 French & Belgian troops occupy the Rhineland, in an effort to force Germany to make reparations payments
  1934 Henry Pu Yi crowned as Emperor Kang Teh of Manchukuo (1934-1945)
  1941 "Captain America" is introduced
  1941 German troops enter Bulgaria
  1941 Himmler inspects the Auschwitz concentration camp
  1941 Kufra, Libya: Italians surrender to Leclerc's Free French (besieged since Feb 7)
  1942 Action South of Java: Supported by dive bombers, Japanese battleships 'Hiei' & 'Kirishima' & their escorts sink USS 'Edsall' (DD-219), after a fight of nearly three hours
  1942 Battle of Bali Strait: US destroyers 'Ford', 'Paul Jones', 'Edwards', & 'Alden' escape a Japanese DesDiv
  1942 Battle of Sunda Strait: Cruisers USS 'Houston' & HMAS 'Perth', and destroyer HNMS 'Evertsen' go down fighting around 0100
  1942 Battle off Borneo: HMS 'Exeter' & destroyers HMS 'Encounter' and USS 'Pope' sunk by Japanese heavy cruisers
  1943 Amsterdam: Jewish old age home raided by the Nazis
  1944 Speaking on Radio Berlin, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, calls upon Moslems to "Kill the Jews."
  1945 Chinese 30th division liberates Hsenwi
  1945 Ryukyu Islands: U.S. Navy surface and air raids on Japanese positions
  1950 British sentence Klaus Fuchs to 14 years for atomic espionage
  1954 Bikini: US detonates 15 megaton hydrogen bomb
  1954 Puerto Rican nationalists open fire in Congress, 5 wounded
  1954 Rioting in Khartoum, 30 die
  1955 Israeli attack on Gaza, 48 die
  1961 The Peace Corps is established
  1970 Rhodesia: White settlers declare independence from Britain to preserve racial supremacy
  1971 Washington: Bomb goes off in a men's room in the Capitol, apparently set by the Weather Underground
  1981 Irish Nationalist Bobby Sand begins a hunger strike in the Maze Prison
  2008 USS 'New York' (LPD-21), incorporating steel from the World Trade Center, is christened at New Orleans
2 537 Goths besiege Rome, held by Belisarius (relieved Mar 12, 538)
  871 Battle of Marton: King Ethelred of Wessex defeats the Danes
  1121 Dirk VI becomes count of Holland (1121-1157)
  1458 George of Podbrady is elected King of Bohemia (1458-1471)
  1476 Battle of Granson: The Swiss defeat the Burgundians
  1498 Vasco da Gama's fleet reaches Mozambique
  1502 Duke Alfonso I d'Este weds Lucrezia Borgia, and they live happily ever after
  1579 Battle of Borgerhout: The Prince of Parma's Spaniards defeat the Dutch
  1776 Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston
  1807 Congress bans the importation of slaves effective Jan 1, 1808
  1836 Texas declares independence from Mexico [See Births, 1793]
  1855 Accesson of Tsar Alexander II (1855-1881), assassinated
  1859 Paddle steamer USS 'Saginaw' commissioned, the first American warship built on the West Coast, at Mare Island
  1865 Battle of Waynesborough: Jubal Early's Rebels defeated
  1867 Congress abolishes peonage in New Mexico
  1867 First Reconstruction Act passed by Congress
  1867 The James gang robs a bank in Savannah, Mo, 1 k
  1867 US Navy Civil Engineering Corps founded
  1882 Deranged Scot Roderick McClean fires a shot at Queen Victoria outside railway station at Windsor: the eighth and last attempt to assassinate her
  1907 General Louis Botha becomes premier of the Transvaal (1907-1910)
  1915 Vladimir Jabotinsky forms a militia to defend Jewish settlements in Palestine
  1919 Communist International (Comintern) congress opens in the Kremlin
  1933 "King Kong" opens in New York
  1938 15th Infantry leaves China after 26 years in garrison at Tientsin & Peking.
  1938 Stalin initiates the Purges
  1939 Eugenio Pacelli chosen Pope as Pius XII (1939-1958), on his birthday
  1940 Soviet troops capture Tuppura Island from the Finns
  1942 Action South of Java: USS 'Pillsbury' (DD-227) sunk by Japanese heavy cruisers
  1942 Philippines: Japanese troops occupy Zamboanga
  1943 Battle of the Bismarck Sea: Japanese convoy attacked by USAAF aircraft
  1944 Philippines: US troops capture Momote on Los Negros
  1945 King Michael of Romania gives in to Communist govt
  1945 Philippines: Japanese resistance on Corregidor ends.
  1956 Morocco declares independence from France
  1962 Coup in Burma initiates an ongoing military regime
  1969 Sino-Soviet border clash, c. 70 die
3 468 Election of Pope Simplicius (468-483), later canonized
  1191 Giacinto Bobone Orsini, 85, is elected Pope as Celestine III (1191-1198)
  1284 The Statute of Rhuddlan: England annexes the Principality of Wales
  1575 Battle of Tukaroi: The Mughal Emperor Akbar defeats the Bengalis
  1637 Battle of the Rheinfeld: Weimarans defeat the Imperialists
  1746 The '45: Bonnie Prince Charlie's forces occupy Inverness Castle
  1776 US squadron under Commo Esek Hopkins attacks Nassau, Bahamas: First American overseas expedition
  1813 Office of Surgeon General of the United States Army is established
  1815 Second Barbary War: US declares war on Algiers for piratical acts, three years after the Algerians declared war on the US
  1836 Skirmish at Agua Dulce: Mexicans defeat Texians
  1837 US recognizes the Republic of Texas
  1847 Col Alexander W. Doniphan captures the Mexican mint at Chihuahua --
  1847 Col. Franklin Pierce is promoted to Brig Gen of Volunteers --
  1852 Battle of Caseros: Argentine Dictator-President Juan de Rosas (c. 23,000) is defeated by Justo de Urquiza's Argentine-Uraguayan-Brazilian forces (c. 25,000) -- the largest battle in the Americas until the U.S. Civil War
  1855 Congress appropriates $30,000 to buy camels for the US Army
  1861 Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom
  1863 Congress passes the "Enrollment Act," initiating federal conscription
  1863 USN bombards Fort McAllister, Ga.
  1865 Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established
  1871 U.S. Navy Medical Corps established
  1875 Premier of Georges Bizet's "Carmen" at the Opéra Comique, Paris
  1878 Treaty of San Stefano: "Greater" Bulgaria carved out of Turkey
  1883 Congress creates the "New Navy," authorizing four steel vessels
  1899 George Dewey is promoted to Admiral of the Navy --
  1915 Congress authorizes a Chief of Naval Operations (CNO)
  1915 Congress creates the Naval Reserve
  1917 Abdication of Nicholas II, the last tsar [OS]
  1918 Russia withdraws from WW I, signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany
  1924 Deposition of Abdul Mejid II (Nov 19, 1922-March 3, 1924) ends the 1300-year old Islamic caliphate
  1931 Congress adopts "The Star Spangled Banner" as the national anthem
  1942 Action South of Java: Japanese warships sink c. 20 Allied ships, including US gunboat 'Ashville'; thousands of civilians killed.
  1942 Broome, Australia: heavy damage from a Japanese air raid
  1942 RAF bombs the Renault factory at Billencourt, France, 367 die.
  1943 Battle of the Bismarck Sea: Japanese transports hit by Allied aircraft and ships
  1943 London: A German bomb hits a crowded shelter, 173 die
  1944 Los Negros: Japanese banzai attack.
  1945 Netherlands: Liberation of Roermond and Venlo
  1945 RAF bombs The Hague in error, 511 die
  1961 Accession of King Hassan II of Morocco (1961-1999)
  1968 Terrorists bomb Greek, Portuguese, & Spanish embassies in The Hague
  1991 Latvia & Estonia vote to become independent of the USSR
4 0 U.S. Presidential Inauguration Day, until 1937
  1152 Frederik I Barbarossa is crowned King of the Germans (1152-1190), later Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy (1155-1190), King of Burgundy (1157-1190)
  1222 Battle of Chateaubriant: The Bretons defeat the French
  1238 Battle of the Sith River: the Mongols under Batu Khan obliterate the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal, near Yaroslav
  1351 Accession of King Ramathibodi of Ayutthaya (Thailand) (1351-1369). c. 55
  1431 Gabriello Condulmaro elected Pope as Eugene IV (1431-1447)
  1461 First Deposition of the Lancastrian King Henry VI of England (1422-1461, 1470-1471), and First Accession of the Yorkist Edward IV (1461-1470, 1471-1483)
  1519 Hernan Cortez, adventurer and lawyer, lands in Mexico
  1665 England declares war on the Netherlands, initiating the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667)
  1699 Jews are expelled from Lubeck, Germany
  1789 U.S. Constitution goes into effect
  1814 Battle of Longwood: Americans defeat the British, near Wardsville, Ontario.
  1861 CSA adopts the "Stars & Bars" as a national flag
  1877 Five-times wounded veteran Rutherford B Hayes inaugurated as president
  1881 Former Maj Gen James A Garfield inaugurated as president
  1885 Draft-dodger Grover Cleveland becomes 20th president
  1889 Bvt Brig Gen. Benjamin Harrison inaugurated as 21st president
  1893 Draft-dodger Grover Cleveland becomes 22nd president
  1897 Bvt Maj William McKinley inaugurated as 23rd president
  1913 Balkan Wars - Battle of Bizani: Start of a three day fight in which the Greeks defeat the Turks
  1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated as 32nd President
  1936 German airship 'Hindenburg' makes her first flight
  1941 British commando raid on the Loften Islands
  1942 Allies scuttle warships in the Surabaya navy yard
  1942 USS 'Enterprise' (CV-6) raids Marcus Island
  1942 Two Japanese flying boats, refueled by sub at French Frigate Shoal, raid Oahu
  1943 Battle of the Bismarck Sea ends: Japanese lost 12 ships, thousands of men.
  1944 Responding to reports that Japanese troops cursed his name during a banzai attack, Babe Ruth takes to the streets of New York to help raise money for the Red Cross
  1945 Princess Elizabeth of England (later Queen Elizabeth II), 18, joins the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service as a driver.
  1945 US Army Air Force B-24s accidentally bomb Zurich
  1945 Finland declares war on Nazi Germany
  1970 French submarine 'Eurydice' explodes while submerged in the Mediterranean, 57 die
  1991 Gulf War: Iraq releases P/Ws -- 6 US, 3 British, & 1 Italian
5 1259 Battle of Maes Maidog/Moydog: Earl of Warwick defeats Madog ap Llewellyn
  1279 Battle of Aizkraukle: The Lithuanians defeat the Livonian Knights
  1432 Treaty of Rennes: peace between France and Brittany
  1626 Treaty of Monzon/Monjon: France & Spain confirm the independence of the Grisons
  1766 France cedes Louisiana to Spain
  1770 The Boston Massacre
  1793 Austrians liberate Liege from the French
  1795 Treaty of Basel: France and Prussia conclude peace
  1811 Battle of Barossa/Chiclana: Anglo-Spanish forces attempting to break the siege of Cadiz are ambushed by French troops, but beat them off --
  1821 Veteran James Monroe is inaugurated as the 5th president, postponing the ceremony by one day to avoid the Sabbath
  1824 First Anglo-Burmese War begins
  1860 Parma, Tuscany, Modena, & the Romagna vote to join the Kingdom of Sardinia
  1863 Battle of Thompson's Station, TN
  1912 First wartime use of airships: Italian reconnaissance flight west of Tripoli
  1912 Spanish cruiser 'Principe de Asturias' sinks in the Med, c. 500 die
  1916 Fifth Battle of the Isonzo begins (to Mar 15)
  1933 Nazi Party wins plurality in parliamentary election (43.9%)
  1936 Maiden flight of the Supermarine Spitfire prototype
  1942 Burma: British appoint Sir Harold Alexander C-in-C
  1942 Japanese First Air Fleet raids Tijilatjap.
  1942 Japanese troops occupy Batavia (Jakarta), Neth Indies
  1942 New Guinea: Japanese troops land at Salamaua.
  1942 World premiere of Shoshtakovich's "Leningrad Symphony," in Kuibishev --
  1943 Anti-fascist demonstrations in Italy
  1943 RAF bombs Essen
  1943 Solomons: U.S. DDs shell Japanese at Vila and Munda
  1943 USS 'Grampus' (SS-207) is probably sunk in Blackett Strait, Solomon Islands
  1944 Admiralty Is: U.S. Navy ships bombard Manus
  1945 Allies bomb The Hague, Netherlands
  1945 US VII Corps captures Cologne
  1946 Winston Churchill makes his "Iron Curtain" speech, Fulton, Mo --
  1960 Elvis is honorably discharged from the US Army --
6 -12 Augustus is made Pontifex Maximus
  251 Accession of Pope St. Cornelius (251-253), martyr
  1204 King Philip II of France captures Chateau Gaillard, on the lower Seine, from the English after a six month winter siege --
  1447 Tommaso Parentucelli elected Pope as Nicholas V (1447-1455)
  1460 Treaty of Alcacovas: Portugal cedes the Canary Is to Castille
  1521 Magellan reaches Guam
  1645 Battle of Jankau: Swedes defeat the Imperialists
  1816 Jews expelled from the Free City of Lubeck, Germany
  1822 USS 'Enterprise' captures four pirate ships in the Gulf of Mexico
  1831 Edgar Allen Poe is expelled from West Point
  1836 Santa Anna's Mexicans storm the Alamo, after a 13 day siege --
  1861 Confederate Congress calls for 100,000 volunteers - a month before Ft. Sumter
  1865 Battle of Natural Bridge, Florida
  1913 First Balkan War: The Greeks capture Iannina from the Turks
  1916 Pancho Villa raids Columbus, NM, 17 die
  1918 USN collier 'Cyclops' disappears at sea, inspiring many woo-woo theories
  1924 British Labour govt cuts military budget
  1925 Plebiscite transfers Eupen, Malmédy, & St Vith from Germany to Belgium
  1929 Turkey & Bulgaria sign peace treaty
  1933 Poland occupies Danzig
  1943 Japanese aircraft raid the Russell Islands.
  1943 Solomons: U.S. ships sink two Japanese DDs off Vila.
  1944 New Britain: Marines establish a new beachhead at Talasea
  1944 USAF begins daylight bombing of Berlin
  1945 Chinese 38th Division liberates Lashio
  1945 Luzon: 1st Cav Div is relieved by the 43rd Inf Div.
  1947 XB-45, 4-engine flying wing jet bomber, makes its 1st test flight, Muroc, CA, but while not accepted for service, lives on in numerous movies, including the 1953 "War of the Worlds"
  1964 Accession of King Constantine II of Greece (1964-1973), exiled by a rightist junta in 1967, who abolished the monarachy in 1973.
  1966 Barry Sadler's "Ballad of the Green Berets" hits #1 (On the charts 13 weeks)
  1967 Selective Service System orders induction of Muhammad Ali
  1967 Stalin's daughter Svetlana Allilujeva seeks political asylum in US
  1970 Explosion at a Weather Underground bomb-making operation in a house in Greenwich Village, 3 terrorists die
  1990 SR-71 sets a transcontinental record, 2,404 miles in 1:08:17
7 161 Accession of Co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius (161-180) & Lucius Verus (161-169)
  1190 Rioters massacre the Jews in Stamford, England
  1560 Italo-Spanish expedition under Gian Andrea Doria raids Djerba, Tunisia
  1573 Turkey & Venice sign peace treaty
  1774 British close the port of Boston to all commerce
  1778 USS 'Randolph' (32 guns) blows up fighting HMS 'Yarmouth' (64), c. 310 die
  1793 Republican France declares war on Spain (1793-1795)
  1799 Bonaparte captures Jaffa, Palestine, massacres his prisoners
  1814 Battle of Craonne: Napoleon defeats the Prussians
  1821 Battle of Rieti: Austrians defeat the Neapolitans
  1862 Battle of Pea Ridge/Elkhorn Tavern: Samuel Curtis' Yanks defeat Earl Van Dorn's Rebs (6th-7th)
  1876 Battle of Gura: Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes defeats the Egyptians
  1876 Alexander Graham Bell is granted a patent for the telephone
  1902 Battle of Tweebosch, Transvaal: Boers defeat the British
  1921 Trotsky's Red Army crushes the "Kronstadt Sailors' Rebellion" with great slaughter
  1936 Hitler breaks the Treaty of Versailles, sends troops into the Rhineland, and the Allies fail to act
  1941 The British invade Italian East Africa
  1942 Bismarcks: Japanese naval units reconnoiter Buka
  1942 Christmas I (Indian O): Japanese surface raid wrecks shore installations, sinks one ship.
  1942 First black cadets graduate from the USAAF flying school at Tuskegee
  1943 Japanese refuse a German request to join war against Russia.
  1944 Burma: Chindits begin attacking Japanese rear area installations.
  1945 Troops of the US 9th Armored Div, commanded by German-born Lt. Karl Timmerman, capture the Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine at Remagen
  1974 Wreck of the USS 'Monitor' is located off Cape Hatteras
8 0 International Women's Day
  1126 Accession of King Alfonso of Galicia (1111-1157) as Alfonso VII of Castile and León (1126-1157), later proclaimed Emperor of All the Spains (1135-1157)
  1604 Duel between master samurai Yoshioka Seijuro and Miyamoto Musashi, who slays his opponent on the first blow
  1702 Accession of Queen Anne of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1702-1707), and of Great Britain and Ireland (1707-1714)
  1722 Battle of Gulnabad: Shah Mahmud of Afghanistan defeats Persian Shah Hussain, capturing him and plunging Persia into anarchy
  1782 Gnadenhutten Massacre: Pennsylvania militiamen kill 96 Christian Munsee Indians
  1801 British drive French from Abukir, Egypt
  1844 Accession of King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway (1844-1859), son of Marshal Bernadotte.
  1854 Commo Matthew C Perry's 2nd trip to Japan
  1861 Union troops capture St Augustine, Fl.
  1862 Battle of Hampton Roads I: CSS 'Virginia' & gunboats sink two sailing frigates, threatening the Union blockade --
  1865 Battle of Kingston/Wilcox's Ridge/Wise's Forks, NC
  1865 The Confederacy adopts a new flag, adding a red band along the fly of the "Stainless Banner"
  1896 First Battle of Sebderat: Italians defeat the Sudanese Mahdists
  1910 First licensed woman pilot: French Baroness Raymonde de La Roche
  1915 The old cruiser 'Baltimore' (C-3) is recommissioned as a minelayer (CM-1), the first in the USN
  1917 Republican Revolution in Russia - "The February Revolution" [Feb 24 OS]
  1942 Japanese troops occupy Rangoon.
  1942 Netherlands Indies surrender to the Japanese
  1943 Japanese offensive across the Yangtze, between Ichang and Yoyang.
  1944 India: Japanese offensive against British forces near Imphal.
  1945 1st African-American Navy Nurse commissioned: Ens. Phyllis Daley
  1945 Burma: British troops fight their way into Japanese-held Mandalay.
  1945 Luzon: Sixth Army offensive against the Japanese Shimbu Line.
  1950 First woman medical officer assigned to a US naval vessel: B R Walters
  1950 USSR announces they have developed the atomic bomb
  1958 'Wisconsin' (BB-64) decommissioned; for the first time in 62 years the USN has no battleships in commission
  1959 Iraq: Pro-Egyptian coup fails in Mosul
  1963 Military coup in Syria initiates decades of Baathist dictatorships
  1965 Vietnam: First US combat troops arrive (3,500 Marines)
  1966 Nelson's Column in Dublin destroyed by an IRA bomb
9 -141 Accesion of Emperor Liu Che (Wu) of Han (141-87 BC)
  -49 Caesar besieges Brindisi, held by Pompey
  1230 Battle of Klokotnitsa: Tsar Ivan Asen II of the Bulgars defeats Komnenos Doukas, Despot of Epirus
  1461 Revolt at Genoa expels a French garrison
  1496 Jews are expelled from Carintha, Austria
  1617 Peace of Stolbovo: ends the Russo-Swedish War (1611-1617)
  1741 British invest Cartagena de las Indias
  1796 Napoleone Buonaparte marries Josephine de Beauharnais, divorced in 1810
  1798 Dr George Balfour is appointed the first surgeon in the USN
  1811 Battle of Tacuarí: Manuel Atanasio Cabañas' Royalist Paraguayan troops defeat Argentine Revolutionaries under Manuel Belgrano
  1814 Battle of Laon, Day 1: Napoleon v. the Russo-Prussians
  1847 Winfield Scott lands an army at Veracruz, Mexico, and begins a siege.
  1861 Confederate Congress authorizes paper currency in bills of $50, $100, $500, & $1,000
  1862 Battle of Hampton Roads II: USS 'Monitor' fights CSS 'Virginia' to a draw, preserving the blockade
  1864 Ulysses S. Grant promoted to lieutenant general and commanding general
  1916 Germany declares war on Portugal
  1918 Jews of Seredino Buda, Ukraine, massacred
  1918 Russian Bolshevik Party becomes the Communist Party
  1921 Armored cruiser 'Brooklyn' (CA-3) stricken from the Navy List.
  1924 Italy annexes Fiume
  1932 Eamon De Valera becomes President of Ireland's Executive Council (1932-1937)
  1942 Ernest J. King, COMMINCH U.S. Fleet, is also named CNO
  1943 New Guinea: Japanese aircraft conduct a major raid on Wau.
  1943 Salonika: Nazis deport the Jews to extermination camps
  1945 Indochina: Japanese attack French garrisons, massacring thousands.
  1945 US B-29s drop 1,665 tons of incendiaries on Tokyo, creating a firestorm; by dawn on the 10th c. 80,000-120,000 have died, the highest toll in a single air raid, exceeding even the atomic bombs
10 -241 BC - Naval Battle of the Aegates Islands: Rome defeats Carthage, to win the First Punic War
  418 Jews are excluded from public office in the Roman Empire
  1208 Pope Innocent III calls for a Crusade against the Albegensian heretics
  1527 Battle of Kanwaha: Babur defeats the Rajputs, to conquer Northern India
  1606 Battle of Gol: Susenyos defeats several claimants to secure the throne of Ethiopia (1606-1632)
  1624 England declares war on Spain
  1734 The Duke of Parma, son of the King of Spain, enters Naples in triumph, to become King Carlo IV (1739-1759), later becomes King of Spain (1759-1788)
  1783 John Barry's USS 'Alliance' takes HMS 'Sybil'
  1806 Battle of Campo Tenese: French defeat the Neapolitans
  1814 Battle of Laon, Day 2: Napoleon losses to the Russo-Prussians
  1816 First "service medal" issued; Britain's Waterloo Medal --
  1849 Lincoln applies for a patent for a technique to lift grounded barges; the only president to hold a patent
  1864 Red River Campaign begins
  1865 Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, NC
  1873 Battle of Yancoomassie: 4,000 Ashanti defeat c. 25,000 Fante in what is now Ghana
  1880 The Salvation Army invades the US from Britain
  1905 Japanese Army captures Mukden from the Russians
  1915 Battle of Neuve Chapelle: Britain's "Old Contemptibles" defeated
  1927 Albania mobilizes, claiming threat from Yugoslavia
  1927 Hitler barred from speaking in Bavaria
  1931 British Labour Party expels Sir Oswald Mosley, who founds a fascistic movement
  1942 Luzon: MacArthur appoints MG Jonathan Wainwright commander of US forces in the Philippines
  1942 NY's 27th Inf Div sails for Hawaii - first division to ship out in WW II.
  1942 Vice Adm Wilson Brown's TF 11 (carriers 'Lexington' & 'Yorktown') raids Japanese shipping at Lae and Salamaua
  1944 Burma: Chinese troops and Merrill's Marauders capture the Walawbum Valley
  1944 Severe restrictions are imposed on all private travel in the UK, in preparation for D-Day
  1948 Jets begin regular operations from a carrier, VF-5A off USS 'Boxer' (CV-21)
  1952 Coup makes General Fulgencio Batista President of Cuba (1952-1959)
  1959 Lhasa, Tibet: Popular uprising against Chinese occupation
  1964 US begins reconnaissance flights over East Germany
  1966 North Vietnamese capture US Green Beret Camp in the Ashau Valley
  1969 James Earl Ray pleads guilty of killing Martin Luther King, Jr.
11 417 Election of Pope Zosimus (417-418), later canonized
  1302 Fr. Laurence marries Romeo & Juliet
  1387 Castagnaro: Paduans under Giovanni Acuto (John Hawkwood) defeat the Veronese
  1405 Battle of Grosmont: Prince Henry [V] defeats Welch under Rhys Gethin
  1502 Coronation of Shah Ismail I of Persia
  1513 Giovanni de'Medici elected Pope as Leo X (1513-1521), son of "Il Magnifico"
  1649 Peace of Rueil: ends the Fronde uprising in France (1648-1653).
  1669 Eruption of Mt. Etna kills c. 15,000
  1779 US Army Corps of Engineers established
  1795 Battle of Kurdla, India: Mahrattas defeat the Moghuls
  1810 Proxy wedding of Napoleon and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria
  1848 The "Five Days of Milan" begin: popular uprising ousts the Austrians from the city
  1861 The Confederate convention in Montgomery adopts a "permanent" constitution
  1862 Lincoln appoints Henry Halleck general-in-chief, limiting George B. McClellen's command to the Army of the Potomac
  1865 Sherman occupies Fayetteville, NC
  1917 Maude's Anglo-Allied forces capture Baghdad
  1918 Bolsheviks move capital of Russia to Moscow
  1941 FDR signs the Lend-Lease Act --
  1942 Bataan: MacArthur leaves for Mindanao on a PT-Boat
  1942 Northern Sumatra: Japanese troops being landing
  1942 Paris: First deportation train leaves for Auschwitz
  1943 American Volunteer Group ("Flying Tigers") renamed Fourteenth Air Force
  1943 Nazi occupiers form a militia in the Netherlands
  1945 Essen: 1,000 Allied bombers drop over 4,000 tons of bombs
  1945 Kamikaze hit USS 'Randolph' (CV 15) at Ulithi Atoll, heavy casualties
  1948 Jerusalem: Offices of the Jewish Agency are bombed
  1958 Mars Bluff, SC: A B-47E accidentally drops a Mk 6 30-kiloton atomic bomb
  1978 Palestinian terrorists ambush cars on an Israeli highway, 78 die
  1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR (1985-1991)
  1990 Lithuania declares independence from the USSR
  2004 Islamist bombings in Madrid, 191 die, c. 1,600 wounded
12 -551 Completion of the Temple of Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity
  -81 BC - Pompey's first Triumph, at 24
  0 Commonwealth Day
  222 Alexander Severus, 13, is proclaimed Roman Emperor (222-235)
  1088 Odo of Lagery elected Pope as Urban II (1088-1099), later beatified
  1144 Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso elected Pope as Lucius II (1144-1145)
  1212 HRE Frederick II "Stupor Mundi" lands at Gaeta, to claim Naples
  1350 Orvieto, Italy, bars Jewish-Christian marriages on pain of death
  1470 Battle of "Losecoat Field": King Edward IV's Yorkists beat Sir Robert Welles' Lancastrians
  1496 Jews expelled from Syria
  1799 Austria declares war on France
  1848 Second French Republic established
  1865 Skirmish near Lone Jack, Missouri
  1867 French troops abandon Mexico, and the Emperor Maximilian
  1868 Great Britain annexes Basutoland [Lesotho]
  1877 Great Britain annexes Walvis Bay, southwest Africa
  1889 Battle of Metema/Gallabad: Yohannes IV's Ethiopians defeated by the Mahdists
  1918 The British submarine 'D-3' is sunk off the French coast, by a French airship which mistook her for a U-boat.
  1938 German troops enter Austria, initiating the Anschluss --
  1940 Finland surrenders to Russia, ending the 104 day "Winter War"
  1941 German occupiers confiscate AVRO Studios in Netherlands
  1942 British evacuate Port Blair, Andaman Is
  1942 Burma: Joseph Stilwell assumes combined U.S./Chinese command.
  1942 Sumatra: Japanese troops land at Sabang.
  1943 Soviet troops liberate Viasma
  1943 Washington: "Pacific Military Conference" reviews war plans.
  1945 Luzon: Heavy fighting on the Shimbu Line.
  1945 Nazis execute 30 in Amsterdam
  1945 USSR returns Transylvania to Romania
  1946 USSR returns part of Petsamo Province to Finland
  1947 US announces the "Truman Doctrine," to contain communism
  1951 North Korean/Red Chinese troops driven out of Seoul
  1957 The "German Democratic Republic" agrees to a garrison of 22 Soviet divisions
  1993 Terrorist bombings in Bombay, 371 die, hundreds injured
  1999 Poland, Hungary, & the Czech Republic join NATO
13 483 Accession of Pope Felix III (483-492), later canonized
  1489 Prince Djem of the Turks becomes a "guest" of the Pope, with his brother Sultan Bajazet II paying an annual "pension" of 40,000 ducats
  1569 Battle of Jarnac: French Catholics defeat the Huguenots
  1591 Battle of Tondibi: Moroccans defeat Sultan Askia Ishaq II of Songhai --
  1656 Jews are denied the right to build a synagogue in Nieuw Amsterdam
  1792 Cape Noli: Anglo-Neapolitan and French fleets begin two-day clash
  1814 Battle of Reims: Napoleon defeats the Russians
  1815 The Congress of Vienna declares Napoleon an outlaw.
  1836 King's Defeat: Texians routed by larger Mexican force
  1865 The Confederacy authorizes enlistment of 300,000 slaves as soldiers
  1884 Mahdists invest Khartoum, defended by George "Chinese" Gordon
  1895 Spanish cruiser 'Reina Regente' sinks off Gibraltar, 402 die
  1900 Boer War: British capture Bloemfontein
  1920 Berlin: The "Kapp Putsch" fails
  1921 Mongolia declares independence from China
  1933 Hitler makes Josef Gobbels Minister of Information
  1942 Bismarck Archipelago: Japanese troops land on Buka, to build an airfield
  1942 Julia Flikke, of the Nurse Corps, becomes the first woman colonel in the US Army
  1943 Abortive assassination attempt against Hitler during a flight from Smolensk to Rastenburg
  1943 The Arakan: Japanese 55th Div attacks the Indian 14th Div
  1945 Queen Wilhelmina returns to Netherlands after nearly five years exile
  1945 The Arakan: Indian 26th Div makes an amphibious "end run" to trap Japanese troops
  1954 General Giap's Viet Minh attack That Bien Phu
  1955 Accession of Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev as King of Nepal (1955-1972)
  1957 Havana: Anti-Batista demonstration sparks bloody rioting
  1963 Russians conduct two reconnaissance flights over Alaska
  1979 New Jewel Movement overthrows the Gairy dictatorship in Grenada, and imposes its own
  1981 Bulgarian agent Mehemet Ali Agca attempts assassination of Pope John Paul II
  2013 Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio (76) of Buenos Ayres is elected Pope as Francis
14 0 Feast of St. Matilda, Empress and mother, patroness of large families, after whom several notable women through history have been named
  0 Pi Day
  1313 The Scots liberate Edinburgh Castle from the English
  1369 Battle of Montiel: Henry "the Bastard" defeats his half-brother Pedro "the Cruel" of Castille
  1489 Queen Catherine Conaro of Cyprus (1474 to 1489) sells her realm to Venice
  1503 Cesare Borgia investes Ceri, aided by Leonardo's siege engines & Machiavelli's advice
  1558 Ferdinand I becomes Holy Roman Emperor (1588-1564)
  1590 Battle of Ivry: King Henri IV of France defeats the Catholic League
  1653 Naval Battle off Livorno: Dutch fleet under Johan van Galen defeats the English
  1792 Battle of Cape Noli: Anglo-Neapolitan fleet defeats French (began 3/13)
  1799 Cardinal Ruffo's Calabrian insurgents liberate Catanzaro from the French amid great slaughter
  1800 Barnaba Chiaramoni elected Pope as Pius VII (1800-1823)
  1812 Congress authorizes bonds to finance War of 1812
  1836 Battle of Refugio: Mexicans capture Texian force
  1862 Battle of New Bern, NC
  1891 Eleven Italian-Americans lynched by a mob in New Orleans
  1912 Italian King Vittorio Emanuel III injured by an assassin
  1915 German cruiser 'Dresden' scuttled off Chile
  1917 SecNav Josephus Daniels authorizes the U.S. Navy to recruit women as "yeomen, radio electricians, and other useful ratings" under the terms of the Naval Reserve Force Act
  1919 Kaaden Massacre: 52 Sudeten Germans protesting incorporation into Czechoslovakia are shot by security forces
  1933 Civilian Conservation Corps established, under U.S. Army management
  1933 Winston Churchill calls for better air defense of Britain
  1939 Nazis dissolve Czechoslovakia, as Hungary, Romania, & Poland rush to share the spoils
  1941 Italian hospital ship 'Po' is sunk by British aircraft off Albania; nurse Edda Mussolini Ciano swims ashore
  1941 German Air Raid on Clydbank: After two night of bombing nearly every building the town is damaged or destroyed, more than 500 are dead, and over 50,000 homeless
  1942 MacArthur arrives on Mindanao by PT-boat, from Bataan en route to Australia.
  1945 B-29s raid Osaka, 13,000 casualties.
  1945 RAF bombs railway link at Hanover-Hamm
  1946 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for Winston Churchill
  1953 Nikita Khrushchev succeeds Malenkov as secretary of the CPUSSR
  1991 The Emir returns to Kuwait, newly liberated from Iraqi occupation
15 -509 Installation of the first consuls: L. Iunius Brutus & L. Tarquinius Collatinus
  0 New Consuls assume their office under the Roman Republic, 509-153 BC
  624 Battle of Badr: Mohammed defeats the Quriesh to capture Mecca
  933 Battle of Merseburg/Riade: King Henry V "the Fowler" of the Germans defeats the Hungarians
  1311 Battle of Halmyros/Cefiso: The Catalan Company captures the Duchy of Athens
  1330 Azzone Visconti stages a coup in Milan, which his descendants will rule until 1535
  1360 French raiders capture Winchelsea, England
  1391 Anti-Jewish riots begin in Seville and spread, reportedly leading to c. 50,000 deaths in a year
  1493 Columbus returns to Spain from his first voyage
  1744 France declares war on England
  1781 Battle of Guilford Court House: The Brits barely defeat the Yankees, and decide to retire from the Carolinas into Virginia, where they will have an unfortunate encounter with George Washington at Yorktown
  1916 Fifth Battle of the Isonzo ends (from Mar 5)
  1916 Pershing begins 10-month pursuit of Pancho Villa in Mexico
  1919 American Legion formed, in Paris
  1930 USS 'Nautilus' (SS 168) is launched at Mare Is., California
  1939 Hitler occupies the remnants of Czechoslovakia.
  1942 Hawaii: NY's 27th Inf Div arrives, first division to land overseas in WW II.
  1942 Japanese begin intensive bombardment of forts guarding Manila Bay.
  1943 U.S. Navy forces in the Central Pacific are designated the Fifth Fleet.
  1943 Third Battle of Kharkov: Germans under Manstein retake the city from the Soviets
  1944 Abbey of Monte Cassino destroyed by Allied bombing
  1944 Admiralty Is.: U.S. Army invades Manus
  1945 Burma: British secure Mandalay.
  1957 Britain becomes the third nation to detonate a nuclear bomb
  1969 Chinese-Russian border clash, hundreds die
  1978 Israel raids Lebanon to rid area of Palestine guerrillas
16 -597 The Babylonians capture Jerusalem
  1190 Crusaders initiate massacre of the Jews of York, England, c. 500 die
  1322 Battle of Boroughbridge: Sir Andrew Harclay defeats the Earl of Lancaster
  1527 Battle of Khanua: Babur's Moghuls defeat the Rajputs
  1792 Swedish King Gustav III mortally wounded by an assassin, which inspires Verdi's "Un Ballo in Maschera"
  1802 U.S. Military Academy is established at West Point
  1815 William I of Orange proclaimed King of the Netherlands, including Belgium
  1861 Confederate government appoints commissioners to Britain & France in the hope of securing recognition or aid
  1865 Battle of Averasboro, NC
  1882 US Senate ratifies treaty establishing the International Red Cross
  1916 The new Dutch passenger liner 'Tubatina' is torpedoed off the Netherlands, Germany denies responsibility despite recovery of portions of the torpedo
  1922 Sultan Fuad of Egypt (1917-1922) is crowned King of Egypt (1922-1936)
  1926 Robert Goddard launches the first liquid fuel rocket, to 184 feet
  1935 Hitler announces German rearmament, after years of covert efforts under the Weimar Republic, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles
  1939 Hungary annexes Carpatho-Ukraine district of Czechoslovakia
  1941 The Pennsylvania Railroad's Cleveland-Pittsburgh express is derailed near Baden, Ohio, by Ukrainian fascists acting in German pay
  1943 Solomon Is: U.S. destroyers shell Vila.
  1944 USS 'Tautog' (SS-199) sinks Japanese DD 'Shirakumo' off Hokkaido
  1945 Iwo Jima: organized Japanese resistance ends, mopping up continues.
  1966 Gemini 8 launched with Armstrong & Scott, aborted after 6.5 orbits
  1968 My Lai Massacre, perhaps 450 die
  1985 Hezbollah terrorists capture Associated Press correspondent Terry Anderson, hold him until 1991
17 -49 Pompey and his army take ship for Greece from Brindisi, besieged by Caesar
  -45 BC - Battle of Munda: Caesar defeats the last Pompeians, in Spain
  0 Feast of St Patrick, Patron of Ireland and of Engineers --!/articles/wqxr-features/2013/aug/31/saturday-morning-cartoons-swedish-chef-sings-irish-song/?utm_source=local&utm_media=treatment&utm_campaign=carousel&utm_content=item3
  455 Petronius Maximus becomes Roman Emperor (to 22 May 455)
  1040 Hardthacanute, King of Denmark, becomes King of England (1040-1042)
  1058 Malcolm III Canmore becomes King of Scotland
  1229 Excommunicated Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen captures Jerusalem
  1328 Treaty of Edinburgh: England recognizes Scottish independence
  1431 Battle of Arzanello: The Visconti defeat the Florentines
  1521 Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Philippines
  1526 French King Francis I, released from Spanish captivity, promptly breaks his word, resumes war --
  1762 First St Partick's Day parade in New York City
  1776 British forces evacuate Boston; George Washington orders an extra gill of whiskey to every Irish soldier in the army
  1800 HMS 'Queen Charlotte' burns at Livorno, 673 of 829 aboard die
  1861 Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy
  1863 Battle of Kelly's Ford, VA
  1864 Naval battle of Jasmond Sound: the Danes defeat the Prussians
  1876 Gen Crook raids Cheyenne & Oglala-Sioux Indian camps
  1886 Carrollton Massacre, 20 blacks killed in Mississippi
  1913 Franlin D. Roosevelt is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913-1921) --
  1916 The Japanese Navy formally institutes a "Naval Air Service"
  1917 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates the throne (1894-1917), murdered 1918
  1931 Stalin throws Lenin's wife Krupskaya out of the Central Committee
  1932 German police raid Hitler's headquarters
  1942 Belzec Concentration Camp opens
  1942 MacArthur flies from Mindanao to Australia in a B-17.
  1944 Admiralty Is: 1st Cav Div captures Lorengau airfield, Manus
  1945 B-29s raid Kobe, c. 15,000 casualties.
  1959 Dalai Lama flees Tibet for India
  1966 US mini-sub locates a missing H-bomb in the Mediterranean off Palomares, Spain
  1969 Golda Meir becomes Israeli PM (1969-1974)
  1992 Arab terrorists bomb the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aries, 28 die, 300 injured
  1993 Terrorist bombing in Calcutta, 86 die
18 37 Caligula becomes Roman Emperor (37-41), possibly having murdered Tiberius
  180 Commodus becomes Roman Emperor (180-193), without having murdered Marcus Aurelius
  731 Accession of Pope Gregory III (731-741), later canonized
  1167 Battle of Al-Babein: Turks defeat the Kingdom of Jerusalem
  1190 Crusaders kill 57 Jews in Bury St Edmonds, England
  1776 George Washington's army occupies Boston
  1793 Battle of Neerwinden: The Austrians defeat the French
  1799 Cardinal Ruffo's Calabrian insurgents liberate Cosenza from the French amid great slaughter
  1859 Mexican War of Reform: Vera Cruz besieged by the Conservatives
  1871 Revolt of the Paris Commune begins
  1890 Massachusetts activates the first naval militia unit
  1896 Second Battle of Sebderat: Italians defeat the Sudanese Mahdists
  1915 British & French lose 6 ships attempting to force the Dardanelles
  1917 French battleship 'Danton' is sunk off Sardinia by a German u-boat, 296 die
  1921 Peace of Riga: Ends Polish-Soviet War
  1942 "Free Netherlands" resistance movement begins boycott of theaters
  1943 Burma: "Chindits" raid across the Irrawaddy River
  1944 German troops seize control of Hungary
  1944 Mt Vesuvius begins an eleven day eruption, slightly inconveniencing World War II
  1944 U.S. Task Group 50.1 bombards Mili Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
  1945 Massive USAAF raid on Berlin, c. 1250 bombers
  1945 US Task Force 58 attacks targets on Kyushu
  1952 Communist offensive in Korea begins
  1962 Algerian War for Independence ends; c. 250,000 have died since '55
19 0 Feast of St. Joseph, Patron of the Church, fathers, carpenters, and fireworks
  607 Consecration of Pope Boniface III (19 Feb-12 Nov 607)
  1148 Second Crusade (led by Louis VII of France & his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine) reaches Antioch
  1227 Count Ugolino di Conti de Segni elected Pope as Gregory IX (1227-1241)
  1279 Battle of Yamen: Mongols oust China's Song Dynasty
  1452 German King Frederick IV of Hapsburg is crowned Holy Roman Emperor as Federick III (1452-1493)
  1563 Peace of Amboise: ends the French First War of Religion (1562-1563)
  1571 The Spanish capture Manila
  1793 Battle of Le-Pont-Charron: Vendean rebels rout French Revolutionary troops by singing "La Marseillaise"
  1815 Louis XVIII flees Paris, as Napoleon nears
  1823 Abdication of Emperor Agustin I of Mexico (May 19, 1822-March 19, 1823), executed 1824
  1865 Battle of Bentonville: Last major Civil War engagement in the East
  1898 USS 'Oregon' (BB-3) begins 14,000 mile voyage from San Francisco to Key West
  1920 US Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles for the second time
  1925 Former Sgt Angelo Roncalli is made a bishop, a stepping-stone to the papacy as John XXIII
  1927 Bloody Nazi-Communist street brawls in Berlin
  1940 Daladier Cabinet falls in France, as the "Phony War" continues
  1942 Central Burma: Japanese attack the Chinese 200th Div
  1942 FDR orders men between 45 & 64 to register for non-military duty
  1942 William Slim takes command of the British Burma Corps.
  1945 Adolf Hitler orders total destruction of German infrastructure
  1945 Burma: British 36th Division captures Mogok
  1945 USS 'Franklin' (CV-13) is hit by Japanese air attack, 724 die, 265 wounded
  1945 Kure Naval Base: USN air raids destroy last of the IJN.
  1947 Chiang Kai-Shek's forces captures Jenan from the Communists
  1951 Herman Wouk's novel "The Caine Mutiny" is published
  1965 Nicolae Ceausescu becomes 1st Secretary of Romanian CP
  1989 Maiden flight of the Boeing V-22 Osprey VTOL aircraft
  2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom begins (2003-2011)
20 235 Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus - Maximinus Thrax is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the legions at Mainz (235-238)
  1631 Imperial troops sack Magdeburg, 25,000 said to have died
  1760 Great Fire at Boston, leaves much of the city in ruins
  1800 Battle of Heliopolis: French defeat the Turks
  1813 King Frederick Wilhelm III of Prussia creates the Iron Cross
  1814 Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, Day 1: Austro-Russians v. Napoleon
  1815 Napoleon reaches Paris from Elba; The Hundred Days begin --
  1833 Cdr Geisinger of USS 'Peacock' & the King of Siam negotiate a commercial treaty
  1836 Coleto Creek: Texian garrison of Goliad surrenders to the Mexican Army
  1849 Battle of Cava: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is published
  1853 The Tai-ping rebels capture Nanking
  1890 Kaiser Wilhelm II fires Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
  1896 Marines land in Nicaragua to protect US citizens
  1922 First US carrier commissioned: 'Langley' (CV-1) --
  1927 Joseph Goebbles leads the first Nazi pogrom, attacking Jewish shops in Berlin.
  1931 Christian Schreiber, first Roman Catholic Archbishop of Berlin (1930-1933), warns against National Socialism
  1933 The Nazis open their first concentration camp, at Dachau, near Munich
  1937 Italo-Nationalist offensive at Guadalajara, Spain
  1939 7,000 Jews flee German occupied Memel, Lithuania
  1939 Naval Research Lab proposes development of nuclear power
  1942 Gen MacArthur vows "I shall return"
  1942 Major Italo-German air raid on Malta
  1943 Tunisia: British attack the Mareth Line
  1951 Indonesian Army offensive against the Darul Islam movement on Java
  1952 Final ratification of peace treaty restoring full sovereignty to Japan
  2003 Widespread coalition air strikes in Iraq
21 630 Roman Emperor Heraclius returns the "True Cross", recaptured from the Persians, to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  867 Battle of York: Danes defeat King Aelle of Northumbria
  1084 Emperor Henry IV captures Rome, and Pope Gregory VII
  1146 St. Bernard of Clairveaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy
  1152 Marriage of King Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine
  1421 Battle of Beauge: The English are defeated by the French
  1625 Franco-Piedmontese capture Novi from the Spanish-Genoese
  1788 Second Great Fire of New Orleans: c. 800-850 buildings houses burn after a votive candle ignites some curtains
  1814 Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, Day 2: Austro-Russians defeat Napoleon
  1824 Explosion and fire at the Citadel at Cairo, over 4,000 die
  1836 Mexicans capture Copano, Texas
  1848 Combat at Sforzesca: Piedmontese defeat the Austrians
  1849 Combat at Borgo San Siro: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1849 Combat at Gambolo: Piedmontese defeat the Austrians
  1849 Combat at Mortara: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1866 Congress authorizes a national soldiers' homes
  1918 "Operation Michel" - Germans begin the first offensive of "Die Kaiserschlacht"
  1927 Kuomintang forces occupy Shanghai
  1937 Police fire on nationalist parade, Ponce, PR, 19 die
  1939 Hitler demands annexation of the Free City of Danzig
  1940 Paul Reynaud becomes French premier (March 21 - June 16, 1940)
  1942 Jimmy Stewart enlists in the USAAF
  1942 Major Italo-German air attacks on Malta
  1943 Assassination attempt on Hitler fails
  1945 Okinawa: Japanese use Okha suicide planes for the first time
  1946 Strategic Air Command is formed
  1951 Julius & Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage
  1960 Sharpeville, South Africa: Police open fire on black demonstrators protesting apartheid, killing 69
  1967 Battle of Suoi Tre: Major US victory over the VC/NVA
  1984 Soviet sub collides with USS 'Kitty Hawk' (CV-63) off Japan
22 238 Gordian I (b. c. 160) & his son Gordian II (b. 192) are proclaimed Roman co-Emperors at Carthage (Mar 22 - Apr 12, 283)
  1349 Jews of Fulda massacred for "causing the Plague"
  1622 First Indian War: Powahaten attacks Jamestown, Va, 347 die
  1793 The Holy Roman Empire declares war on the French Republic
  1794 Congress prohibits the export of slaves from the United States.
  1862 San Marino & Italy conclude a treaty of friendship & cooperation
  1865 Chickasaw, Alabama: Wilson's Raid begins
  1917 3rd Lt. Elmer F. Stone becomes USCG Aviator No. 1
  1942 Italo-German air raids on Malta
  1945 Arab League formed
  1945 Patton's Third Army crosses the Rhine --
  1963 British War Minister John Profumo denies an affair with Christine Keeler
  1979 Israeli parliament approves peace treaty with Egypt
23 0 Roman Festival of the Tubilustrium - Purification of the War Trumpets
  625 Battle of Uhod: The Quriesh defeat the Moslems
  752 Election of Pope Stephen II (23-26 Mar 752)
  1026 German King Conrad II declares himself King of Italy
  1153 Treaty of Konstanz between Frederik I Barbarossa & Pope Eugene III
  1208 Pope Innocent III excommunicates King John and lays England under interdict until the Crown restores ecclesiastical rights
  1568 Peace of Longjumeau: ends French Second War of Religion (1567-1568)
  1630 French capture Pinerolo, Piedmont
  1657 France and England conclude an alliance against Spain
  1775 Patrick Henry says ". . . give me liberty or give me death!"
  1801 Acession of Tsar Alexander I of Russia (1801-1852) --
  1806 French defeat Fra Diavolo at Santa Oliva, near Itri
  1806 Lewis & Clark reach the Pacific Coast
  1808 Napoleon makes his brother Joseph King of Spain
  1815 USS 'Hornet' captures HMS 'Penguin' in just 22 minutes, though the War of 1812 has been over for more than three months
  1849 Battle of Novara: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1849 Brescians begin a 10-day uprising against the Austrians (fails, Apr 1)
  1862 Battle of Kernstown, Va: Jackson begins his Valley Campaign
  1864 Skirmish at Camden, Arkansas
  1865 First black troops muster into the Confederate Army
  1879 Battle of Calama: Chileans defeat the Bolivians
  1882 USN establishes the Office of Naval Intelligence
  1901 Brig Gen Frederick Funston personally captures Emilio Aguinaldo
  1903 The Wright Brothers receive a patent for their airplane
  1915 British form the Zion Mule Corps
  1918 Lithuania proclaims independence from Russia
  1918 Paris shelled by German very-long range artillery
  1919 Benito Mussolini founds the Fascist Party, Milan
  1933 The Reichstag grants Hitler dictatorial powers
  1934 Congress establishes the Commonwealth of the Philippines, and authorizes a transition to independence in 1946
  1942 Andaman Is: Japanese 18th Div occupies Port Blair
  1942 Lublin, Poland: 2,500 Jews massacred by the Germans
  1944 RAF Flight Sergeant Nicholas Alkemade survives a 5,500 m fall without a parachute after his Lancaster is hit near Berlin
  1945 Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser brings the Commonwealth's newly formed "British Pacific Fleet" to join the USN in the Central Pacific
  1956 Pakistan proclaimed an Islamic Republic within the Commonwealth
  1956 Sudan becomes independent of Anglo-Egyptian control
  1957 US army sells its last homing pigeons
  1965 Gemini 3 launched, first US 2-man space flight (Grissom & Young)
  2003 USMC Task Force Tarawa captures An Nasiriyah after a hot fight.
24 1241 Mongols take Cracow, Poland
  1303 Battle of Roslin: John Comyn & Simon Fraser defeat John Segrove & Ralph de Manton
  1401 Tamerlane sacks Damascus
  1765 Britain enacts the Quartering Act
  1832 Mormon leader Joseph Smith beaten, tarred, & feathered in Ohio
  1848 First Schleswig Holstein War breaks out: The Germanic Confederation attempt to wrest the provinces from Denmark fails by 1851 --
  1878 British frigate 'Eurydice' sinks, 300 lost
  1898 The battleships 'Keasrage' (BB 5) & 'Kentucky' (BB 6) are launched at Newport News --
  1916 'U-39' seriously damages the Channel ferry 'Sussex', c. 50 civilians killed, more injured; Germany responds to US protests by halting unrestricted submarine warfare
  1919 New York's 27th Division returns from the Great War, marching up Fifth Avenue
  1920 First Coast Guard air station established, Morehead City, NC
  1938 Battle of Taierzhuang begins: Japanese offensive meets stout Chinese resistance, which holds until April 7
  1941 German attack near El Agheila, Libya
  1941 Donald Duck entlists in the Army, for the first of six war cartoons.
  1944 Nazis execute more than 300 civilians near Rome
  1944 The Great Escape: 76 Allied officers flee Stalag Luft 3
  1945 Operation Varsity: Allied airborne crossing of the Rhine
  1945 Gen. George S. Patton pisses in the Rhine from a pontoon bridge near Oppehneim, Germany --
  1958 Elvis becomes US-5531076 at Memphis
  1959 Iraq withdraws from the Baghdad Pact
  1976 Argentine Pres Isabel Peron (July 1, 1974-March 24, 1976) deposed by military coup
  1982 US sub 'Jacksonville' (SSN-699) collides with Turkish freighter off Virginia
  1986 US & Libya air-sea clash in Gulf of Sidra
25 0 Medal of Honor Day
  31 The Resurrection, according to Dionysius Exiguus
  421 Foundation of Venice
  708 Consecration of Pope Constantine (708-715)
  1300 Sometime cavalryman Dante Alighieri takes a little walk.
  1306 Robert the Bruce is crowned King of Scots (1306-1329)
  1581 Portuguese Cortes names Philip II of Spain as King of Portugal
  1655 Battle at Annapolis, Md: between Puritans & Royalists
  1669 Eruption of Mt Etna, 20,000 die
  1715 Acession of King Frederick Wilhelm I of Prussia (1713-1740), father to Frederick the Great --
  1799 First Battle of Stockach: Austrians defeat the French
  1799 French capture Florence
  1807 British Parliament abolishes the Trans-Atlantic slave trade
  1809 Battle of Medellin: The French defeat the Spanish
  1813 USS 'Essex' takes 'Neryeda', first USN victory in the Pacific
  1821 Metropolitan Germanos of Patras blesses a flag at the Monastery of Agia Lavra, to initiate the Greek War for Independence from the Ottomans
  1836 Texians win a small skirmish at Rocky Creek
  1864 Battle of Paducah, Ky (Forrest's raid)
  1865 Battle of Fort Stedman, VA: Lee's last offensive
  1898 Asst SecNav Theo. Roosevelt urges the Navy to support Samuel Langley's aviation experiments.
  1905 Most battle flags captured during the Civil War are returned to the South
  1915 First USN submarine disaster: USS 'F-4' sinks off Hawaii, 21 die
  1937 Pact of Belgrade: Italy & Yugoslavia sign a non-aggression treaty
  1945 US 4th Armored Division captures Hanau and Aschaffenburg
  1945 US First Army breaks out of the Remagen bridgehead
  1958 Elvis gets a G.I. haircut
26 1027 Pope John XIX crowns Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II (1027-1039)
  1199 King Richard I "Lionheart" mortally wounded by a crossbow bolt at Chalus
  1351 Battle of the Thirty: 30 French knights under Charles de Blois defeat 30 English knights under Jean de Montfort
  1804 Congress orders removal of Indians east of the Mississippi to the Louisiana Territory
  1812 Earthquake levels Caracas, c. 20,000 die
  1862 La Glorieta Pass, NM - "The Gettysburg of the West"
  1885 Battle of Duck Lake (Sask): Louis Riel's rebels defeat Canadian forces
  1913 First Balkan War: The Bulgarians capture Adrianople from the Turks, ending the war
  1917 First Battle of Gaza: The Turks hold the British.
  1941 Suda Bay, Crete: Italian torpedo boats sink the British heavy cruiser HMS 'York'
  1942 First "Eichmann transport" to Auschwitz & Birkenau
  1943 Battle of Komandorski Islands: USN squadron defeats a superior Japanese one
  1943 First woman awarded the Air Medal: Army Nurse Elsie Ott
  1944 Malfunctioning torpedo sinks USS 'Tullibee' (SS-287), one survivor --
  1945 Okinawa: Kamikaze attack on the US fleet
  1945 Philippines: U.S. troops land on Cebu
  1945 Seventh Army attacks Worms on the Rhine
  1945 Winston Churchill pisses in the Rhine, near Ginsberg, with great satisfaction, cheered on by observing Allied troops
  1951 USAF flag approved
  1958 Army launches 3rd successful US satellite, Explorer III
  1960 Iraq sentences 30 to death after attack on Pres Kassem
  1970 500th nuclear explosion since 1945 announced by the US
  2008 A California district court rules that the heirs of Jerome Siegel and Joseph Shuster, who created Superman, are owed serious bucks by the corporate descendents of Detective Comics
27 -58 BC - Caesar reaches Geneva, to begin the conquest of Gaul
  -47 BC - Battle of the Nile: Caesar & Pharnaces defeat the a Egypto-Optimate Army
  -19 BC - Triumph of Lucius Cornelisu Balbus the Younger, for victories in Africa; the last triumph held for anyone not a member of the imperial family
  1555 Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi elected Pope as Marcellus II (Mar 27-May 6 1555)
  1599 Elizabeth names her favorite, the Earl of Essex, Lt-Gen of Ireland
  1625 Charles I ascends the English and Scottish thrones, deposed and executed 1649
  1794 Congress approves construction of 6 frigates, including USS 'Constitution'
  1799 USS 'Constitution' recaptures the American sloop 'Neutrality' from the French
  1802 Treaty of Amiens: Wars of the French Revolution end
  1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Andrew Jackson defeats the Creeks
  1863 Confederate President Jefferson Davis declares a day of fasting & prayer
  1865 Battle of Mobile/Spanish Fort/Fort Morgan/Fort Blakely
  1933 Japan leaves the League of Nations
  1937 Pope Pius XI publishes anti-Nazi encyclical "Mit brennender Sorge"
  1940 Himmler orders building of the Auschwitz concentration camp
  1941 Britain leases bases in Trinidad to US for 99 years
  1941 Coup in Yugoslavia ousts Prince Paul's pro-Nazi regime, prompting Hitler to order an invasion
  1941 Takeo Yoshikawa begins spying on US installations on Oahu
  1942 Allied air attack on the German submarine base at St Nazaire, paves the way for a nocturnal Commando raid
  1942 Ceylon: Adm. James Somerville takes over the British Far Eastern Fleet
  1943 US troops attack Fonduk Pass, Tunisia
  1944 Gestapo murders 40 Jewish policemen in Riga
  1944 Nazis collect all the Jewish children of Lovno
  1944 Nazis murder 2,000 in Kaunas, Lithuania
  1944 Nazis transport 1,000 Jews from Drancy, France to Auschwitz
  1945 B-29s begin mining Japanese waters
  1945 Wiesbaden falls to the US XX Corps
  1945 The last German V2 attack on Britain: A woman is killed and nearly two dozen others injured at Orpington, Kent
  1952 Attempted assassination of West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
  1958 First Secretary of the CP (since 1953) Nikita Khrushchev becomes premier of the USSR (1958-1964)
  1964 UN peacekeeping troops arrive on Cyprus
28 -49 Julius Caesar, who has the flu, visits Cicero at Formiae
  193 Didius Julianus bribes the Praetorians to make him Roman Emperor (Mar 28-Jun 1, 193)
  845 The Vikings sack Paris
  1461 Battle of Dintingdale: Lord Fauconberg defeats Lord Clifford
  1461 Battle of Ferrybridge: King Edward IV defeats the Dukes of Somerset & Rivers
  1774 Britain passes the Coercive Act, to punish Massachusetts for the Tea Party and other acts of resistance
  1799 NY State initiates the abolition of slavery, which is completed in 1827
  1814 HMS's 'Phoebe' and 'Cherub' capture USS 'Essex' off Valparaiso, Chile
  1917 Turks expel the Jews from Tel Aviv & Jaffa
  1930 Turkey renames Constantinople as Istanbul, Angora as Ankara.
  1939 Franco captures Madrid; Spanish Civil War ends
  1941 Battle of Cape Matapan: In an overnight action that ends early on the 29th, the Royal Navy inflicts heavy loses on the Regia Marina
  1942 RAF bombs Lubeck
  1942 Nocturnal RN commando raid blocks the 'Normandie' dock in Nazi-occupied St Nazaire --
  1945 Last V-1 buzz bomb attack on London
  1958 Elvis joins Co A, 2nd Bn, 37th Armor, 2nd Arm Div, Ft. Hood
29 0 Vietnam Veteran Recognition Day
  1430 Ottoman Sultan Murad II captures Thessaloniki from the Venetians
  1461 Battle of Towton: Yorkists defeat the Lancastrians in the bloodiest encounter ever on English soil
  1628 Piedmontese invade Montferrat
  1849 Henry "Box" Brown escapes slavery by shipping himself from Richmond to Philadelphia in a packing case
  1864 Britain cedes the Ionian Islands to Greece
  1865 Battle of Quaker Road, VA
  1879 Battle of Kambula: British defeat the Zulu
  1935 French liner 'Normandie' begins her maiden voyage
  1942 Barents Sea: British light cruiser 'Trinidad' torpedoes herself
  1943 US begins rationing meat, butter, & cheese
  1962 Military coup ousts Argentine Pres Arturo Frondizi (1958-1962)
  1969 Communist New People's Army founded in Philippines
  1971 1st Lt William L Calley Jr found guilty in the My Lai massacre
  1973 Last US troops leave Vietnam, 9 years after the Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  1994 Cease-fire ends Serbo-Croat War
30 430 Battle of Mold: St. Germanus defeats the Picts and Saxons
  988 Boudouin/Baldwin IV "the Bearded" becomes Count of Flanders (988-1037),
  1191 King Philip II of France sails from Sicily for the Holy Land (3rd Crusade)
  1282 "Sicilian Vespers" begin: Palermitans massacre French occupiers, initiating a successful war to transfer the island to the Catalans
  1296 Battle of Berwick: King Edward I defeats Sir William Douglas & the Scottish Nobles
  1533 Henry VIII divorces his 1st wife, Catherine of Aragon
  1603 Battle of Mellifont: English defeat the Irish
  1639 Massacre of Aberdeen: Montrose's Scots Covenanters slaughter the Royalists
  1814 Battle of Clichy: Austro-Russo-Prussians defeat the French
  1856 Triumphal reception at Paris for Napoleon III to welcome the French Army returning from the Crimea.
  1863 Pr Wilhelm Georg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg becomes King George I of Greece (1863-1913)
  1942 SS murders 200 inmates of Trawniki labor camp
  1944 TF 58 begins raids on Palau, Yap, and Ulithi.
  1945 Soviet troops enter Austria
  1961 NASA pilot Joseph Walker takes X-15 to 51,690 m
31 1146 Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a Second Crusade before a large crowd in a field at Vézelay, whereupon King Louis VII of France takes the Cross
  1152 King Baldwin III of Jerusalem exiles his mother, Melissande
  1492 Ferdinand & Isabella of the Spains order the Jews of Spain to convert or leave
  1547 Accession of King Henry II of France (1547-1559)
  1571 The English capture Dumbarton, Scotland
  1644 Castro War: Peace of Ferrara - Pope Urban VIII agrees to "status quo ante" with Venice, Tuscany, Parma, & Modena --
  1745 Jews are expelled from Prague
  1808 Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia orders Jews to adopt family names
  1814 The Allies capture Paris
  1822 The Massacre of Chios: Ottoman troops slaughter the rebellious populace, raising Western sympathy for Greek independence
  1829 Francesco Xaverio Castiglione is elected Pope as Pius VIII (1829-1830)
  1854 Commodore Perry forces Japan to open its ports to foreign trade
  1865 Battle of Dinwiddie Court House, Va: Confederate's frustrate a Union attempt to turn their strategic flank at Petersburg
  1866 Guano War: Spanish fleet bombards Valparaiso
  1889 The Eiffel Tower is opened to the public
  1907 Romanian Army puts down Moldavian revolt
  1917 US gains possession of the Virgin Is from Denmark, for $25 million
  1923 Essen: French troops fire on striking Krupp workers, 13 die
  1939 Britain & France agree to support Poland if invaded by Germany
  1941 Hawaii: Senior Army & Navy air defense officers warn of danger from carrier raids
  1942 Burma: Japanese troops occupy Toungoo, unhinging the Prome-Toungoo Line.
  1942 U.S. leases air base rights from Liberia
  1943 USAAF accidentally bombs a residential area of Rotterdam, 326 die
  1944 New Guinea: Fifth Air Force bombs Hollandia
  1954 USSR offers to join NATO
  1964 Rightist military coup outs Pres Joao Goulart of Brazil (1961-1964)
  1966 Anti-war demonstration in NY, c. 250,000 march
  1967 NATO HQ moves to Casteau-Maisisres, Belgium
  1968 LBJ announces he will not seek re-election
  1991 Georgia votes independence from the USSR


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