July Military History

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1 1534 King Frederick II of Denmark and Norway (1559-88)
  1725 Jean Baptiste, Comte de Rochambeau, French admiral, victor of the Virginia Capes, insuring American victory at Yorktown, d. 1807
  1731 Adam Duncan, later Admiral Viscount Duncan, victor of Camperdown, d. 1804 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic152b.asp#one
  1802 Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy, d. 1878
  1833 Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1880
  1872 Louis Bleriot, first to fly an airplane across English Channel, d. 1936
  1903 Amy Johnson, aviatrix, first woman to fly England to Australia, d. 1941
2 419 Roman Emperor Valentinian III (425-455), arguably the most inept of the lot
  1830 John Bordenave Villepigue, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862
  1836 Henry Eugene Davies, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1894
  1877 Hermann Hesse, German volunteer of 1914, German/Swiss novelist, pacifist, anti-Nazi, d. 1962
  1903 King Olav V of Norway (1957-1991)
  1925 Patrice Lumumba, Congolese radical politician, murdered, 1960
  1926 The Army Air Corps, declared formed as an arm of the Army by Act of Congress
3 1423 King Louis XI of France (1461-83) -- "The Spider King"
  1567 Samuel de Champlain, French explorer of North America, d. 1635
  1737 Samuel Huntington, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1791
  1829 Charles Brooke, British adventurer, Rajah of Sarawak (1868-1917), d. 1917
  1878 George M. Cohan, not on the 4th, as he claimed, d. 1942
  1886 Adm. Raymond A Spruance, Victor of Midway, d. 1969
  1951 Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier, sometime President/Dictator of Haiti (1971-1986)
4 1546 Ottoman Sultan Murad III (1574-95)
  1799 King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway (1844-59)
  1804 Nathaniel Hawthorne, militiaman, novelist ("The Scarlet Letter"), d. 1864
  1807 Giuseppe Garibaldi - "Hero of Two Continents", d. 1882 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic218a.asp
  1826 Green Clay Smith, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1895
  1828 James Johnston Pettigrew, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia 1863
  1872 Calvin Coolidge, only President born on the Glorious 4th, d. 1922
  1883 Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff (1941-1946), d. 1963
  1916 Iva "Tokyo Rose" Toguri D'Aquino, d. 2006
5 1801 David Glasgow Farragut, the USN's First Admiral, d. 1870
  1853 Cecil John Rhodes, imperialist, d. 1902
  1889 Jean Cocteau, sensitively artistic Nazi collaborator, d. 1963
  1902 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr, tank officer, diplomat, d. 1985
  1921 Victor Kulikov, Hero of the Soviet Union, the last Marshal of the Soviet Union, who soldiered from 1939 to 1990, d. 2013
6 1747 John Paul Jones, American naval officer, Russian admiral, who would go "in harm's way", d. 1792
  1781 Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore, d. July 5, 1826
  1796 Tsar Nicholas I of Russia (1825-55)
  1814 Justus McKinstry, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1821 Edward Winston Pettus, Brig Gen, C.S.A. d. 1907
  1832 Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, sometime Emperor of Mexico (1862-1867), executed 1867
  1892 Baron Willy Coppens de Houthulst, Belgian WW I ace, d. 1986
  1909 Andrei Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minister (1957-1985), d. 1989
  1918 Eugene List, noted concert pianist & the GI who played for the "Big Three" at Potsdam, d. 1985
  1946 George W. Bush, Air Guardsman, President (2001-2009)
7 1766 Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, French General, Revolutionary & Napoleonic wars, d/w 1815
  1813 William Scott Ketchum, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1871
  1816 Isaac Fitzgerald Shepard, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1889
  1824 Alfred Pleasonton, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1827 James Murrell Shackelford, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1909
  1827 William Montague Browne, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1883
  1907 Robert Heinlein, sometime naval officer, grand master of science fiction, d. 1988
  1919 William Kunstler, Maj., U.S. Army, WW II, leftist attorney, d. 1995
  1933 David Gaub McCullough, American historian ('The Great Bridge," "Truman," etc.)
8 1528 Duke Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Spanish general, d. 1580
  1545 Don Carlos, Prince of Spain, who was retarded, not mad, d. 1568
  1819 Alexander Hays, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1864
  1821 William H. L. Wallace, Brig Gen, U.S., d/w 1862
  1824 Waldimir Bonawentura Krzyzanowski, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1887
  1826 Benjamin Henry Grierson, Maj Gen, U.S., intrepid trooper, musician, d. 1911
  1826 Robert Kingston Scott, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1900
  1838 Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin, d. 1911
9 1578 Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Hungary (1619-37)
  1769 Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne, schoolmate of Napoleon, diplomat, grafter, scandal monger, d. 1834 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic153b.asp#one
  1777 Henry Hallam, historian ("View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages"), d. 1859
  1857 Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden (1907-18)
  1887 Samuel Eliot Morison, sailor, naval officer, historian ("Admiral of the Ocean Sea"), d. 1976
  1956 Tom Hanks, actor ("Saving Private Ryan")
10 1509 John Calvin, Protestant reformer with a high body count, d. 1564
  1818 John Stuart "Cerro Gordo" Williams, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1898
  1820 Andrew Porter, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1872
  1821 Christopher Columbus Augur, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1898
  1833 Lucius Eugene Polk, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
  1834 James Abbott McNeill Whistler, USMA drop-out, artist ("Whistler's Mother"), d. 1903
  1883 Johannes Albrecht Blaskowitz, German general, d. 1948
  1922 Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist, German officer, anti-Hitler conspirator, last surviving veteran of the "July Plot", d. 2013
  1927 David N. Dinkins, marine, Mayor of New York (1990-1994)
11 1274 King Robert I the Bruce of Scotland (1306-29)
  1657 King Frederick I of Prussia (1701-13)
  1662 Duke Maximilian II Emanuel of Bavaria (1679-1726)
  1767 John Quincy Adams, diplomat, President (1825-1829), d. 1848
  1825 Edward Henry Hobson, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1901
  1841 William Paul Roberts, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1910
  1844 King Peter I Karadjordjevic of Serbia (1903-1921)
  1888 Carl Schmitt, Nazi "jurist", d.1985
  1890 Arthur W Tedder, Marshal of the Royal Air Force, d. 1967
  1914 Mildred Dalton [Manning], Army Nurse, who became the last surviving "Angel of Corregidor", d. 2013
  1915 Colin Kelly, American airman, kia 1941
12 -100 Gaius Julius Caesar, assassinated 44 BC [or maybe on the 13th]
  1807 Silas Casey, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1882
  1821 Daniel Harvey Hill, Lt Gen, C.S.A., d. 1889
  1870 Prince Louis II Onorato of Monaco (1921-1949), French general, d. 1949
  1895 Kirsten Malfrid Flagstad, Norwegian soprano, Qusiling who got over, d. 1962
  1904 Pablo Neruda, poet, Communist apologist, d. 1973
  1918 Emmeett L. Bennett, Jr., American classicist, sometime US cryptanalyst, who helped decipher Cretan Linear B, d. 2011
  1934 Harvey Lavan "Van" Cliburn Jr., pianist, hero of the Cold War, d. 2013
13 -100 Gaius Julius Caesar, murdered 44 BC [or maybe the 12th]
  40 Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general & governor of Britannia, father-in-law of Tacitus, d. 93
  1396 Philip II "the Good" Duke of Burgundy (1419-1467)
  1489 Francesco Ferrucci, Captain of Florence, kia, Gavinana, 1530
  1590 Emilio Altieri - Pope Clement X (1670-1676)
  1608 Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia (1637-1657)
  1808 Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, later Marshal of France, first President of the Third Republic, d. 1893 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic275b.asp#two
  1821 Nathan Bedford Forrest, Lt Gen, C.S.A., Klansman, d. 1877
  1940 Patrick Stewart, actor -- Sejanus in "I, Claudius", Captain Jean Luc Picard in ST:TNG
14 1602 Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino -- Cardinal Mazarin, sometime soldier, d. 1661
  1610 Grand Duke Ferdinando II de' Medici of Tuscany (1621-1670)
  1804 Ludwig August Ritter von Benedek, Austrian general, who lost the big one at Konnigratz, d. 1881
  1818 Nathaniel Lyon, Brig Gen, U.S., kia Wilson's Creek 1861
  1830 Richard Henry Jackson, in Ireland, Brig. Gen, U.S.
  1831 William Dwight, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1888
  1913 Gerald Ford, naval officer, President (1974-1976), d. 2006
  1922 Bill Millin, Scotsman, who would pipe for Lord Lovat during the relief of Pegasus Bridge on D-Day, d. 2010
15 1798 Charles H Bell, Rear Adm, U.S., d. 1875
  1907 Paterson Fraser, Air Marshal, Reverend, Knight, d. 2001
  1911 Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten, panzer leader, d. 1997 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic299b.asp#one
  1917 Robert Conquest, sometime soldier, historian ("The Great Terror")
  1920 Ruthven Wade, Air Chief Marshal of the RAF
  1926 Leopoldo Galtieri, Argentine general, dictator (1981-1982), d. 2003
16 1194 Chiara Offreduccio, later friend to Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone, who became St. Clare of Assisi, d. 1253
  1715 Charles de Rohan, Prince of Soubise, Marshal of France, d. 1787
  1823 James Isham Gilbert, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1884.
  1829 Robert Brown Potter, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1887
  1896 Trygve Halvdan Lie, Norwegian politician, first Secretary General of the United Nations (1946-1952), d. 1968
  1921 Robert Remini, in the Bronx, later USN, and still later noted biographer of Andrew Jackson, d. 2013
  1921 Bernard Rogers, General, U.S., Supreme Commander, NATO, d. 2008
17 1486 Shah Ismail I of Iran (1499-1524)
  1729 Pierre Andre de Suffren, le Bailli de Suffren, Knight of Malta, French admiral, d. 1788
  1744 Elbridge Gerry, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1814
  1763 John Jacob Astor, The First Millionaire, d. 1848
  1859 Luis Munoz-Rivera, Puerto Rican nationalist leader, d. 1916
  1883 Bart de Ligt, pacifist, d. 1938
  1900 James Cagney, actor ("The Fighting 69th", "The Gallant Hours"), d. 1986
18 1552 Rudolf von Hapsburg, Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1576-1612), King Rudolf of Hungary (1572-1608), King Rudolf II of Bohemia (1575-1608/1611), Archduke Rudolf V (1576-1608)
  1787 Ichabod Crane, Col., U.S., d. 1857, still on active duty -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic233b.asp#one
  1823 Leonard Fulton Ross, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1901
  1862 Napoleon V Bonaparte, pretender to the throne of France, d. 1926
  1874 Charles William St. John Burgess, later Cathal Brugha , Irish nationalist and Easter Rebellion veteran, First President of the Irish Parliament, d. 1922)
  1887 Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian quisling, executed 1945
  1918 Count Alfonso Casati, kia, 1944, earning a Medaglia d'Oro with the San Marco Regiment
  1921 John H Glenn Jr, USMC, fighter pilot, astronaut, senator
19 1814 Samuel Colt, firearms inventor, d. 1862
  1817 Mary Ann Ball "Mother" Bickerdyke, Union relief worker, nurse, and hospital administrator, d. 1901
  1823 George Henry Gordon, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1886
  1828 Roger Atkinson Pryor, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1919
  1833 John Wesley Turner, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1899
  1860 Lizzie Borden, who may have given 'her mother forty whacks . . ..', d. 1927
  1869 Xenophon Stratigos, aptly named modern Greek general, Balkan & Anatolian wars, d. 1927)
  1922 George McGovern, sometime B-24 pilot who earned the DFC over Germany, senator, presidential candidate (1972), d. 2012
20 -356 Alexander III "the Great" of Macedon (336-323 BC) [or maybe the 21st]
  1304 Francesco Petrarcha, poet, humanist, lover of Laura, d. 1374
  1774 Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, Marshal of France, d. 1852
  1785 Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II (1808-39)
  1824 Alexander Schimmelpfennig, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1865
  1900 Heinrich Himmler, mass murderer, suicide, 1945
  1919 Sir Edmund Hillary, war hero, co-conqueror of Mt. Everest, d. 2008
21 1414 Francesco della Rovere - Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484)
  1802 David Hunter, Maj Gen, U.S., abolitionist, d. 1886
  1815 Stewart Van Vliet, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1901
  1816 Paul Julius Freiherr von Reuter, founder of Reuter's press service, d. 1899
  1817 Joseph K Barnes, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1883
  1826 James Gillpatrick Blunt, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1881
  1828 John Rutter Brooke, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1926
  1899 Ernest Hemmingway, adventurer, author, d. 1961
22 1478 Philip I "the Handsome" of Hapsburg, husband to Queen Juana 'la Loca' of Spain, titular King of Spain (28 Apr-25 Sep 1506), father to HRE Charles V/King Charles I of Spain
  1519 Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti - Pope Innocent IX (29 Oct-30 Dec 1591)
  1822 John George Walker, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1893
  1830 William Sooy Smith, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1916
  1849 Emma Lazarus, Poet of the Immigrants ("Give me your tired . . . ."), d. 1887
  1892 Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian chancellor, Nazi war criminal, executed 1946
  1898 Stephen Vincent Benet, poet ("John Brown's Body"), d. 1943
  1914 Lionel Casson, sailor, historian ("Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World"), d. 2009
  1923 Bob Dole, veteran, senator, presidential candidate
23 1339 Louis I, Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence, and titular King of Naples and Jerusalem (1382-1384)
  1401 Francesco Sforza, condottiero, Duke of Milan (1447-1466), d. 1466
  1649 Giovanni Grancesco Albani - Pope Clement XI (1700-1721)
  1822 Darius Nash Couch, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1824 Gabriel Colvin Wharton, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1906
  1883 Alan Francis Brooke, later fiedl marshal and Viscount Alanbrooke, d. 1963
  1886 Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo, Spanish politician, diplomat, historian, d. 1978
  1892 Ras Tafari Makonnen - Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia (1930-74)
24 1759 King Victor Emanuel I of Sardinia (1802-21)
  1783 Simon Bolivar, Liberator of Peru, Bolivia, Gran Columbia, d. 1830 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic300b.asp#one
  1798 John Adams Dix, Maj Gen, U.S., who would say "If anyone attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." d. 1879
  1802 Alexandre Dumas père, author ("The Three Musketeers", etc.), bon vivant, d. 1870
  1827 Julius Adolph de Lagnel, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1912
  1828 Cuvier Grover, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1885
  1895 Robert Graves, soldier, poet, classicist, novelist ("Goodbye to All That," "I, Claudius"), d. 1985
25 1016 Casimir I "the Restorer" Duke and de facto King of Poland (1034-1058)
  1109 King Afonso I "the Conqueror" of Portugal (1143-85) - see Events
  1404 Philip de Bourgogne, Count of Saint-Pol & Ligny (1415-1430), Duke of Brabant, Lothier, & Limbourg(1427-1430)
  1750 Henry Knox, later Continental general, the first Secretary of War, d. 1806: Washington's fattest general
  1822 Schuyler Hamilton, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1903
  1848 Arthur Balfour, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1902-1905), Foreign Secretary (1916-1919), d. 1930
  1894 Gavrilo Princep, who would shoot Franz Ferdinand in 1914, d. 1918. [13 July OS]
26 1467 King Ferrante [Ferdinand] II of Naples (1495-1496) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic197b.asp#one
  1739 George Clinton, Revolutionary war general, governor of New York, Vice-President, d. 1812
  1820 John Marshall Jones, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1864
  1890 Daniel Callaghan, Read Adm, USN, kia 1942 Guadalcanal, Medal of Honor
  1894 Aldous Leonard Huxley, author ("Brave New World," etc.), d. 1963
  1922 Jason Robards, Pearl Harbor veteran, actor ("Tora! Tora! Tora!"), d. 2001
  1928 Stanley Kubrick, director ("Paths of Glory"), d. 1999
27 1452 Ludovico "il Moro" Sforza, illegitimate son of Francesco Sfroza, Duke of Milan (1494-1499, desposed, restored 1500, again desposed), d. 1508
  1612 Ottoman Sultan Murad IV (1623-1640), conqueror of Baghdad
  1768 Charlotte Corday, who met Jean Paul Marat in his bathtub, guillotined 1793
  1812 Thomas Lanier Clingman, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1897
  1824 Alexandre Dumas fils, bon viveur, novelist ("The Lady of the Camillias")d. 1895
  1840 Ranald Slidell Mackenzie, US cavalryman, d. 1889
  1924 Vincent Canby, US Navy, WW II, drama critic, d. 2000
28 1746 Thomas Heyward, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1809
  1778 Charles Stewart, naval officer, U.S., d. 1869
  1809 Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Maj Gen, U.S., astronomer, d. 1862
  1815 Stefan Dunjov, ethnic Bulgarian revolutionary hero, volunteer in the Hungarian Revolution (1848-1849), Sardinian Army in Lombardy (1859), with Garibaldi in Sicily & Naples (1860), losing a leg and rising to colonel, d. 1889
  1825 William Duncan Smith, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862
  1833 James Henry Lane, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1907
  1954 Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, airman, putchist, President/Strongman of Venezuela (1999-2013), d. 2013
29 1166 Henry II, Count of Champagne (1181-1197), Crusader, King Henri I of Jerusalem (1192-1197), d. 1197
  1765 Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Napoleonic general, Royalist marshal, d. 1844 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic190b.asp#two
  1805 Alexis Henri Charles Clérel, vicomte de Tocqueville, historian and political thinker ("Democracy in America"), d. 1859
  1817 James Blair Steedman, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1883
  1830 Alvan Cullem Gillem, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1875
  1883 Benito Mussolini, journalist, soldier, politician, Prime Minister/Dictator of Italy (1922-1945), k. 1945 - http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic311b.asp#one
  1905 Dag Hammerskjold, Secretary General (1953-1961), Peace Nobelist (1961)
30 1470 Emperor Hongzhi of China (1487-1505)
  1549 Grand Duke Ferdinando I de'Medici of Tuscany (1587-1609)
  1863 Henry Ford, American innovator, d. 1947
  1881 Smedley Darlington Butler, maverick Marine, with the Brevet Medal and two Medals of Honor, d. 1940
  1909 C. Northcote Parkinson, historian, literary critic ("The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower"), d 1993
31 1396 Philippe III "le bon", duc de Bourgogne & Brabant, Count of Limburg (1419-1467), d. 1467
  1443 Duke Albrecht III of Saxony-Meisen, d. 1500
  1527 Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (1564-76)
  1803 John Ericsson, inventor, naval architect - USS 'Monitor', d. 1889
  1815 Thomas Jackson Rodman, artilleryman, U.S., d. 1871
  1816 George Henry "Pap" Thomas, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1870
  1817 Philip Cook Jr, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1894
  1825 Thomas Hart Taylor, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1901
  1837 William Clarke Quantrill, pro-Confederate terrorist, d. 1865
  1884 Karl F Goerdeler, German anti-Nazi politician, murdered 1944
  1887 George Fleming Moore, Maj. Gen., US, Defender of Bataan, d. 1949 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic150b.asp#one

1 975 King Edgar "the Peaceful" of England (959-975), at 31
  1277 Sultan Baibars of Mamluke Egypt (1260-1277), accidental poisoning
  1360 Giacomo I Caetani, Lord of Sermoneta, condottiero, hanged at c. 40
  1582 The "Admirable" James Crichton (c. 22), poet, scholar, linguist, assassinated in a street brawl by the son of the Duke of Mantua
  1690 Frederick, 1st Duke of Schomberg, Williamite, kia, Battle of the Boyne, at c. 75
  1839 Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II (1808-39), at 53
  1863 John Reynolds, 42, Maj. Gen., U.S.A., kia, Gettysburg, along with some thousands of other boys in Blue & in Gray
  1898 Joaquín Vara de Rey y Rubio, c. 58, Brig. Gen., kia at El Caney -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC16&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1914 Alberto Pollio, military historian, Chief-of-Staff of the Italian Army, heart attack at 61, just as everyone was about to go to war
  1943 Auguste Reitsma, C Baker, C L Barentsen, Coos Hartogh, Cor Rose, Henri Halberstadt, Johan Brouwer, Karl Groger, Koen Limperg, Rudy Bloemgarten, Willem Arondeus, & Willem Brouwer, heroes of the Dutch Resistance, murdered by the Nazis
  1944 Adm Chuichi Nagumo, 57, Victor of Pearl Harbor, Loser of Midway, suicide on Saipan.
2 783 Berthe de Laon or "Berthe Big Foot," wife to Pepin "the Short", mother of Charlemagne, at c. 63
  936 Henry I "the Fowler", Duke of Saxony (912-36), King of the Germans (919-36)
  1298 Adolf, graf von Nassau-Wiesbaden, Nassau-Weilburg, & Nassau-Idstein, King of the Germans (1291-1298), kia Goellheim/Worms
  1504 Prince Stefan III "the Great" Bogdanowitz of Moldavia(1457-1504)
  1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 68. Enlightment thinker
  1822 Denmark Vesey, c. 55, and five others, hanged in Charleston for a slave conspiracy
  1850 Sir Robert Peel, 62, founder of the London Police Force
  1863 George Nixon, 42, 73rd Ohio, d/w at Gettysburg, g-g-father of a president, along with some thousands of others
  1863 Strong Vincent, 26, Brig. Gen., U.S.A., posthumous, kia, Gettysburg
  1903 Pope Leo XIII - Giacchino Pecci (1878-1903), anti-capitalist and anti-marxist pro-labor pontiff,
  1915 Porfirio Diaz, revolutionary general, president of Mexico (1876-1880 & 1884-1911), in Paris, at 84, surrounded by his mistresses
  1918 Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V Reshad (1909-18), at 77
  1937 Amelia Earhart, 39, & Fred Noonan, 44, lost over the Pacific
  1961 Ernest Hemingway, war correspondent, novelist, suicide, at 61
  1987 Karl Linnas, 67, Lithuanian Nazi, of heart failure awaiting trial in Russia
  2004 Marlon Brando, actor ("Morituri"), at 80
3 1191 Albéric Clément, the first Marshal of France, of natural causes at Acre, c. 36
  1541 Antonio Rincon, French emissary to the Grand Turk, & Cesare Fregoso, French emissary to the Most Serene Republic, murdered in Italy by agents of HRE Charles V
  1642 Marie de'Medici, 67, widow of Henri IV of France, mother and regent of Louis XIII, inventor of French cooking
  1863 Lewis A. Armistead, 46, Brig Gen, C.S.A., Richard B Garnett, 46, Brig Gen, C.S.A., and thousands of others, kia, Gettysburg, among them Alonzo Cushing, 1st Lt, U.S.A., 22, receiving a Medal of Honor in 2010
  1904 Theodor Herzl, 44, journalist, founder of Zionism
  1916 Hetty Green, 81, America's most miserable millionaire miser.
4 362 Epamanondas of Thebes, c. 56, kia, Mantinea -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic357a.asp
  664 King Eorcenberht of Kent (660-664)
  1187 Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch, kia at Hattin at c. 62
  1307 Rudolf von Hapsburg, c. 26, King Rudolf I of Bohemia (1306-1307), Duke Rudolf III of Austria(1298-1307), and titular King of Poland (1306-1307)
  1450 James Fiennes, 1st Lord Saye and Sele, 56, Royal Treasurer, beheaded at London to appease Kentish rebels
  1500 Guido Antonio Malvezzi, Patrician of Bologna, assassinated.
  1787 Prince Charles de Rohan-Soubise, Marshal of France, 71
  1826 John Adams (90) and Thomas Jefferson (82),on the 50th anniversary of the Signing of the Declaration of Independence
  1831 James Monroe, major of the Continental Line, President (1817-1824), at 73 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic237b.asp
  1916 Allan Seeger, 28, war poet -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic231c.asp
  1940 NYPD Detectives Joseph Lynch & Ferdinand Socha, by a bomb at the British Pavilion, NY World's Fair; IRA or Nazi involvement suspected but never proven
  1943 General Wladyslaw Sikorski, 62, Polish Premier-in-Exile, plane crash at Gibraltar
  1968 General der Fallschirmtruppe Hermann-Bernhard "Gerhard" Ramcke, 79 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic305b.asp#one
  1971 ADM Thomas Hart, who commanded the Asiatic Fleet in 1941-1942, at 94
  1974 Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, c. 88 -- Nazi collaborator,
  2009 Bela Kiraly, Hungarian national hero, American academic, one of the Righteous, in his sleep at 97, despite the best efforts of Hitler, Stalin, & Khruschev to have him executed.
5 965 Pope Benedict V (964-965)
  1929 Henry L. Johnson, c. 32, black National Guardsman, the first American soldier in World War I to receive the Croix de Guerre with star and Gold Palm, but still awaits a Medal of Honor -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC31&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1950 Pvt Kenneth Shadrick, first American kia in the Korean War
  1950 Salvatore Giuliano, 27, Sicilian bandit-hero, killed by police
  1969 Thomas Mboya, 38, Kenyan economics minister, assassinated in Nairobi
  2005 Vice Adm. James B. Stockdale, 82, Medal of Honor, b. 1923
6 1187 200 Christian knights captured at Hattin, murdered by Saladin
  1189 King Henry II of England (1154-89), at 56
  1415 Jan Hus, c. 42, burned for heresy, Constance, Germany
  1535 Sir Thomas More, 56, beheaded in England for treason, later canonized
  1553 King Edward VI Tudor of England (1547-53) at 15, tuberculosis
  1849 Geoffredo Mameli, Italian nationalist, soldier-composer ("Fratelli d'Italia"), d/w at 21 -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K754epKojyI
  1893 Guy de Maupassant, 42, Volunteer of 1870, author ("Ball of Fat")
  1918 John Purroy Mitchel, 38, sometime Mayor of New York (1914-1918), US Army Air Service, air crash
  1975 Otto Skorzeny, 72, Nazi special operations wiz
  2009 Robert Strange McNamara, 93, sometime US SecDef, engineer of a disastrous military policy
7 -716 Romulus Silvius, Founder and King of Rome (753-716), c. 55 [Trad]
  1307 King Edward I "Longshanks" of England (1272-1307), 68
  1730 Olivier Levasseur, c. 40-42, natorious French pirate, hanged at Reunion.
  1865 David Herold (23), George Atzerodt (30), Lewis Thornton Powell - "Lewis Paine" (21), & Mary Surratt (42), hanged for Lincoln's assassination
  1922 Cathal Brugha, 42, Irish nationalist & Easter Rebllion veteran, First President of the Irish Parliament, (born Charles William St. John Burgess)
  1930 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of Sherlock Holmes, b. 1859
  1983 Herman Kahn, 61, strategist ("Thinking About the Unthinkable")
8 975 King Edgar of Northumbria & Mercia (958-975), at c. 32
  1115 Peter the Hermit, who led the "Beggars' Crusade"
  1151 Pope Bl Eugene III - Bernardo Pignatelli (1145-1151)
  1253 Thibaud, "the Troubadour" or "the Chansonnier" or "the Posthumous," Count Thibaud IV of Champagne from birth and King Thibaud I of Navarre (1234-1253), at 52
  1623 Pope Gregory XV - Alessandro Ludovisi (Feb 9, 1621-Jul 8, 1623), 69, the last Pope elected by voice vote
  1859 King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway (1844-59), at 60
  1933 Anthony Hope, author ("The Prisoner of Zenda"), at 70
  1959 Dale Buisand & Chester Ovnand, first Americans killed in the Vietnam War
  1994 Kim Il-sung, "The Great Leader" of Korea (1948-1994), at 82 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic400b.asp#one
  2012 Ermes Efron Borgnino -- Ernest Borgnine, 95, USN destroyerman (1935-1945), actor ("McHale's Navy")
  2013 Nadezhda Popova, 91, veteran Soviet "Night Witch" bomber pilot with over 800 missions
9 518 Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I Dikoros (491-518), at c. 91
  1386 Duke Leopold III of Austria (1365-1379) and of Styria & Carinthia (1365-1386), Count of Tyrol (1365-1386), 34, kia at Sempach
  1500 Count Giacomo V Caetani of Sermoneta, poisoned by the Borgias, at 50
  1553 Maurice I, Duke (1541-47) and Elector (1547-53) of Saxony, 32, d/w at the Battle of Sievershausen
  1572 The Martyrs of Gorkum: 15 Catholic priests are hanged at Brielle by Dutch Protestants for refusing to renounce their faith
  1797 Edmund Burke, political philosopher, at 68
  1850 Siyyid `Alí Muhammad, The Bab (31), founder of Ba'hai, executed by firing squad for heresey in Tabriz, Persia
  1850 Zachary Taylor, soldier, President (1849-1850), in the White House at 65 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic245c.asp
  1920 Admiral of the Fleet Sir John "Jackie" Fisher, b. 1841
10 138 Roman Emperor Hadrian, "Optimus Princeps" (117-138) at 62
  983 Pope Benedict VII (974-983)
  1024 Pope Benedict VIII Theophylactus (1012-1024)
  1086 King Canute IV of Denmark (1080-1086), c. 43, the Patron Saint of Denmark
  1099 Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar - El Cid Campeador, in bed at c. 55
  1103 King Erik I "the Good Hearted" of Denmark (1095-1103), c. 43
  1290 King Ladislaus IV of Hungary (1272-1290), 37, murdered
  1480 Rene I d'Anjou, 71, King of Naples, Sicily, & Jerusalem (1435-1442), ousted but kept trying (1442-1480)
  1559 King Henry II of France (1547-59), 40
  1584 Prince William I "the Silent" of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, & Friesland (1559-1584), 54, leader of the Dutch Revolution, shot by Balthasar Gérard at Delft, in history's first assassination by firearm
  1653 John Gerrard, English gentleman, hanged at Tyburn for brawling in the streets of London with Portuguese nobleman Pantaleon Sa, also hanged, along with four of his servants.
  1747 Nader Shah Afshar "the Great" of Persia (1736-1747), 49 or 59, assassinated
  1920 Eugenie de Montijo y de Guzman, Mrs. Napoleon III, at 94
  1937 Rafael de Nogales Mendez Bey, Venezuelan soldier-of-fortune, in bed at 60
  1944 Count Giovanni Pallavicini, kia, Warsaw.
  1945 Robert Goddard, American scientist, inventor of the liquid fueled rocket, 62
11 472 Western Roman Emperor Procopius Anthemius (467-472), c.52, executed by his magister militum, Ricimer
  1174 King Amalric I of Jerusalem (1136-1174)
  1302 Jacques de Chatillon, Count of Saint-Pol, Seigneur de Leuze, de Condé, de Carency, de Huquoy, & d'Aubigny, kia Battle of the Spurs
  1450 Jack Cade, English peasant rebel leader, killed near Lewes
  1535 Prince-Elector Joachim I Nestor of Brandenburg (1499-1535), at 51
  1540 János Szapolyai, Voivode of Transylvania (1511-1526), disputed King of Hungary (1526-1540), 53
  1804 Alexander Hamilton, c. 45, shot by Aaron Burr in a duel at Weehawken
  1806 James Smith, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. 1711
  1989 Laurence Olivier, actor ("Henry V"), at 82
12 1434 Berardo III da Varano, Co-Lord of Camerino (1424-1434), c. 45, his sons Ansovino, c. 13, Bartolomeo, c. 15, Gian Filippo, c. 17, Giovanni Venanzio, c. 22, Ladislao, c. 20, & Rodolfo Angelo, c. 24, and his brother, Gentile IV Pandolfo da Varano, Co-Lord of Camerino (1424-1434), c. 50, killed at mass in a popular uprising
  1536 Desiderius Erasmus, humanist, c. 70
  1640 Henry Casimir I, Count of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, & Drenthe, 38.
  1691 Charles Chalmont, the Marquis of St Ruth, c. 41, Jacobite general, decapitated by a cannon ball, Aughrim
  1705 Titus Oates, 54, Espiscopal cleric, Royal Navy chaplain, persecutor of Catholics
  1723 26 pirates, hanged by the British at Newport, RI
  1935 Lt. Col. Alfred Dreyfus, 75 - see Events, 1906
13 574 Pope John III (561-574)
  939 Pope Leo VII (936-939)
  1024 Holy Roman Emperor Henry II (1002-24) -- St. Henry, at 51
  1380 Bertrand du Guesclin, Constable of France, hero of the Hundred Years' War, at c. 60
  1645 Tsar Mikhail I Fyodorovich Romanov of Russia (1613-45), the first Romanov, 49
  1712 Richard Cromwell, sometime "Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland" (1658-1659), at 86
  1755 Maj Gen Edward Braddock, 60, d/w from the Battle of the Monongahela, Jul 9
  1793 Jean Paul Marat, 50, radical revolutionary, stabbed in his bath by Charlotte Corday http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Death_of_Marat_by_David.jpg
  1807 Henry Benedict Stuart, 82, Cardinal and last Jacobite pretender to the throne of England as "King Henry IX"
  1890 John C Frémont, soldier, explorer, politician, grafter. at 76
  1936 José Calvo Sotelo, 43, Leader of the Bloque Nacional in the Spanish Cortes, murdered: the only occasion in European History when a sitting opposition member of parliament was assassinated by government police, helping precipitate the Spanish Civil War
  1943 Alexander Schmorell (25), Kurt Huber (49), & Wilhelm Geyer, German "White Rose" resistance fighters, beheaded by the Nazis
  1989 Arnaldo Ochoa Sanchez, 59, Cuban general, murdered by Castro on trumped up charges of drug trafficking.
14 1223 King Philip II Augustus of France (1180-1223), c. 63
  1253 Count Theobald I of Champagne (1201-1253)/King Theobald IV of Navarre (1235-1253), at c. 52
  1483 The Princes of the Tower: King Edward V (12), and his brother Prince Richard of Shrewsbury (9), sons of England's late King Edward IV, murdered by their uncle, who has become King Richard III [Can't get him off the hook folks]
  1500 Astorre Baglioni, condottiero, murdered on his wedding night, with his brother Gismondo Baglioni, their father, Guido Baglioni, Lord of Perugia, and their cousin
  1607 St. Camillo de Lellis, Soldier and Physician, b. 1550
  1686 Col. Francesco Pallavicino, Patrician of Naples & Siena, kia at Buda, at 32
  1711 John William Friso, Prince of Orange, Prince of Nassau-Dietz, Stadholder of Friesland, drowned at 23
  1790 Field Marshal Ernst Gideon von Laudon, Scottish-descended veteran of the Russian, Prussian, and Austrian Armies, at c. 74
  1793 Jacques Cathelineau, 32, Vendéan insurrectionist, kia storming Nantes
  1817 Baroness Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein, 51, salon keeper to the illustrious
  1881 Henry McCarty - Billy the Kid, 21, shot by Sheriff Pat Garrett in New Mexico
  1904 Pres Paul Kruger of the Transvaal (1883-1902), in exile at 78
  1918 Quentin Roosevelt, airman, kia, France, at 18 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic54b.asp#two
  1958 King Faisal II of Iraq (1939-58), 23, his aunt Princess Abadiya, and Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, his wife Princess Hiyam and mother Princess Nafeesa, Premier Noeri el-Said, and several servants, lynched in Baghdad
  1974 Carl A Spaatz, bomber baron, USAF chief of staff, at 83
15 668 Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II (641-668), at c. 58
  1291 Rudolf I von Hapsburg, King of the Romans/HRE (1273-1291), c. 73
  1410 Ulrich von Jungingen, c. 50, 26th Hochmeister of the Teutonic Knights (1407-1410), and thousands of his minions, kia at Tannenberg.
  1416 John "the Magnificent" of Valois, Duke of Berry and Auvergne, Count of Poitiers and Montpensier, Captain of Paris, 75
  1685 James, Duke of Monmouth, 36, illegitimate son of Charles II, beheaded in the Tower by his uncle, James II
  1869 Capt A. J. Hayne, black militia officer, assassinated in Marion, Ark
  1948 General of the Armies John J Pershing, at 87 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic53b.asp#two
16 1557 Anne of Cleves, 51, Mrs. Henry VIII No. 4, divorcee, of natural causes
  1647 Tomasso Aniello "Masaniello" Neapolitan insurgent leader, c. 25, murdered by Spanish agents
  1657 Isabella de Medici, Princess of Tuscany, murdered by her husband, Paolo Giordano Orsini, the Duke of Bracciano, but her ghost purportedly walks Odescalchi Castle
  1691 François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, Minister of War to Louis XIV, at 50
  1764 Tsar Ivan VI of Russia (1740-41), murdered at 23
  1777 Nicholas Herkimer, c. 50, Brig. Gen., NY Militia, d/w, Oriskany
  1922 Pasquale Nofi, royal hunting guide, Itri, Italy, at 64
  1960 Albert Kesselring, German airman and field marshal, 74
  1989 Herbert von Karajan, 81, Hitler's Generalmusikdirektor
17 855 Pope St. Leo IV (847-855), who fortified the Vatican
  1025 Boleslav I "the Brave" Duke of Poland (992-1025), the first King of Poland (Apr 19-July 17, 1025), sometime Duke Boleslav IV of Bohemia (1002-1003), at 58
  1061 Pope Nicholas II - Gérard de Bourgogne (or July 27)
  1070 Baldwin of Flanders, c. 40, Count Baldwin I of Hainaut (1051-1070) and Count Baldwin VI of Flanders (1067-1070)
  1085 Robert "Guiscard - the Weasel", c. 70, Duke of Apulia and Calabria, Prince of Salerno, Lord of Sicily, at Corfu, while preparing to conquer the Byzantine Empire
  1119 Count Baldwin VII of Flanders (1111-1119), d/w at c. 25
  1344 Jacques Arteveldt, Dutch brewer and nationalist, slain
  1453 John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, c. 65-70, English Constable of France, kia, Châtillon
  1566 Bartolome de Las Casas, "Apostle of the Indies" at c. 92
  1657 Lazzaro Mocenigo, 33, Venetian admiral, and hundreds of sailors, when his flagship blew up in action against the Turks
  1670 Marie-Madeleine-Marguerite d'Aubray, Marquise de Brinvilliers, serial killer, executed at 45, for poisoning her parents and siblings, for their money, and many other folks for kicks.
  1762 Tsar Peter III Theodorovich of Russia (1762), at 34
  1793 Charlotte Corday, 24, assassin of Marat, guillotined
  1794 Dr. John Roebuck, c. 76, founder of the Carron Ironworks, inventor of the carronade
  1854 Jean-Luc Carbuccia, c. 46, Corsican-born Foreign Legion general of brigade, archaeologist, of cholera at Galippoli during the Crimean War.
  1903 James McNeill Whistler, West Point dropout, painter, at 60
  1918 Tsar Nicholas II (1894-1917), 50, the Tsarina Alexandra, 48, Duchess Olga, 22, Grand Duchess Tatiana, 21, Grand Duchess Maria, 19, Grand Duchess Anastasia, 18, & the Tsarevich Alexei, 13, murdered by the Bolsheviks, along with some of their servants and their dog
  1928 Álvaro Obregón Salido, 48, general, President of Mexico (1920-1924), assassinated
  1946 Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic, 53, Yugoslav Chetnic leader, who sometimes fought Nazis or communists
  1947 Raoul Wallenberg, 34, one of the Righteous, at 34, a prisoner of the Soviets
  2009 Walter Cronkite, 92, war correspondent, Cold Warrior
  2011 Joe Walker, 85, Navaho "Code Talker", 22nd Marines, 6th Marine Division
18 1100 Geoffrey, 50, Count of Bouillon (1076-1100), Duke of Lorraine (1087-1100), Protector of Jerusalem (1099-1100), leader of the First Crusade
  1374 Francesco Petrarcha, scholar, courtier, lover of Laura, at 69, pen in hand
  1608 Joachim III Frederick of Brandenburg, at 61
  1610 Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, 38, artist, brawler, murderer
  1639 Duke Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, Imperial general, at 35
  1642 Count Willem of Nassau-Siegen
  1730 François de Neufville, 2nd duc de Villeroi, Marshal of France, at 86
  1792 John Paul Jones, 45, American naval hero who often went "In harm's way", in Paris
  1872 Benito Pablo Juarez, 66, President of Mexico (1858-1872)
  2005 Gen. William Westmoreland, 91, Commander, US forces in Vietnam, 1964-1968
  2009 Henry Allingham, at 113+, the oldest man in the world, the last surviving Jutland veteran and the last original member of the RAF
  2009 Lionel Casson, sailor, historian ("Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World"), four days short of 95
19 514 Pope St Symmachus (498-514)
  711 King Roderic of the Visigoths (710-712), kia against the Moors at c. 25
  1234 Count Floris IV of Holland (1222-1234), 24, killed in a tournament
  1374 Francesco Petrarca -- Petrarch, aged one day less than 70, Italian poet and humanist, pen in hand.
  1810 Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 34, Queen Consort of Prussia (1793-1810), by Napoleon's reckoning, "The only man in Prussia"
  1824 Emperor Agustin I of Mexico (May 19, 1822-March 19, 1823), 40, excecuted by firing squad after attempting a comeback
  1947 Bogyoke Aung San, 32, Burmese soldier & nationalist, assassinated; father of Peace Nobelist Aung San Suu Kyi
  1965 Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea (1948-1960)
20 1031 King Robert II de Vrome of France,59 (996-1031)
  1454 King Juan II of Castille, at 49
  1923 Doroteo Arango Arámbula - Pancho Villa, murdered at 55
  1927 King Ferdinand I of Romania (1914-1927), at 61
  1936 José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, Marquess of the Rif, 64, Spanish dictator-aspirant, plane crash
  1937 Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of radio, at 63
  1944 Prince Joachim Murat, 24, kia, during the Liberation of France
  1951 King Abdullah I of Jordan (1921-1951), assassinated at 69 while at prayer in the Al Aqsa Mosque, by 21 year old Palestinian Mustafa Ashi, who is promptly shot by the Royal Bodyguards
  2005 James Doohan, Canadian, D-Day Veteran, actor ("Lt. Cdr Montgomery Scott"), at 80
21 -330 King Darius III of Persia (336-330 BC), c. 50, murdered by Bessos, to curry favor with Alexander
  1425 Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425), 75
  1544 René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, Baron of Breda, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, & Utrecht, and Stadtholder of Guelders, killed during the siege of Saint-Dizier
  1683 William Russell, Lord Russell, beheaded at 43 in Lincoln's-Inn-Fields
  1796 Robert Burns, Scots poet, 37
  1899 Robert Ingersoll, politician, orator, Col, USV, 65
  1944 Col. Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (37), executed by firing squad, & Gen. Ludwig Beck (64), assisted suicide, for their part in the plot to assassinate Hitler
  1967 Basil Rathbone, 75, sometime captain, Liverpool Scottish (MC), Anglo-American actor ("Sherlock Holmes," "Captain Blood", "Robin Hood" etc.)
  1998 Alan Shepard, first American in space, at 74
22 1298 Sir John de Graham, Scottish patriot, kia, Falkirk
  1444 Duke Oddo Antonio II de Montefeltro of Urbino (1443-1444), killed at 18 by two citizens, for having seduced their wives
  1461 King Charles VII of France (1422-61), at 58
  1627 les Comtes de Boutteville & de Rosmadec des Chapelles, executed for the death of the Marquis de Bussy d'Amboise in a duel
  1676 Pope Clement X - Emilio Altieri (1670-1676), 86
  1832 Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, Duke of Reichstadt - Napoleon II Bonaparte, "l'Aiglon", at 21
  1951 Admiral Forrest Percival Sherman, 54, CNO (1949-1951), of a heart attack in Naples, following a sumptuous meal
  1967 Carl Sandburg, veteran, biographer, poet, at 89
  2003 Uday (39) and Qusai Saddam Hussayn al-Tikriti (37), sons of Dictator Saddam Hussein, and Mustapha, son of Qusai (14), kia by US forces
23 1403 Sir Henry Percy - "Harry Hotspur", c. 38, kia at Shrewsbury
  1562 Gottfried Gotz Freiherr von Berlichingen, German mercenary, at 82, in bed
  1627 Sir Robert Sherley, General of Artillery to the Shah of Persia, at 63
  1803 Arthur Wolfe, Lord Kilwarden, Solicitor-General for Ireland, murdered by the people in Dublin, 64
  1885 Ulysses S Grant, sometime General-in-Chief, USA, former president (1869-1877), memoirist, at 63
  1900 Nathaniel Harrison Harris, Brig Gen, C.S.A., at 66 and one day
  1944 Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, great-grand nephew of the Great Moltke, anti-Nazi conspirator, executed by Hitler at 44
  1951 Henri Philippe Petain, 95, Marshal of France, Vichyite, in prison
  1955 Cordell Hull, sometime Captain, 4th Tennessee Volunteers, Cuba, Sec State (1933-1944), Noble Peace Prize, 1945, b. 1871
  1973 Eddie Rickenbacker, 82, top American ace of WW I, 26 kills
  1999 King Hassan II of Morocco (1961-1999), at 60
  2011 John Shalikashvili, born in Warsaw of Georgian parents, rose to Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1993-1997), the first foreign born officer to hold the post, at 75 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic222b.asp
24 478 St. Lupus of Troyes, holy enough to intimidate Attila
  725 The Venerable Bede, c. 63, Anglo-Saxon historian
  1424 Orso Orsini, c. 44, Lord of Monterotondo, drowned, Battle of Zagonara
  1568 Don Carlos, 23, Prince of Asturias of Spain, probably retarded, not mad or a frustrated reformer, and not killed by his father Philip II
  1794 Alexandre François Marie de Beauharnais, Vicomte de Beauharnais, 33, Josephine's first husband, guillotined
  1862 Martin Van Buren, 79, militiaman, President (1837-1841) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic264b.asp
  1944 Jan Postma, Dutch resistance worker, executed by the Nazis
  1992 Khaled Mahmoud Saeid, aide to Palestinian terrorist Abu Nidal, assassinated
25 306 Roman Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius I Chlorus (305-306), c. 55, father of Constantine, at York
  1492 Pope Innocent VIII - Giovanni Battista Cibò (1484-1492)
  1564 Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, at 61
  1832 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 61, English poet, inept soldier -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic183b.asp
  1841 Mary Rogers (Poe's "Marie Roget"), "The Beautiful Cigar Girl" of New York, murdered at c. 25
  1846 Louis Bonaparte, 67, sometime King of Holland (1806-1810) courtesy of his brother, father to Napoleon the Little
  1929 Robert Todd Lincoln, 82, veteran, SecWar
  1934 Engelbert Dollfuss, Frontsoldat, Austrian chancellor & strongman (1932-1934), assassinated by Nazis
  1959 Curley Jefferson, 76, last surviving Black Seminole Indian Scout, Brackettville, Texas
  2006 Carl M. Brashear, the first black diver in the USN, at 75
  2009 Harry Patch, last British Army veteran of the trenches, at 111
26 -46 Vercingetorix, Gallic hero, strangled in the Tullianum after Caesar's first triumph -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic417b.asp
  432 Pope St. Celestine I (422-432)
  711 King Roderigo of the Visigoths (710-711), kia by the Moors [Trad]
  795 King Offa of Mercia (757-796) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic173b.asp
  811 Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I(802-11), kia by the Bulgars in the Battle of Pliska
  1102 Duke Ladislas/Wladyslaw I of Poland (1079-1102), c. 58
  1342 Charles I of Anjou, King of Hungary (1307-42)
  1471 Pope Paul II - Pietro Barbo (1464-1471)
  1494 Count Nicola II Caetani of Sermoneta, poisoned by the Borgia, at 50
  1533 The Inca Atahualpa (1532-1533), c. 36, garroted by Francisco Pizarro
  1533 Atahualpa, 36, the last Inca Emperor (1532-July 26, 1533), garroted by Pizarro
  1550 Jacopo Bonfadio, 42, historian & poet, executed at Genoa
  1592 Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron, 68, Marshal of France, kia, the siege of Epernay
  1630 Duke Charles Emmanuel I "the Great" of Savoy (1580-1630), 68.
  1852 Gaspar, Baron Gourgaud, 68, Bonapartist general
  1863 Sam Houston, Liberator of Texas, at 70
  1918 Major Edward Corringham "Mick" Mannock VC, DSO and Two Bars, MC & Bar, British ace, kia at 31
  1934 James Webb Cook Hayes, 78, presidential son, businessman, soldier -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic341b.asp#two
  1944 Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (1925-1941), 66, erstwhile Cossack
  1952 Maria Eva "Evita" Duarte Peron, at 33
27 1233 Infante Fernando/Ferrand of Portugal, at 45, Count of Flanders (1212-1233), prisoner of the future Louis VIII of France from 1214,
  1638 Count Johan VIII de Jongere of Nassau-Siegen, kia at 54
  1675 Marshal-General of France Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, 64, cannon balled at Salzbach -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic144b.asp#one
  1689 John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee, 41, Jacobite general, kia at Killiecrankie
  1777 Jane McRae, slain by Indians, inflaming frontier New Yorkers against the British
  1916 Captain Charles Algernon Fryatt, 44, British merchant mariner, executed by the Germans for ramming a submarine
  1970 Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, dictator of Portugal (1932-68)
  1980 Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran (1941-1979), 60, in exile in Egypt
  1984 James Mason, conscientious objector, actor ("Rommel"), at 75
  2003 Bob Hope, veteran of 60 years of USO shows, at 100
28 450 Roman Emperor Theodosius II (408-450), 49, at Constantinople
  1057 Pope Victor II - Count Gebhard of Calw, Tollenstein, & Hirschberg (1055-1057), c. 40
  1330 Tsar Michael III Shishman of the Bulgars (1323-1330), c. 50, kia at Velbuzda
  1492 Pope Innocent VIII - Giovanni Battista Cybo (1484-1492), 60
  1540 Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, 55, sometime Chancellor of England, beheaded on Tower Hill
  1655 Hercule-Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, 56, French poet, dramatist, and duelist, of unknown causes (despite the play)
  1746 John Peter Zenger, 48, hero of "Freedom of the Press"
  1794 Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, 36, and 22 of his henchmen getting a taste of the guillotine, ending the "Reign of Terror"
  1808 Erstwhile Sultan Selim III of the Ottoman Empire (1789-1807), 46, assassinated at Constantinople
  1813 Andoche Junot, Duc d'Abrantes, 42, French general
  1835 Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, 1st Duc de Trévise, 67, Marshal of France, slain by an "infernal machine", in Paris
  1844 Joseph-Napoleon Bonaparte, 76, sometime King of Naples & Sicily (1806-1808) and of Spain (1808-1813)
  1849 King Charles Albert of Sardinia (1831-49), at 50, a few weeks after abdicating in favor of Victor Emmanuel II
  1915 Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, 56, Pres. of Haiti (4 Mar-28 Jul 1915), torn to pieces by a mob
29 238 Roman Co-Emperors Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus (c. 60) & Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (c. 72) (Apr 22-July 29, 238), hacked to pieces in the Castra Praetoria
  1030 St. Olaf Haraldsson, 35, erstwhile King of Norway (1015-1028), kia Stiklestad
  1095 St. Ladislaus I, King of Hungary (1077-1095), c. 55
  1099 Pope Bl Urban II - Odo of Lagery (1088-1099), c. 57, shortly after initiating the First Crusade
  1644 Pope Urban VIII - Maffeo Barberini (1623-1644), 76
  1857 Prince Charles Bonaparte of Canino, at 54
  1900 King Umberto I of Italy (1878-1900), 56, assassinated by Gaetano Bresci
  2011 John Cullen, 90, former Coastguardsman who caught the Nazi saboteurs on a Long Island beach in 1942
30 579 Pope Benedict I (575-579)
  1388 James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas (1358-1388), 30, kia, Battle of Otterburn
  1616 Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, Irish nationalist, at about 76
  1741 Field Marshal Count Wirich Philipp von Daun, 71, Austrian conqueror of Naples, 1707-1708
  1811 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, father of Mexican independence, executed at 58
  1875 George Edward Pickett, 50, US Army officer, Confederate Maj. Gen.
  1898 Otto Eduard Leopold, Furst von Bismarck, 83, the "Iron Chancellor," who unified Germany
  1912 Mutsuhito - the "Meiji" - 122nd Emperor of Japan (1867-1912), at 59
  1918 Joyce Kilmer, 31, soldier-poet of the "Fighting 69th", kia, Battle of the Ourcq -http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic250c.asp-
  1967 Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, 66, the last sole propreitor of Krupp Industries; war criminal who got over
31 -54 Aurelia Cotta, 66, mother of G. Julius Caesar.
  1358 Étienne Marcel, mayor of Paris, slain attempting to prevent the Royal Army from entering the city
  1556 St Ignatius of Loyola, c. 66, sometime soldier, founder of the Jesuits
  1602 Charles de Gontaut, le duc de Biron, Marshal of France, beheaded for treason, at 40, in the Bastille
  1653 Dutch Adm. Martin Harpertzoon Van Tromp, 54, kia off the Texel
  1714 Anne Stuart, 49, Queen of England & Scotland (1702-1707), of Ireland (1702-1714), and of The United Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1714)
  1750 King João V the Magnanimous of Portugal (1706-1750), at 62
  1849 Sándor Petofi, 26, Hungarian poet and revolutionary, kia
  1875 Andrew Johnson, veteran, President (1865-1869), at 66
  1914 Jean Jaures, 54, French socialist & pacifist, assassinated.
  1944 Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, 44, author ("The Little Prince"), aviator, resistance fighter, shot down over the Mediterranean, south of France
  1966 Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen, 85, German general
  1993 King Baudouin of the Belgians (1951-93), at 62
  2012 Gore Vidal, 86, author ("Julian"), playwrite, who served in WW II, but didn't think much of it

1 -776 The First Olympiad begins.
  -291 Triumph of Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges for the defeat of the Samnites -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic317b.asp#one
  -81 Sulla ends the proscriptions, c. 9,000 have been murdered
  1097 Battle of Doryleum: Crusaders defeat Sultan Kilidj Arslan's Seljuk Turks near Nicaea
  1266 Treaty of Perth: Scotland "rents" the Western Isles from Norway at 100 marks a year
  1482 Battle of Loja: the Moors defeat the Castillians & Aragonese
  1543 Treaty of Greenwich: King Edward VI of England (9) is betrothed to his cousin Mary Queen of Scots (14)
  1569 The Union of Lublin: Formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by a single elected King of Poland/Grand Duke of Lithuania, and governed with a common senate and parliament
  1690 Battle of Fleurs: The French defeat the Imperialists
  1690 Battle of the Boyne: Protestants massacre Catholics outside Dublin (12th NS) -http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic405b.asp#two
  1782 American privateers raid Lunenburg, Nova Scotia
  1816 French frigate 'Medusa' wrecked, inspiring Gericault's "The Raft of the Medusa"
  1823 United Provinces of Central America gain independence from Mexico
  1861 Skirmish at Falling Waters/Martinsburg, Md: Union victory
  1862 Battle of Holly Spring, MS
  1862 Day 7 of the 7 Days: Malvern Hill/Harrison's Landing/Crew's Farm, Va.
  1862 US taxes incomes of $600 or more to help finance the Civil War
  1862 Battle of Booneville Ms: Gen Beauregard evacuates Corinth
  1863 The Netherlands abolishes slavery in its West Indian colonies
  1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Day1: Lee wins, but Union troops fall back on a very strong position -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic111b.asp#two
  1864 Battle of Petersburg (to July 31)
  1867 The Dominion of Canada is formed
  1870 James W Smith becomes the first black man to enter West Point
  1873 Henry Flipper of Georgia is the second black man to enter West Point
  1898 Battles of El Caney and San Juan Hill, outside Santiago, Cuba
  1898 Skirmish at Aguadores, Cuba
  1898 Action at Havana: US ships and Spanish batteries exchange fire
  1900 Marriage of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria to the Countess Sophie Chotek, who later meet Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo in 1914
  1903 The former Apache war chief Geronimo is baptized in the Methodist Church --http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic78c.asp
  1913 Second Balkan War: Serbia & Greece declare war on Bulgaria
  1916 Battle of the Somme begins
  1918 The US 4th Marine Brigade secures Belleau Wood -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic60b.asp
  1940 German troops occupy the Channel Islands
  1941 The Farhud Pogrom: Pro-fascist Iraqis attack Bagdad's Jews; British troops arrive on the 2nd & restore order, but between 200-1000 Jews are killed, many injured, and much property destroyed
  1942 The Germans capture Sevastopol after a long siege
  1943 USS 'Thresher' (SS-200) damages Japanese DD 'Hokaze' in the Southwest Pacific.
  1943 Marine 4th Raider Bn captures Viru Harbor on New Georgia.
  1945 Australians land at Balikpapan, Borneo, against stiff resistance
  1946 US atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll, the 4th nuclear explosion
  1950 First US ground troops arrive in Korea
  1960 USSR shoots down US RB-47
  1961 British troops land in Kuwait to prevent an Iraqi invasion
  1962 Belgian "Trust Territories" of Burundi and Rwanda became independent
  1969 Prince Charles is invested as the Prince of Wales
2 310 Accession of Pope St. Militades (or maybe 311), d. 314
  1187 Saladin captures Tiberias, besieges the Citadel (falls 5th)
  1214 Battle of La Roche-aux-Moines (Angers)
  1247 Emperor Frederick II lays siege to Parma (lifted Feb 18, 1248)
  1298 Battle of Goellheim\Worms: Albert of Austria defeats Adolf von Nassau Weilburg, his rival for Holy Roman Emperor
  1431 Battle of Bulgneville: The Angevins defeat the Lorrainers
  1461 Battle of Nidastore: The Malatesti of Rimini defeat Pope Pius II's forces
  1600 Battle of Nieuport: Dutch defeat the Spanish
  1625 Breda falls to the Spanish after a year's siege
  1644 Battle of Marston Moor: Roundheads defeat the Royalists
  1704 Battle of Schellenberg: Anglo-Imperialists defeat the Franco-Bavarians
  1747 Battle of Lauffeld: Marshal Saxe's French defeat the Duke of Cumberland's Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverians
  1776 Continental Congress declares the Thirteen Colonies independent
  1777 Vermont abolishes slavery, the first "state" to do so
  1814 Jacob Brown captures Ft. Erie, Ontario, from the British
  1820 Carbonari coup at Naples installs a liberal Constitution
  1861 Battle of Hoke's Run, WV
  1862 Lincoln calls for an additional 300,000 volunteers
  1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Day 2: A draw
  1863 John Hunt Morgan's Burksville-Salineville Raid begins (to July 26)
  1881 James Garfield, veteran, is mortally wounded by a disappointed office seeker
  1898 Action at Cape Tunas, Cuba: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire
  1898 Skirmishing at Santiago: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire, as US troops begin close investment of the town
  1900 Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin's first airship, the LZ-1, flies
  1903 US leases Guantanamo Bay from Cuba for $2,000 a year
  1923 Naval Research Laboratory established in Washington
  1926 Congress authorizes the Distinguished Flying Cross.
  1934 General Lazaro Cardenas elected president of Mexico
  1941 Nazis murder 7,000 in Lvov
  1942 Chiang names Stilwell commander of Chinese forces in India.
  1942 JCS authorize "Operation Watchtower," the seizure of Guadalcanal
  1942 New York Times reports Nazi mass murder of Jews
  1943 37th and 43rd Divs and Marines land on Munda on New Georgia
  1943 Japanese cruisers and destroyers shell U.S. positions at Rendova
  1943 Lt Charles Hall, 99th Pursuit Sqn, becomes the first black USAAF pilot to shoot down a Nazi plane, a Focke-Wulf 190 over Pantelleria
  1944 Marshal von Kluge replaces von Rundstedt in command in France
  1944 Saipan: Japanese retire northwards to make a last stand.
  1944 US troops land on Noemfoor, off New Guinea.
  1957 'Grayback' (SSG 574) launched, first sub designed to fire guided missiles
  1957 'Seawolf '(SSN 575) completed, first sub with liquid metal cooled reactor
  1959 "Plan 9 from Outer Space" released; perhaps the worst movie in history
  1966 First French nuclear explosion, Mururoa atoll
  1980 Pres Carter resumes draft registration for 18 year old men
  1993 Moslem fundamentalists set hotel on fire in Sivas, Turkey, 36 die
3 323 Battle of Adrianople: Constantine defeats Licinius
  987 Hugh Capet is crowned King of France (987-996)
  1428 Treaty of Delft: Between Jacob of Bavaria and Philip the Good of France
  1448 Battle of Scutari: The Albanians defeat the Venetians
  1620 Treaty of Ulm: German states declare neutrality in the Hapsburg-Bohemian conflict
  1657 Naval Battle of the Dardanelles, Day 1: Venetians skirmish with the Turks
  1754 Col. George Washington (22) surrenders Ft. Necessity to the French -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic198b.asp#one
  1775 George Washington assumes command of the Patriot forces investing Boston -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic211b.asp#two
  1778 Wyoming Valley Massacre, Pa: British & Indians do in c. 360 American men, women & children
  1790 Naval Battle of Viborg, Day 1: Swedish fleet breaks out of the Russian blockade (since May 22)
  1798 Geo. Washington commissioned Lt Gen for the Quasi-War with France -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/CIC07.asp
  1861 Martinsburg, Va: Confederates pull out before US advance
  1863 Battle Gettysburg, Day 3: Robert E. Lee's grand assault ("Pickett's Charge") is shattered
  1898 Naval Battle of Santiago: Spanish squadron is annihilated
  1915 Erich Muenter blows up the Senate reception room
  1939 Ernst Heinkel demonstrates 800-kph rocket plane to Hitler
  1940 Royal Navy inflicts heavy losses on the French fleet at Oran, Algeria
  1941 Germans slaughter c. 2,000 Jews in Bialystock
  1942 Japanese from Tulagi land on Guadalcanal to construct an airfield
  1943 New Guinea: Australian 3rd Div links with MacKechnie Force, Nassau Bay
  1944 U.S. Navy ships bombard Iwo Jima and the Bonin Islands.
  1945 Australian troops capture oil fields at Balikpapan, Borneo.
  1947 USSR refuses to join the "Imperialistic" Marshall Plan
  1950 First US-North Korean clash: TF Smith is overrun
  1954 World War II food rationing ends in Britain
  1976 Entebbe Raid: Israel rescues 103 held by Palestinian hijackers in Uganda
  1986 Relighting of the Statue of Liberty after protracted renovations
  1988 USS 'Vincennes' (CG-49) accidentally shoots down an Iranian airliner, 290 die
4 -362 Battle of Mantinea: Epaminondas of Thebes defeats the Spartans
  0 Independence Day -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1QmeEdFOSc
  1187 Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats the Crusaders under King Guy of Jerusalem
  1190 King Philip II's French & Richard I's English armies unite at Vezelay, to begin the 3rd Crusade
  1299 Battle of Cape Orlando: Roger de Lauria's Catalan fleet defeats the Angevin Sicilian fleet
  1301 Battle of Breukelen: Holland defeats Lichtenberg.
  1547 Battle of Oglio: the French defeat the Spanish
  1642 Castro War: Battle of Codigoro - Papal Army defeats the Venetians -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic109b.asp
  1657 Battle of the Dardanelles, Day 2: Venetian fleet defeats the Turks
  1708 Battle of Holowczin: The Swedes defeat the Russians
  1763 Ojibwa and Sauk Indians capture Ft. Michilimackinac from the British
  1776 Independence Day: Two days after voting for independence, the Continental Congress adopts a formal "Declaration of Independence"
  1777 John Paul Jones hoists the Stars and Stripes on Ranger, Portsmouth, NH.
  1790 Battle of Viborg Bay, Day 2: The Russian fleet inflicts heavy losses on the Swedish fleet
  1794 The Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York initiates the custom of firing an Independence Day salute at The Battery
  1801 1st Presidential Review of the Marine Band and Marines, at the White House.
  1802 US Military Academy opens at West Point
  1806 Battle of Maida: upset British victory over the French in Calabria
  1818 Congress rules that the flag shall have 13 stripes, and one star for each state
  1832 Samuel Francis Smith's "America" is sung in public for the first time
  1842 Old USN gunboat 'Boxer' is sunk in trials of an electrical underwater "torpedo"
  1844 Battle of St. Philip Neri: Radical Protestant Nativists in Philadelphia attempt to burn the Church, which is defended by parishoners and militiamen, 12 dead, many injured.
  1848 "The Communist Manifesto" is published, inspiring immense slaughter
  1857 Battle of the Bowery: the Dead Rabbits and the Bowery B'hoys have it out until the militia arrives
  1861 Skirmish at Harper's Ferry, WV
  1862 John Hunt Morgan begins a raid in Kentucky, from Tomkinsville to reach Somerset by the 28th
  1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Day 4: The armies hold their ground, as Lee hopes Meade will do a "Pickett", while Meade sees no point in reprising a disaster
  1863 Battle of Helena, Ark: Union Victory
  1863 Skirmish at Smithburg, TN
  1863 Vicksburg surrenders to U.S. Grant
  1865 The 69th New York marches up Broadway to mark its return from the Civil War -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic227b.asp#one
  1866 Battle of Monte Sullo: The Austrians defeat the Garibaldini
  1866 Battle of Vezza d'Oglio: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1875 White rioters kill blacks in Vicksburg
  1876 The "Centennial Legion of Historic Military Commands" is formed at Philadelphia -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic90b.asp
  1879 Battle of Ulundi: The British crush the Zulu Army
  1895 Publication of Katherine Lee Bates' "America the Beautiful"
  1917 "La Fayette, we are here!" -- http://www.ecpad.fr/le-4-juillet-1917-a-paris-et-le-serment-sur-la-tombe-du-marquis-de-la-fayette
  1936 League of Nations applies sanctions on Italy for the invasion of Ethiopia.
  1942 Aussie coastwatchers report Japanese airfield building on Guadalcanal.
  1942 First American bombing mission over Nazi-occupied Europe
  1942 USS 'Triton'(SS-201) sinks the .Japanese DD 'Nehoni' in the Aleutians
  1942 The American Volunteer Group ("Flying Tigers") becomes the Fourteenth Air Force
  1943 Elms 37th Infantry Div land at Bairoko, on Kula Gulf
  1943 Japanese DDs with reinforcements for Vila, Kula Gulf, sink a U.S. DD
  1944 Elms 503rd Parachute Inf drop on Noemfoor, New Guinea, to reinforce troops there
  1946 Anti-Jewish riots in Kielce, Poland, 39 die
  1946 Philippines gain independence from US, on schedule despite World War II
  1950 Carriers USS 'Valley Forge' (CV-45) & HMS 'Triumph' make the first UN air strikes of the Korean War
  1976 Israeli commando raid liberates a hijacked airliner at Entebbe, Uganda
  1987 Nazi Klaus Barbie, "Butcher of Lyon" convicted by a French court
5 -46 Caesar returns to Rome following victory in the African War.
  663 Constans II visits Rome, the first emperor to do so in over a century
  1044 Battle of Menfo: The Germans defeat the Magyars
  1187 Saladin captures the citadel of Tiberias (invested the 2nd)
  1294 Pietro di Murrone is elected Pope as Celestine V (5 Jul-13 Dec 1294), abdicates, d. 1296, later canonized
  1450 Battle of Southwark: Jack Cade's Kentish rebels beat Matthew Gough
  1750 Slave revolt in Curaçao
  1806 Spanish defeat a British attempt to take Buenos Aires
  1809 Battle of Wagram, Day 1: Napoleon v. the Austrians (ends 6th)
  1809 Rome: Napoleon's troops kidnap Pope Pius VII and carry him into exile
  1811 Venezuela declares independence from Spain
  1814 Battle of Chippewa: "By God, these are regulars!" -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic230b.asp#one
  1814 US Sloop-of-War 'Peacock' captures four British ships
  1830 The French capture Algiers
  1861 Battle of Carthage, Mo
  1861 Skirmish at Newport News: US retakes Gosport Naval Base
  1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Day 5: Lee retreats
  1865 US forms the Secret Service, to combat counterfeiting
  1924 Military revolt in Sao Paulo, Brazil
  1932 Antonio de Oliveira Salazar becomes premier/dictator of Portugal (1932-1968)
  1933 Germany's Catholic Center Party is disbanded by the Nazis
  1941 Surprise Peruvian offensive opens war with Ecuador (truce, July 22)
  1942 Aerial recon confirms Japanese airfield construction on Guadalcanal.
  1942 Aleutians: USS 'Growler' (SS-215) sinks Japanese destroyer 'Arare' near Kiska.
  1943 "Tokyo Express" supply mission departs Rabaul
  1943 Damaged Japanese submarine 'I-7' is scuttled at Kiska
  1943 Japan cedes five Malay provinces to Siam, as a bribe.
  1943 The Battle of Kursk: Despite a massive German assault; the Soviets lose some ground, but halt the attack in about a week.
  1944 Japanese at Imphal decide to withdraw, having lost 53,000 troops -- https://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic91a.asp
  1962 Algeria becomes independent of France
  1975 Cape Verde Islands gain independence after 500 years under Portugal
  1977 Pakistan: coup by Gen Mohammad Zia ul-Haq
  1993 Kurdish guerrillas murder 32 villagers in East Turkey
6 -371 Battle of Leuctra: Epaminondas of Thebes defeats Cleombrotus I of Sparta -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic357a.asp
  -83 Devastating fire destroys the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome
  432 Consecration of Pope St. Sixtus III (432-440)
  1266 Norway cedes Man and the Hebridies to Scotland
  1322 Battle of the Bassignana: The Visconti defeat their enemies
  1348 Pope Clement VII's first condemnation of violence against Jews by those blaming them for the Plague
  1483 Coronation of England's King Richard III, Aug 22,1485
  1495 Battle of Foronovo: French King Charles VIII defeats the Italian League
  1553 Mary I ascends the throne of England (1553-1558)
  1560 Treaty of Edinburgh: Scotland abandons its French ties to ally with England
  1641 Battle of Sedan: Imperialists defeat the French
  1652 Netherlands declares war on England: First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-54)
  1685 Battle of Sedgemoor: King James II defeats his nephew the Duke of Monmouth
  1699 Capt William Kidd arrested in Boston
  1758 Carlo Della Torre Rezzonico elected Pope as Clement XIII (1758-1769)
  1777 Burgoyne's British & Hessians capture Fort Ticonderoga
  1782 Battle of Negapatam: Indecisive Anglo-French naval clash off India
  1785 Congress introduces the US Dollar
  1801 First Naval Battle of Algeciras: Franco-Spanish squadron defeats the British
  1809 Battle of Wagram, Day 2: Napoleon defeats the Austrians -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic381b.asp#one
  1861 Skirmish at Middle Creek Fork/Buckhannon, WVa
  1862 Battle of Devall's Bluff, AR
  1863 Battle of Williamsport/Hagerstown/Falling Waters Line, Md begins (to Jul 14)
  1864 Jubal Early's Rebs capture Hagerstown, Maryland
  1898 US Auxiliary Cruiser 'Dixie' captures three Spanish merchantmen
  1911 First naval air station established, Annapolis, MD.
  1917 T.E. Lawrence and the Arab Army capture Aqaba
  1923 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics formed
  1937 Battle of Brunete: Spanish Republicans open offensive (defeated by 26th)
  1940 HM destroyer 'Griffen' is attacked in the English Channel by 36 Dornier bombers, suffers no casualties and only minor damage from near misses
  1942 German troops capture Voronez, USSR
  1942 The Frank family seeks shelter in the After house, Amsterdam
  1943 Kula Gulf: USS 'Helena' (CL-50) lost to "Tokyo Express," which loses a destroyer
  1943 U.S. ships begin periodic shelling of Japanese positions on Kiska
  1945 Movement to the US of captured German scientists and equipment begins
  1945 President Truman establishes the Medal of Freedom
  1967 Biafran War erupts as Nigerian forces invade secessionist province
  1976 Women are admitted to the U.S. Naval Academy for the first time
  1985 USS 'Nautilus' (SSN-571) arrives at Groton, Ct., to become a museum
  1987 Sikh extremists begin a series of massacres in India
  1989 Col. Oliver North convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and ordering the destruction of documents, in the Iran-Contra Scandal; later vacated
  1998 Anti-Catholic rioting in Northern Ireland
7 -54 Caesar defeats the Britons near Bigbury
  1124 Tyre surrenders to the Crusaders
  1191 Battle of Rudiano: Brescians defeat the Bergamesci
  1456 An ecclesiastical court clears Joan of Arc of witchcraft charges, posthumously
  1460 Battle of the Sarno/Salmi: The Angevins defeat Ferrante I of Naples
  1495 Ferrante II recovers Naples from Charles VIII's French
  1498 Lucrezia Borgia (18) marries Alfonso d'Aragona (17)
  1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado captures the Zuni Pueblo of Hawikul, NM
  1647 Masaniello initiates a rebellion against Spanish rule in Naples
  1674 Anti-Spanish uprising begins at Messina
  1798 Congress rescinds treaties with France; Quasi War begins
  1798 US Frigate 'Delaware' captures French privateer 'Croyable'.
  1801 Toussaint L'Ouverture declares Haitian independence
  1807 Tilsit: Napoleon makes peace with Prussia & Russia
  1829 Royal Military Chapel established
  1838 Central American Federation is dissolved
  1846 Commo John D. Sloat takes Monterey, claims California for the US
  1861 Skirmish at Great Falls, Va
  1864 Jubal's Raid: Skirmish at Middleton, MD
  1898 German marines occupy Subic Bay, in the Philippines, annoying both the Filipino Nationalists and the United States.
  1908 Great White Fleet leaves San Francisco Bay
  1915 First Battle of the Isonzo ends (from Jun 23)
  1916 Thomas Edison becomes head of Naval Consulting Board, to study new technology
  1920 USN aircraft tests a "radio compass", Norfolk, Va
  1937 Marco Polo Bridge: Japanese initiate the "China Incident"
  1941 Iceland: US Marines relieve British forces on occupation duty, so they can fight elsewhere
  1941 Nazis murder 5,000 Jews in Kovono, Lithuania
  1943 Japanese ships sail from Paramushiro to evacuate the Kiska garrison.
  1944 RAF drops 2,572 tons on Caen, to support ground attack
  1944 Saipan: Japanese troops make a final "banzai" charge
  1944 U.S. B-29s from China attack Japan.
  1944 US troops capture Rosignano, NW of Rome
  1948 First women sworn into the Naval Reserve
  1956 Dynamite explosion, Cali, Columbia, over 1,000 die
  1960 USSR shoots down a US aircraft over the Barents Sea
  1966 Marines initiate "Operation Hasting" - to clear NVA from the DMZ
  1999 Sierra Leone: Agreement between Pres Ahmad Tejan Kabbah & Foday Sankoh ends civil war.
  2005 Islamist terrorists detonate 4 bombs on London subways and a bus, over 50 k, c. 700 injured.
8 452 Pope Leo I convinces Attila the Hun not to attack Rome, with the help of a bribe
  1191 Saladin burns Haifa
  1283 Battle of Malta: Ruggiero di Lauria's Aragonese & Sicilians defeat the Angevin fleet in Malta Harbor
  1520 Battle of Otumba: Cortes defeats the Aztecs
  1573 Spanish capture Haarlem from the Dutch after a seven month siege
  1709 Poltava: Tsar Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden
  1758 Disastrous British/Provincial assault on French-held Ft Carillon/Ticonderoga
  1776 Col John Nixon gives the first public reading of Declaration of Independence
  1838 Arabs attack Jewish community of Safed in Palestine
  1853 Commo Matthew C. Perry sails frigate Susquehanna into Tokyo Bay
  1860 Great Fire of Dallas, touches off slave insurrection hysteria across central Texas, scores of blacks lynched
  1861 Skirmish at Florida, Ms
  1861 Skirmish at Laurel Hill/Bealington, WVa
  1865 C.E. Barnes receives a US patent for a machine gun
  1898 Commo George Dewey's US forces occupy Isla Grande at Manila
  1912 Capt Enrico Millo takes an Italian MTB sqn into the Dardanelles, to raid Turkish shipping in the Marmora
  1918 Ambulance driver Ernest Hemingway wounded at Fossalto, on the Piave
  1941 Nazis order Jews in the Baltic States to wear a Star of David
  1944 British troops capture Caen, a month behind schedule
  1944 Guam shelled by U.S. ships
  1945 TF38 arrives off Japan with 20 carriers; to stay until the war is over
  1950 Douglas MacArthur named CinC UN forces in Korea
9 -586 Babylonian King Nebukadnezar II takes Jerusalem; beginning of the "Babylonian Captivity""
  0 National Prisoner-of-War/Missing-in-Action Recognition Day
  455 Eparchius Avitus proclaimed Roman Emperor (July 9, 455-Oct 17, 456), deposed, d. 457
  1553 Battle of Sievershausen: Elector Maurice I of Saxony defeats Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
  1755 Braddock's Defeat: the Battle of the Monangahela -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic382b.asp#one
  1776 The Declaration of Independence is read to Washington's troops in NY, whereupon the citizens pull down George III's statue at Bowling Green to make musket balls
  1790 2d Battle of Ruotsinaslami/Svenksund: Russo-Swedish fleets clash (to the 10th)
  1816 Argentina declares independence from Spain
  1846 Landing party from USS 'Portsmouth' occupies San Francisco.
  1860 Moslems commence 3-day massacre of Christians at Damascus
  1862 CS Brig Gen John Hunt Morgan captures Tompkinsville, Ky
  1864 Jubal's Raid - Battle of Monocacy, Md: US Maj Gen Lew Wallace conducts a successful delaying action
  1864 Jubal's Raid - Confederates extort $200,000 from Frederick, Md
  1876 Black landowner murdered by white supremacists in Hamburg, SC
  1900 The Commonwealth of Australia
  1915 German South West Africa captured by South African troops
  1916 Cargo submarine 'Deutschland' arrives in US from Germany
  1917 HM Battleship 'Vanguard' blows up at Scapa Flow, 804 die
  1918 Congress establishes the Distinguished Service Cross
  1918 Henry Ford launches the first of 100 Eagle boats
  1926 Chang Kai-shek appointed national-revolutionary supreme commander
  1926 Gen. Sinel de Cordes leads coup in Portugal
  1934 Reichsfuhrer-SS Himmler takes command of German Concentration Camps
  1940 Battle of Punta Stilo: indecisive British-Italian fleet action
  1940 RAF bombs Germany
  1941 The British break Germany's air-ground ops code used on the Russian Front
  1942 Toscanini conducts the American premiere of Shoshtakovich's "Leningrad Symphony" in New York
  1943 Italian blockade running sub 'Capellini' reaches Sumatra.
  1943 US ships shelling Munda beat off c. 100 Japanese aircraft.
  1944 US secures Saipan: 3,200 US, 27,000 Japanese KIA, & many civilian suicides
10 1460 Battle of Northampton: Lord Grey defeats King Henry VI 
  1609 German Catholic League established under Maximillian of Bavaria
  1690 Battle of Beachy Head: French fleet defeats Anglo-Dutch fleet
  1721 Peace of Nystad: Ends the Great Northern War (1700-1721)
  1775 Horatio Gates orders blacks excluded from the Continental Army
  1790 2d Battle of Ruotsinaslami/Svenksund: Swedish fleet beats Russians (from 9th)
  1821 U.S. takes possession of Florida from Spain
  1861 Combat at Monroe Sta., Va.
  1863 Siege of Morris Island, SC, begins (ends Sep 6)
  1898 A French column under Maj. Jean-Baptiste Marchand occupies Fashoda, on the Nile in the Sudan, setting up a six-month confrontation with Kitchener's Anglo-Egyptian forces, which leads to the Entente Cordial
  1898 Skirmish at Santiago de Cuba
  1913 Second Balkan War: Romania declares war on Bulgaria
  1917 Emma Goldman imprisoned for obstructing the draft
  1923 All non-fascist parties in Italy are dissolved
  1926 Explosion at the Picatinny Arsenal, Lake Denmark, NJ: 21 die, scores injured
  1938 Howard Hughes completes 91-hour 'round-the-world flight, NY-NY
  1941 Polish residents of Jedwabne massacre 1,600 Jews, and blame the Nazis
  1942 Himmler orders sterilization of all Jewish woman in Ravensbruck Camp
  1942 USAAF agrees to increase a/c strength in the Pacific, slowing buildup in Britain
  1943 First B-25 raid on Paramushiro (Kuriles) from Attu
  1943 Operation Husky: US & Commonwealth forces invade Sicily
  1944 Burma: Chinese engage in heavy fighting on the Salween front
  1944 Isolated Japanese troops launch a counter attack at Aitape, New Guinea
  1944 Marian Anderson sings "La Marseillaise" for de Gaulle, La Guardia, & NYC
  1945 Massive U.S./Br naval air strikes on airfields and industrial sites around Tokyo
  1953 American troops abandon Pork Chop Hill, Korea
  1960 Belgium sends troops to Congo
11 1244 The Khwarismian Turks take Jerusalem, amid great slaughter
  1269 Battle of the Val d'Elsa: Florentine Guelfs defeat the Sienese Ghibellines
  1276 Election of Pope Hadrian V (Jul 11-Aug 18, 1276)
  1289 Battle of Campaldino: Florentine Guelfs (including Dante) defeat the Arretine Ghibbelines
  1302 Battle of Courtrai/Battle of the Spurs: Flemish burgers defeat French knights
  1708 Battle of Oudenarde: the Duke of Marlborough & Prince Eugene of Savoy defeat the French -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic290b.asp#two
  1740 Jews are expelled from Belarus by Tsarina Anne
  1786 US pays Morocco $10,000 to "protect" merchant ships from piracy
  1792 Prussia invades France
  1798 Congress reactivates the USMC, disbanded in 1784
  1812 US invades Canada near Detroit
  1838 Russian fleet of three ships-of-the-line & c. 30 other vessels wrecked in a storm on the Circassian coast, in the Black Sea
  1859 Peace of Villafranca: Austria cedes northern Italy to Sardinia
  1861 Battle of Rich Mountain, VA: Gen Rosecrans forces rebels to surrender
  1872 Gunfight in the restaurant of the Hotel d'Europe, Alexandria, between the American Consul and his party and some former Confederate officers serving in the Egyptian Army, everyone proving poor shots
  1898 USN bombards Santiago harbor defenses
  1915 Germany cruiser 'Konigsberg' scuttled near Dar-es-Salam, Tangynika
  1919 US Navy Pay Corps becomes the Supply Corps
  1934 FDR becomes the first sitting president to transit the Panama Canal, passing from the Caribbean to the Pacific aboard USS 'Houston' (CA 30)
  1942 Japanese GHQ acknowledges the results of the Battle of Midway
  1943 U.S. cruisers and destroyers shell Munda.
  1943 USN surface ships break German-Italian tank attack at Gela, Sicily
  1955 USAF Academy opens with 300 cadets at Lowry AFB, Colo.
  1975 Archaeologists in Xian, China, unearth 8,000 porcelain soldiers, fully equipped and in proper formatoin, at the tomb of Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (221-210 BC)
  1977 Martin Luther King, Jr., is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom
  1999 Puerto Barrios, Guatemala: Cols Bill Gross & Austin Bay lend a hand after a 6.8 earthquake at 0814
12 1096 "Beggars' Crusaders" under Peter the Hermit reach Sofia in Hungary
  1109 Crusaders capture Tripoli, Syria
  1151 Election of Pope Anastasius IV (1151-1152)
  1191 Richard Lionheart & the Crusaders take Acre after a long siege
  1260 Battle of Kroissenburnn: The Bohemians defeat the Hungarians
  1276 Ottobuono Fieschi elected Pope as Adrian V (12 Jul-18 Aug 1276)
  1290 King Edward I orders the Jews expelled from England
  1434 Massacre of Camerino: Slaughter of the Varano at mass
  1470 Turks capture Negroponte [Euboea] from the Venetians amid great slaughter
  1543 England's King Henry VIII weds Catherine Parr, his sixth and last wife
  1573 Haarlem falls to the Spanish, after a siege begun on Dec 11, 1572
  1691 Battle of Aughrim: After initial success, the Irish Jacobites are defeated by the Williamites
  1702 Battle of Klissow: The Swedes defeat the Saxons
  1730 Lorenzo Corsini elected Pope as Clement XII (1730-40)
  1784 Spanish-Neapolitan-Portuguese-Maltese fleet bombards Algiers (to 21st) to surpress piracy
  1794 British raid on Calvi, Corsica: Lord Nelson loses his right eye
  1801 Second Naval Battle of Algeciras: British defeat a Franco-Spanish squadron
  1806 Napoleon establishes the Confederation of the Rhine
  1812 Gen Hull's US forces invade Canada
  1836 First USN Engineer Officer commissioned, Charles H. Haswell
  1856 US filibuster William Walker becomes President of Nicaragua (July 12, 1856- May 1, 1857), promptly legalizes slavery
  1861 Combat at Barboursville/Red House, WVa
  1861 Combat of Beverly Ford, Va
  1862 Congress authorizes a "Medal of Honor" for the Navy
  1864 Battle of Ft. Stevens: Lincoln observes Jubal Early's Rebel skirmishers
  1906 Alfred Dreyfus is finally cleared of all charges by the French Army [see Deaths]
  1916 USS 'North Carolina' (ACR-12) becomes the first American ship regularly operating aircraft
  1918 Japanese battleship 'Kawachi' is destroyed by an internal explosion in Tokuyama Bay
  1941 First Luftwaffe air raid on Moscow
  1941 Germans murder c. 5,000 Jews near Bialystock
  1942 New Guinea: Australian Maroubra Force reaches Kokoda
  1942 U-Boat lands four German saboteurs on Long Island, who are soon captured
  1943 Kolombangara: "Tokyo Express" tangles with Allied ships, who lose, badly
  1943 Battle of Kursk: Russians halt German offensive at Prochorovka
  1944 Allied attempt to take Myitkina, Burma, foiled by "friendly" air attacks
  1944 Theresienstadt Concentration Camp disbanded, with 4,000 people gassed
  1948 First jets to fly the Atlantic: 6 RAF de Havilland Vampires
  1978 Puerto Rican nationalist Willie Morales is severely injured by a blast in his bomb factory in New York, but escapes anyway
  1982 FEMA promises that survivors of a nuclear war will get their mail
13 633 Battle of Ajnadain: Arab Moslems defeat the Byzantines
  982 Battle of Stilo/Cape Colonna: HRE Otto II defeated by the Byzantines & Sicilian Moslems in Calabria
  1462 Battle of Mondolfo: The Papal Army defeats the Malatesti of Rimini
  1494 French Fleet prevents the Neapolitan Fleet from capturing Genoa
  1534 Ottomans capture Tabriz, Persia
  1643 Battle of Roundway Down: Cavaliers beat the Roundheads
  1789 The French Committee of Public Safety creates the National Guard
  1864 Jubal Early retreats from Washington, towards the Shenandoah Valley
  1878 Congress of Berlin restructures the Balkans, satisfying no one
  1919 Race riots in Longview & Gregg Counties, Texas
  1936 15,000 WW I veterans from all nations swear an "Oath of Peace" and observe a minute of silence at the Ossuary at Ft. Douaumont, Verdun
  1941 Anglo-Soviet mutual assistance pact is concluded
  1942 SS shoots 1,500 Jews in Josefov, Poland
  1943 New Guinea: Australian 3rd Div clears the Japanese from the Mubo
  1944 Fighting continues on Noemfoor.
14 939 Acession of Pope Stephen [VIII] IX (939-942)
  1187 Saladin captures Nablus
  1223 Louis VIII becomes King of France (1223-1226)
  1291 Egyptian Mamlukes take Sidon
  1420 Battle of Vitkov: Hussites defeat the Imperialists
  1456 Battle of Belgrade: The Hungarians defeated the Ottomans
  1500 The "Wedding of Blood": Astorre Baglioni marries Lavinia Colonna in Perugia, and estranged family members stage a coup
  1536 Pact of Lyon: France and Portugal ally against Spain
  1714 Aland Is: Russian fleet routs larger Swedish one
  1789 Citizens of Paris storm the Bastille
  1799 Michele "Fra Diavolo" Pezza weds Fortunata Rachele, Itri
  1808 Battle of Medina de Rio Seco: The French defeat the Spanish
  1813 Lt John M. Gamble, becomes the only US Marine to command a ship, the prize 'Greenwich'
  1825 Lafayette reviews 2nd Bn, 11th NY Arty, which adopts the name "The National Guard" and later becomes the famous 7th NY
  1831 The Great Powers confirm Belgian independence from the Netherlands -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic123b.asp
  1853 Commo Matthew Perry holds first meeting with Japanese officials
  1861 USN blockades Wilmington, NC
  1863 Battle of Tupelo/Harrisburg, Ms, begins (ends Jul 15)
  1867 Alfred Nobel gives the first public demonstration of dynamite
  1880 The French Republic establishes July 14th as a national holiday.
  1882 Four U.S. ships help British restore order in Alexandria, Egypt.
  1900 The "China Relief Expedition" captures Tientsin from the Boxers
  1933 Nazi Party becomes the only legal party in Germany
  1936 Cashiered LtCdr John Semer Farnsworth (USNA 1915) is arrested for espionage; convicted, gets 11 years
  1938 Mussolini begins persecution of Jews and other "non-Aryans"
  1938 FDR reviews the U.S. Fleet in San Francisco Bay, from the deck of the USS 'Houston' (CA-30) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic161b.asp
  1942 India: Supply flights begin over "The Hump" to China
  1942 Yamamoto creates the Eighth Fleet for operations in the South Pacific
  1943 Japanese sub 'I-179' is lost to an accident in home waters.
  1952 Keel is laid for the USS 'Forrestal' (CVA-59), the first supercarrier to be completed
  1959 First nuclear powered cruiser commissioned, USS 'Long Beach' (CGN 9)
  1969 Soccer War: El Salvador invades Honduras, c. 1000 die
  1972 Vietnam: Jane Fonda makes first of 10 broadcasts on Radio Hanoi.
15 -496 Battle of Lake Regillius: Romans defeat the Tarquins
  -111 Double Triumph of the Metelli Brothers: Marcus for the conquest of Sardinia, Gaius for Thrace
  765 Mayan scholars hold a conference on calender reform in Copan
  914 Pope John X leads a Papal-Italo-Lombard-Byzantine army to invest Arab-held Minturno, which falls in September
  1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem, c. 40,000 slaughtered
  1215 King John of England "assents" to Magna Carta
  1240 Battle of the Neva: Prince Alexander of Novgorod defeats a Swedish-German invasion
  1410 Battle of Tannenburg: Poles and Lithuanians trounce the Teutonic Knights
  1465 Battle of Monthleri: Indecisive clash between Louis XI's forces and unruly nobles during the "War of the Public Good"
  1500 Alfonso d'Aragona, husband of Lucrezia Borgia, is seriously wounded in a brutal attacked at St. Peter's (see 18 Aug)
  1544 "Battle of the Shirts" (Invergarry): Clans Ranald, Cameron, & Donald (8 of c. 600 survived) defeat Clan Fraser (4 of 300)
  1761 Battle of Vellinghuasen: Austrian night attack defeats the French by the 16th -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC28&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1779 "Mad" Anthony Wayne captures Stony Point, NY, at bayonet point
  1789 The Marquis de Lafayette is named Commander of the National Guard of Paris
  1795 The "Marseillaise" is officially adopted as the French national anthem
  1798 HMS 'Lion' (74) takes the Spanish 'Santa Dorotea' (40) in a two hour fight, capturing Lt. Jose de San Martin, serving as a marine -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC-01-05&Prev=122&BeginCnt=183
  1862 Battle of Yazoo Pas: CSS 'Arkansas' fights USSs 'Cardondelet' & 'Queen of the West'
  1863 USS 'Wyoming' defeats a Japanese warlord at the Shimonoseki Straits
  1864 Great Shohola Train Wreck, Pa: A train carrying Confederate P/Ws collides with a coal train, 65 die, 109 injured
  1869 Margarine patented by Hippolye Mega-Mouris, for use by the French Navy
  1870 Congress establishes the Navy Pay Corps, now the Supply Corps.
  1907 Turret blast in battleship 'Georgia' (BB-15); 10 dead, 27 injured
  1916 William Boeing founds an aircraft company in Seattle
  1918 Second Battle of the Marne begins
  1930 Debut of the motion picture 'All Quiet on the Western Front' starring Lew Ayers, based on the novel by Erich Maria Remarque
  1937 Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens
  1942 USS 'Grunion' (SS-216) sinks 3 Japanese sub chasers and a ship in the Aleutians
  1943 Air Battle in the Central Solomons: Japan loses 45 a/c, US 3
  1944 Briatin's Greenwich Observatory is damaged by a German V-1 flying bomb
  1944 Allied and Japanese troops engage in heavy fighting in the Aitape area of New Guinea.
  1945 U.S. battleships shell industrial installations at Kamaishi, Honshu
  1958 Marines land in Lebanon, to support government (to October).
  1974 Greek extremists depose Archbishop Makarios as president of Cyprus
16 622 The Hadj: Mohammed flees Mecca for Medina - Islamic Chronology begins
  1054 The Great Schism between Western and Eastern Christianity, as leaders of the two branches swap excommunications
  1099 Crusaders herd the Jews of Jerusalem into a synagogue & set it afire
  1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa; end of Moslem domination of Spain
  1429 Joan of Arc leads the French army to victory at Orleans
  1683 Turkish troops under Kara Mustafa attack Vienna
  1705 Battle of Cassano d'Adda: The French defeat the Imperialists
  1774 Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji: ends Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774
  1857 Sir Henry Havelock brings a relief force into Cawnpore, invested by the Sepoys
  1861 Skirmish at Millsville/Wentzville, Mo
  1861 Bull Run Campaign: Gen McDowell advances from Washington toward Fairfax Courthouse
  1862 David G. Farragut is named the first Rear Admiral in the USN
  1894 Battle of Kassale: Italians defeat the Sudanese Mahdists
  1894 African-American miners in Alabama killed by striking whites
  1912 Rear Adm Bradley Fiske, USN, receives a patent for the airborne torpedo.
  1920 Brig Gen Amos Fries is appointed first US Chief of Chemical Warfare
  1940 Hitler orders preparations for "Operation Sea Lion"
  1942 French collaborationist police initiate the arrest of c. 20,000 Jews as a favor for the Germans
  1944 Australian warships shell Japanese near Aitape, New Guinea.
  1944 With the aid of the Polish Resistance, the Soviets capture Vilna, Lithuania, from the Germans
  1945 Trinity: the first Atomic Bomb is tested in New Mexico.
  1946 A US court sentences 46 SS-men to death for the Malmedy massacre; Sen. Joseph McCarthy attempts to secure commutations
  1951 Abdication of King Leopold III of Belgium (1934-1951) for wartime collaboration, d. 1983
  1957 Marine Maj John Glenn sets transcontinental air speed record (03:28:08)
  1962 NASA civilian test pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 32,600 m
  1969 Apollo 11 leaves for the Moon
  2006 Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy, 69, heir to the throne of Italy, jailed on charges of running a gambling and prostitution ring.
17 561 Consecration of Pope John III (561-574)
  663 Constans II leaves Rome after a short stay; the last Roman Emperor to visit the Eternal City, he steals all the lead roofing
  1048 Accession of Pope Damasus II (17 July-8 Aug 1048)
  1245 Pope excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, for the third time
  1453 Battle of Châtillon: French defeat the English, winning the 100 Years? War
  1461 Battle of Sampierdarema: The Genovese defeat the Angevins
  1465 Battle of Montlhery: The French defeat the "Public Good" Rebels
  1501 The French invest Capua (Falls the 25th)
  1509 The Venetians recapture Padua from the French
  1549 Jews are expelled from Ghent, Belgium
  1601 Treaty of Lyons: Savoy annexes Saluzzo, France gains Bresse, Bugey, Gex & Valromey.
  1762 Catherine the Great becomes ruler of Russia (1762-1796), by murdering her husband Peter III
  1812 USS 'Constitution' escapes a British squadron after a three-day chase off New Jersey
  1815 Napoleon surrenders to the British at Rochefort
  1858 US Sloop-of-War 'Niagara' & HM Ship-of-the-Line 'Agamemnon' begin laying the first Atlantic cable.
  1860 Battle of Corriolo: The Garibaldini defeat the Borbons
  1861 Skirmish at Bunker Hill, Va
  1861 Skirmish at Fulton, Mo
  1861 Skirmish at Martinsburg, Mo
  1861 Skirmish at Scarrytown, WVa
  1862 John Hunt Morgan raids Cynthiana, Ky
  1862 Skirmish at Columbia, TN
  1862 US army authorized to accept blacks as laborers
  1863 Battle of Honey Springs: largest Civil War action in the Indian Territory
  1863 The 54th Massachusetts leads a gallant attempt to storm Ft. Wagner, South Carolina
  1864 John Bell Hood assumes command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, sealing the fate of Atlanta
  1898 Spanish-American War: Santiago surrenders to the US
  1903 The US Army and Navy form the Joint Board, to coordinate common policy
  1917 British Royals change their name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor
  1927 USMC pilots conduct first combat dive bombing, Ocotal, Nicaragua.
  1936 Military coup in Spain, sparks Civil War (1936-1939)
  1942 Amphib Force, SoPac Area, is established under Richmond Kelly Turner
  1942 MacArthur issues orders to occupy Buna, northeastern Papua.
  1943 RAF bombs German rocket research base at Pennemunde, on the Baltic
  1943 U.S. destroyers shell Kiska.
  1944 Having helped the Russians to liberate Vilna from the Germans, the leaders of the Polish resistance "Army Krajowa" are arrested by Stalin
  1944 Heavy fighting in the Aitape area, New Guinea.
  1944 Japanese Navy Minister Shimada, resigns, bringing down Tojo government.
  1944 Two ammunition ships explode at Port Chicago, Ca., 322 die
  1945 Potsdam Conference begins: Truman, Stalin, & Attlee
  1945 Third Fleet undertakes surface and air attacks on targets near Tokyo.
  1962 Robert White in X-15 sets altitude record of 108 km (354,300 ft)
18 -477 Battle of the Cremera: The gens Fabius is virtually wiped out by the Veientines
  -387 Battle of the Allia: Brennus' Gauls defeat the Romans (or maybe 390)
  0 Feast of St. Camillo de Lellis, Patron of Military Surgeons
  64 Great Fire of Rome begins, at which Nero didn't fiddle
  1185 Battle of Alarcos: Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur defeats King Alfonso VIII of Castille
  1536 Henry VIII declares papal authority void in England, so he can divorce his wife
  1630 Spanish-Imperial troops storm Mantua amid great slaughter
  1716 Jews are expelled from Brussels, Belgium
  1775 Congress authorizes each colony to provide armed ships of war
  1779 US Commo Abraham Whipple's squadron takes 11 British prizes
  1806 Gaeta surrenders to the French, after a five month siege -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic120b.asp#one
  1812 Treaty of Orebro: Great Britain, Russia, & Sweden ally against Napoleon
  1813 US Frigate 'President' captures 4 British ships.
  1814 British capture Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin
  1861 Bull Run Campaign: Combat at Blackburn's Ford, Va
  1863 Cavalry skirmish near Columbus, Ga
  1863 The 54th Massachusetts leads a gallant attempt to storm Fort Wagner, near Charleston
  1898 Naval Acton of Manzanillo, Cuba: US and Spanish light forces skirmish
  1907 French troops attack Casablanca
  1914 US Army Air Service is formed within the Signal Corps
  1914 The British Royal Navy extends an invitation to the German Imperial Navy to take part in a fleet week in August [see June 24]
  1915 Second Battle of the Isonzo begins (to Aug 3)
  1918 US & French forces launch Aisne-Marne offensive
  1920 US naval aircraft sink ex-German cruiser 'Frankfurt' during target practice.
  1925 "Mein Kampf" is published, and sells badly, until 1930, when it begins to top the charts
  1941 SS drowns 40 Jews in Dvina River, Belorussia
  1942 Maiden flight of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first operational jet fighter
  1943 German U-boat downs 'K-47', the only US airship lost to enemy action in WW II
  1944 Kuniaki Koiso forms new Japanese government, with the same old policies.
  1944 US troops capture St. Lo, Normandy
  1945 Australian troops take the Sambodja oil fields in Borneo.
  1994 Arab terrorist car bomb detonates at a Jewish center in Buenos Aires, 96 die
19 711 Battle of Guadalete: Tariq's Arab-Berbers defeat the Visigoths, initiating a 781 year war for Spain -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC38&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1333 Battle of Halidon Hill: English defeat the Scots
  1510 38 Jews are burned at the stake at Berlin
  1525 German Catholic princes form the Dessau League to combat Protestantism
  1545 Battle of the Solent: Anglo-French naval action, during which HMS 'Mary Rose' capsizes and sinks
  1553 Lady Jane Grey, c. 15-16, is deposed after nine illegal days as England's Queen, later reluctantly executed by the real Queen, Mary I
  1588 Sir Francis Drake finishes his game of bowls, in time to go to sea to fight the Spanish Armada
  1650 Battle of Edinburgh: David Leslie defeats Oliver Cromwell
  1701 Battle of Dunamunde: The Swedes defeat the Saxons
  1747 Battle of the Colle dell'Assietta: The Piedmontese defeat the French
  1799 French troops building fortifications near Rosetta, on the Nile Delta, find a curious stone
  1812 First Battle of Sackett's Harbor: Americans beat off a British attack across Lake Erie
  1861 Combat at Parkersville, Mo
  1863 Battle of Buffington I/St. Georges Creek, Oh/WVa: Union cavalry defeat John Hunt Moragan's Confederate raiders, but many escape into WVa,
  1864 Chinese Imperial troops liberate Nanking from the Tai-ping rebels
  1870 Franco-Prussian War begins
  1886 'Atlanta' commissioned, first steel cruiser in the USN
  1897 Lt Robert E. Peary departs on a year long Arctic Expedition
  1898 Action at Havana: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire
  1918 German armies retreat across the Marne
  1918 German 'U-156' sinks the armored cruiser 'San Diego' off Fire Island, NY
  1939 RAdm Richard Byrd named commanding officer of the 1939-1941 Antarctic Expedition
  1940 Battle of Cape Spada: Australian-British squadron sinks Italian CL 'Colleoni'
  1941 Winston Churchill flashes "V for Victory" for the first time
  1942 1800 Japanese troops depart Rabaul by ship for Gona.
  1942 German occupiers confiscate bicycles in the Netherlands
  1943 First Allied air raid on the Eternal City, 500 bombers hit rail yards
  1943 Japanese DDs land supplies at Vila, Kula Gulf.
  1969 Apollo 11 goes into orbit around the Moon
  1979 Marxist Sandinista government installed in Nicaragua
20 -356 The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus is burned by Herostratus, seeking immortal fame [perhaps overnight on the 20th-21st]
  514 Election of Pope Hormisdas (514-523), later canonized
  1031 Henry I succeeds Robert II as King of France
  1187 Saladin captures Jaffa
  1346 Battle of Zara: The Venetians defeat the Hungarians
  1402 Battle of Angora: The Tatars defeat the Ottoman Turks
  1502 Cesare Borgia captures Camerino
  1805 Over protests about the sea state by his admirals (one of whom he fires and exiles), Napoleon orders a review of the fleet at Boulogne, hundreds drown.
  1808 Battle of Bailen: The Spanish defeat the French
  1810 Colombia declares independence from Spain
  1812 USS 'Nautilus' captured by the Royal Navy
  1813 Battle of Sorauren, Day 3: Anglo-Spanish defeat the French
  1846 USSs 'Columbus' & 'Vincennes' fail to "open" Japan
  1858 Gathering of Plombieres: Napoleon III and Cavour plot war with Austria
  1860 Battle of Milazzo, Sicily: Garibaldi defeats Borbon troops
  1861 Confederate Congress convenes at Richmond
  1864 Battle of Peachtree Creek: Confederates defeated
  1866 Battle of Lissa: Austrian fleet defeats the Italian fleet in the Adriatic
  1871 Queen Victoria abolishes the practice of purchasing commissions in the British Army
  1881 Sioux leader Sitting Bull surrenders to federal troops
  1899 Five Italian-Americans are lynched in Tallulah, Louisiana
  1913 Turks retake Adrianople from the Bulgarians
  1914 Grand review of the Royal Navy off the Isle of Wight for King George V
  1917 Eugene Jacque Bullard, black American Foreign Legionnaire, is commissioned a fighter pilot in the Lafayette Flying Corps
  1942 Congress creates the Legion of Merit
  1942 First WAACs begin basic training
  1942 German raider 'Thor' sinks a British freighter in the Indian Ocean.
  1943 Kula Gulf: two Japanese DDs are sunk by U.S. aircraft
  1943 Solomons: Japanese sub damages Australian CL Hobart.
  1944 Death March of 1,200 Jews begins from Lipcani, Moldavia
  1944 Marines land on Guam.
  1944 The July Plot: Hitler isn't assassinated
  1944 Battle of the Philippine Sea: Japanese CV 'Hiyo' sunk by US air attack
  1945 Gala harbor reception for 15,000 men of the 44th Inf Div (NY/NJ NG) as they arrive at Pier 90, Manhattan, aboard the 'Queen Elizabeth'
  1945 USS 'Threadfin' (SS-410) sinks Japanese 'Minesweeper No. 39' in the Yellow Sea.
  1948 US reinstitutes the draft, for the Cold War
  1949 Israel's 19 month war of independence ends
  1969 The First Moon Landing: Apollo XI astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
  1974 Responding to attacks on Turkish residents, Turkey invades Cyprus
  1976 Last US troops leave Thailand
  1982 IRA bombs explode in two London parks
  2012 Mass shooting at a movie theatre in Aurora, Colorado, 12 die
21 -387 "Vae Victis!": Brennus' Gauls occupy Rome, following their victory on the Allia (18th) (or maybe 390)
  70 Romans secure Jerusalem after four months, with great slaughter
  649 Consecration of Pope St. Martin I (649-653)
  1200 Battle of Monreale: Papal-Norman army defeats Marcovaldo di Anweiler
  1320 Count Louis of Nevers marries the 8-year old daughter of Philip V
  1403 Battle of Shrewsbury: Henry IV defeats Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland 
  1527 Plague miraculously ends at Itri
  1667 Treaty of Breda: ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667)
  1691 Antonio Pignatelli elected Pope as Innocent XII (1691-1700)
  1711 Treaty of the Pruth: ends Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711
  1718 Treaty of Passarowitz: Austria and Venice make peace with the Turks
  1784 Algiers agrees to cease piratical raids after bombardment by a combined Italian naval squadron that began July 12th
  1789 Jose de San Martin, 11, joins the Spanish Regiment of Murcia as an officer-cadet
  1798 Battle of the Pyramids: Bonaparte defeats the Mamlukes
  1823 Lt David G. Farragut leads a raid to destroy a pirate base in Cuba
  1861 First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas: Confederate Victory
  1866 Battle of Bezzecca: the Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1905 Ottoman Sultan Adbul Hamid narrowly escapes assassination
  1905 USS 'Bennington' (PG-4): Boiler explosion, 62 dead, 40 injured
  1919 The hydrogen-filled blimp 'Wingfoot Air Express' explodes over downtown Chicago, 13 die (10 on the ground), 27 on the ground injured
  1930 Veterans' Administration established
  1933 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for Italo Balbo & his airmen
  1941 200 Torahs are burned in Ukraine
  1941 Himmler orders building of Majanek Concentration Camp
  1942 Japanese land at Gona, northeastern Papua, despite Allied air attacks
  1942 Japanese warships shell Buna and nearby villages
  1943 US Navy cancels the 'Montana' Class battleships
  1944 Pre-invasion bombardment of Tinian commences.
  1945 U.S. radio broadcasts demand that Japan surrender or be destroyed.
  1946 USN begins carrier trials of jets, an XFD-1 Phantom off the USS 'FDR'
  1962 Indian and Chinese troops skirmish in the Himalayas
  1969 Neil Armstrong's "small step" on the moon - 2:56:15 AM GMT
  1970 Libya orders confiscation of Jewish property
  1972 Bloody Friday: 22 IRA bombs explode in Belfast
  1997 The ashes of Little Sorrel, Stonewall Jackson's horse, are interred at his statue at VMI
  1997 Restored USS 'Constitution' sails for the first time in 116 years
22 838 Battle of Anzen/Dazman, Anatolia: Abbassids defeat the Byzantines
  1209 Crusaders capture Beziers from the Albigensians, amid great slaughter - "Kill them all; God will know His own."
  1298 Battle of Falkirk: English defeat the Scots
  1306 King Philip the Fair of France orders expulsion of Jews
  1376 The Pied Piper of Hamlin supposedly abducts the children of the town
  1484 Battle of Kirkconnel: The Duke of Albany is defeated by rebels.
  1499 Battle of Dornach: Swiss defeat Emperor Maximilian I
  1555 Battle of Sirind: The Moghuls defeat the Hindus
  1631 Battle of Werben: Swedes defeat the Imperialists
  1775 George Washington takes command of the American Army outside Boston
  1795 Treaty of Basle: Ends the Franco-Spanish War (1793-1795) on terms favorable to France
  1802 US Frigate 'Constellation' defeats 9 corsair gunboats off Tripoli
  1812 Battle of Salamanca: Wellington's Anglo-Spanish Army defeats the French
  1861 Skirmish at Forsyth, Mo
  1878 "Great Re-union of the Soldiers & Sailors of Ohio" - Newark.
  1905 The remains of John Paul Jones are removed from Paris to be transported to Annapolis
  1916 A bomb at a "Preparedness" parade in San Francisco kills 10
  1917 Alexander Kerensky becomes PM of Russia (to Nov)
  1941 Defeated on all fronts in 16 day war with Peru, Ecuador agrees to a cease fire.
  1942 1st Battle of Alamein: British halt German-Italian drive under Rommel
  1942 300,000 Warsaw Ghetto Jews are sent to Treblinka extermination camp
  1942 Allied a/c attack Japanese shipping at Gona, as Imperial troops begin advancing on Buna and the Kokoda Trail
  1942 US initiates gasoline rationing
  1942 The Papua Infantry goes into action against the Japanese for the first time, Awala, near Kokoda
  1943 Aleutians: U.S. warships shell Kiska and nearby islets
  1943 Bougainville: Japanese seaplane CV 'Nisshin' sunk by U.S. aircraft
  1943 Paramushiro: Japanese ships sail to complete evacuation of Kiska
  1943 Patton captures Palermo
  1944 Guam: Japanese counterattack is beaten off.
  1944 Soviets set up Communist Polish Committee of National Liberation
  1946 Jerusalem: The Irgun bombs British HQ in the King David Hotel, c. 90 die
  1975 House of Reps votes to restore citizenship to Robert E Lee
  1987 Soviet PM Gorbachev agrees to negotiate a ban on intermediate-range nuclear missiles
  1987 USN begins escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers in the Persian Gulf
  1988 500 US scientists pledge to boycott Pentagon germ-warfare research
23 -586 Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon captures Jerusalem, besieged since January 588 BC [Alt]
  685 Consecration of Pope John V (685-686)
  1253 Pope Innocent III orders Jews expelled from Vienne, France
  1298 Jewish community in Wurzburg, Germany, annihilated
  1343 Peace of Kalisz: Poland cedes Pomerania to the Teutonic Knights
  1482 Ottoman Prince Djem/Cem, defeated in a civil war by his brother Bajazet II, takes refuge with the Knights of Rhodes, and lives in exile as a guest of the Pope, with a pension from the Sultan, until his death in 1495
  1595 The Spanish sack & burn Mousehole & Penzance, Cornwall
  1716 Mug House Riots in London, between Jacobite and Hanoverian partisans
  1759 Keel is laid for HMS 'Victory', using timbers that have been seasoning for decades
  1793 Mainz: Besieged French garrison surrenders to the Prussians
  1798 Napoleon captures Alexandria, Egypt
  1803 "United Irishmen" uprising begins against Union with Great Britain
  1812 Battle of Mogilev, Russia: Napoleon defeats Tsar Alexander I
  1846 Henry David Thoreau goes to jail for a night for refusing to pay taxs, in protest of the Mexican War
  1847 Brigham Young says "This is the place" and founds Salt Lake City
  1848 Battle of Sommacampagna: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1849 Baden: Republican regime surrenders to the Prussians
  1886 Steve Brodie allegedly survives a jump from the Brooklyn Bridge into the East River
  1898 US landing at Rio Manimani, Cuba
  1906 Pogrom against Jews in Odessa
  1913 Arabs attack Jewish community of Rechovot, Palestine
  1914 Austria-Hungary issues ultimatum to Serbia
  1921 Chinese communist party formed
  1940 Hitler's last visit to the Bayreuth festival, to hear 'Gotterdammerung'
  1940 The "Blitz" begins: the first all-night Luftwaffe raid on London
  1942 German troops capture Rostov
  1942 Kokoda Trail: Japanese clash with Australian Maroubra Force at Awala
  1943 Battle of Kursk ends: Soviets win the greatest tank battle in history
  1943 New Georgia: Japanese attempt to land by barge frustrated by PT-boats.
  1943 US forces on New Georgia begin a drive to capture the airfield at Munda
  1944 Chinese troops renew an offensive on the Salween front, Burma
  1944 Heavy fighting on Guam
  1944 Soviet Army captures Lublin, Poland
  1944 US forces land on Japanese-held Tinian from nearby Saipan
  1945 Marshal of France Henri Petain, former Vichy leader, tried for treason [see Deaths]
  1945 Raiders off USS 'Barb' (SS-317) blow up a train on the east coast of Sakhalin Island
  1945 U.S. & Commonwealth ships raid Japan, sinking over 100 ships
  1952 Gen Mohammed Naguib & the Free Officer Movement overthrow King Faruq of Egypt
  1958 'Nautilus' (SSN-571) leaves Pearl Harbor to begin the first submerged crossing of the North Pole (90 N on August 3)
  1974 Greek military dictatorship collapses
24 1132 Battle of Nocera: Count Ranulf II of Alife defeats Roger II of Sicily
  1148 Second Crusaders besiege Damascus (withdraw the 28th)
  1192 Saladin captures Jaffa
  1216 Cencio Savelli elected Pope as Honorius III (1216-1227)
  1505 Portuguese fleet sacks and burns Kilwa, East Africa
  1567 Deposition of Queen Mary of Scots (1542-1547) and installation of her son as King James VI (1567-1625)
  1603 James VI of Scots is crowned as King James I of England (1603-1625)
  1692 Battle of Steinkirk: The French defeat William III of England
  1704 British Admiral George Rooke takes Gibraltar from Spain
  1813 Elijah Mix, USN, tries to mine HMS 'Plantagenet', Cape Henry, Va
  1848 Skirmish at Salionze: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1848 Skirmish at Staffalo: Piedmontese defeat the Austrians
  1861 Skirmish at Blue Mills, Mo
  1861 Skirmish at Taylor Mountain, WVa,
  1864 Second Battle of Kernstown, Va: Jubal Early drives Union forces out of the Shenandoah into Maryland
  1883 Arabi Pasha declares a holy war in Egypt against Britain and France
  1900 Race riot in New Orleans
  1915 Steamer 'Eastland' capsizes dockside in Chicago, 800 die
  1919 Race Riot in Washington DC, 6 killed, 100 wounded
  1923 Allied Powers & Turkey sign peace treaty at Lausanne
  1929 Pres Hoover proclaims Kellogg-Briand Pact, which declares war naughty
  1936 Spanish Nationalists form a junta to conduct the civil war with the Spanish Republic
  1942 Australian Maroubra Force is forced back from Alawa by the Japanese.
  1942 U.S. submarines begin operating in the Kurile Islands.
  1943 RAF bombs Hamburg, initiating a firestorm.
  1943 U.S. destroyers land supplies at Bairoko, on Kula Gulf.
  1943 U.S. subs ordered to deactivate defective magnetic torpedo exploders.
  1943 'U-459 sinks' when it shoots down an RAF Wellington that then crashes on her deck
  1945 Over 1,500 Allied carrier aircraft raid Kure, sinking three battleships
  1948 Soviets initiate a blockade of Berlin
  1959 The Nick & Dick Show: VP Nixon's "Kitchen debate" with Soviet Premier Khrushchev at the US exhibition in Moscow
  1969 Muhammad Ali is convicted of refusing induction in the US Army
  1999 Debut of StrategyPage -- http://www.strategypage.com/
25 0 Feast of St. James the Greater -- Santiago Matamoros -- Patron of Spain and of Spanish Infantry
  306 Constantine I (Flavius Constantinus) is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the troops at York (306- 337) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic391b.asp#two
  1139 Battle of Ourique: King Affonso I of Portugal defeats the Moors, personally accounting for five enemy knights - see Births
  1261 Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII recaptures Constantinople from the Latins
  1360 Jews are expelled from Breslau, Silesia
  1391 Battle of Alessandria: The Visconti defeat the French
  1394 Charles VI expels the Jews from France
  1467 Battle of Riccardino/Molinella: Bartolomeo Colleoni's Venetians defeat Federico da Montefeltro's Emilian-Romagnan alliance
  1501 The French capture Capua amid great slaughter (besieged since the 17th)
  1581 Seven Dutch provinces declare independence from Spain
  1587 Shogun Hideyoshi bans Christianity in Japan
  1593 "Paris is well worth a mass" - Huguenot King Henri IV converts to Catholicism to ensure his hold on the throne of France (r. 1589-1610)
  1670 Austrian Emperor Leopold I expels 4,000 Jews from Vienna
  1759 The British capture Ft. Niagara from the French
  1799 Battle of Abukir: Bonaparte beats the Turks
  1813 Battle of Maya: French defeat the English
  1814 Battle of Lundy's Lane: Americans defeat the British -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic165b.asp#two
  1835 Ibrahim Pasha's army attacks Jewish residents of Hebron, Palestine
  1848 First Battle of Custoza: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1861 Skirmish at Fort Fillmore, NM
  1866 David G. Farragut is appointed the first Admiral in the US Navy
  1866 U.S. Grant is named the first full general in the history of the US Army
  1868 Fall of Humaita: Besieged for nearly two years, the Paraguayan fortress on the Parana River surrenders to the Brazilians
  1898 First US troops land in Puerto Rico, at Guanica Bay
  1909 Louis Bleriot makes the first airplane flight across the English Channel, from France to England
  1912 USN publishes its first specifications for aircraft
  1918 Race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania; 3 blacks & 2 whites killed
  1934 1st presidential visit to Hawaii: FDR lands from USS 'Houston' (CA-30)
  1934 Nazi coup fails in Austria -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic278b.asp
  1938 Spanish Republican Army begins an offensive on the Ebro
  1942 Japanese outflank the Maroubra Force, to come within six miles of Kokoda
  1943 King Victor Emanuel III & the Fascist Grand Council dismiss Mussolini
  1943 New Georgia: 25th Inf Div lands, to join heavy fighting
  1943 RAF bombs Fokker airplane factory in Amsterdam
  1944 Allied breakthrough at St-Lo, Patton begins his drive across France
  1944 First jet fighter used in combat, the Messerschmitt 262
  1945 Japan says it will surrender, but not unconditionally
  1946 US detonates an underwater A-bomb at Bikini, the fifth atomic explosion
  1947 The US Army, Navy, & Air Force are subordinated to the new Department of Defense
  1956 Italian liner 'Andrea Doria' is rammed by the off course Swedish ship 'Stockholm' near Nantucket, shortly before midnight
  1963 US, Russia, and Britain sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
  1966 Mao Zedong (73) allegedly swims the Yangtze River
  1984 Cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya is the first woman to walk in space (Salyut 7)
  1994 Israel & Jordan formally end a state of war that existed since 1948
  1998 USS 'Harry S. Truman' (CVN-75) is commissioned
26 -46 Day 1 of Caesar's Triumph, for the conquest of Gaul, culminating in the dedication of the Temple of Venus Genetrix, honoring his divine ancestress
  657 Battle of Siffin: Muawiyah I, the first Umayyad, defeats Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, Mohammed's son-in-law
  811 Battle of the Verbita Pass/Pliska: Bulgar Khan Krouma acquires Nicephorus I's skull as a drinking cup.
  1469 Edgecote Hill: Sir John Conyers' Lancastrians defeat the Earl of Pembroke's Yorkists
  1649 English fleet bombards Dunkirk
  1755 Giacomo Casanova is imprisoned in the Leads by the Venetian secret police
  1757 Battle of Hastenbek: The French defeat the Anglo-Hanoverians
  1758 British Gen James Wolfe captures Louisbourg
  1759 French troops vacate Ticonderoga, New York
  1812 US Frigate 'Essex' captures British brig 'Leander'
  1822 Secret meeting of Simon Bolivar & Jose de San Martin
  1826 Rioting in Vilna leaves many Jews dead
  1833 A Zulu impi raids the vicinity of the Portuguese fort at Lourenço Marques, Mozambique
  1861 Skirmish at Lane's Prairie, Mo
  1863 Salineville, OH: Confederate Brig Gen. John Hunt Morgan surrenders with 364 troopers
  1898 Skirmish near Yauco, Puerto Rico; Spanish withdraw
  1898 US Navy sweeps mines at Caimanera, Cuba
  1912 Lt. John Rodgers makes the 1st airborne radio commo to a ship, USS 'Stringham' (TB-19)
  1914 The Dublin Massacre: Scottish troops open fire on a crowd, killing four and injuring scores
  1918 Race riot in Philadelphia, 3 whites & 1 black killed
  1941 Pres Roosevelt calls the Philippine Army into Federal Service
  1942 Capt Joy Bright Hancock is appointed Director, Women's Naval Reserve
  1942 Desperate fighting near Kokoda, Papua; Australians fall back to Deniki.
  1942 Japanese reinforcements land at Buna.
  1942 RAF bombs Hamburg
  1943 U.S. destroyers shell Munda.
  1944 Pacific strategy conference in Hawaii: FDR orders the liberation of the Philippines
  1944 Russian troops arrive on the Vistula
  1945 British ships and a/c raid Japanese bases on the west coast of Malaya.
  1945 Churchill resigns as Britain's PM
  1945 Japanese disregard US ultimatum
  1947 National Security Act establishes the CIA
  1948 Truman initiates the integration of the Armed Forces
  1953 Fidel Castro makes an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks
  1954 Chinese aircraft shoot down a British airliner, whereupon fighters off USS 'Philippine Sea' (CVA-47) shoot down 2 Chinese a/c that fired on them while covering rescue operations
  1956 Liner 'Andrea Doria', rammed by the 'Stockholm' off Nantucket a day earlier, sinks, 51 die
  1957 USSR launches its first intercontinental multistage ballistic missile
27 -46 Day 2 of Caesar's Triumph, for the Alexandrian War
  1057 Battle of Dunsinane Hill ("The Seven Sleepers"): Earl Siward defeats King MacBeth of Scotland
  1214 First Battle of Bouvines: King Philip II of France defeats Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV
  1230 Treaty of San Germano: Pope Gregory IX & Emperor Frederick II agree to a [temporary] end to hostilities between Church and Emperor
  1298 Albert I, son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, crowned Holy Roman Emperor (1298-1308)
  1361 Battle of Visby: Waldemar IV of Denmark defeats the Gotlanders
  1365 Princess Isabella of England marries Enguerrand de Coucy at Windsor
  1597 Battle of Amiens: Spanish defeat the French
  1643 Cromwell defeats Royalists at Battle of Gainsborough
  1689 Battle of Killiecrankie: Viscount Dundee defeats the Scots Jacobites under General Mackay
  1778 First Battle of Ushant: British and French fleets fight to a draw
  1794 Coup of Thermidor - the fall of Robespierre
  1809 Battle of Talavera de la Reina: Wellesley's Anglo-Spanish defeat the French
  1813 Battle of Burnt Corn Creek: Red Stick Creek Indians carrying supplies from Spanish Florida defeat an ambush by American militiamen.
  1816 Fort Blount, Apalachicola Bay, Fla, attacked by US Troops
  1830 Revolution against Charles X breaks out in Paris
  1839 Chartist riots break out in Birmingham, England
  1848 Combat at Cerlungo: Piedmontese defeat the Austrians
  1861 Combat at Ft Fillmore, NM: Confederate victory
  1861 McClellan replaces McDowell in command of Union forces around Washington
  1861 Skirmish at St. Augustine Springs, NM
  1864 Battle of Darbytown/Deep Bottom/ Newmarket Road/Strawberry Plains, Va
  1870 Lt. Gen Philip Sheridan sails from New York to observe the Franco-Prussian War -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic312b.asp
  1880 Battle of Maiwand; Dr Watson is wounded
  1897 Grand Review of the Royal Navy off Spithead marking Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee
  1900 Kaiser Wilhelm II tells troops departing to fight the Boxers in China, "When you meet the enemy, you will beat him; you will give no pardon and take no prisoners. Those whom you capture are at your mercy. As the Huns a thousand years ago under King Attila made a name for themselves that has lasted mightily in memory, so may the name 'Germany' be known in China, such that no Chinaman will ever again dare to look askance at a German."
  1909 Orville Wright demonstrates a plane for the Army, flying 72 minutes
  1919 Chicago race riot: 38 killed (23 blacks & 15 whites) and 537 injured (c. 65% blacks), several blacks, no whites are convicted of riot-related charges
  1941 Japanese forces land in Indo-China
  1942 Australian forces cling to Deniki, south of Kokoda in Papua, against fierce Japanese pressure.
  1943 Battle of the Pips: USN fires 100s of rounds at false radar blips, off Kiska.
  1943 China Seas: USS 'Sawfish' (SS-276) sinks two Japanese ships
  1943 Japanese DDs 'Ariake' & 'Mikazuki' sunk off New Britain by U.S. Army a/c.
  1943 Stalin issues Order No. 227: "Panic makers and cowards must be liquidated on the spot. Not one step backward . . . !"
  1944 First British jet fighter enters combat, the Gloster Meteor
  1944 Marines clear northern Tinian and begin rebuilding the airfield
  1944 Soviets liberate Majanek Concentration Camp
  1945 Japan's cities are "bombed" with leaflets demanding surrender
  1953 North Korea & UN sign armistice
  1954 Armistice divides Vietnam in two
  1955 Bulgaria shoots down an Israeli passenger plane, 58 die
  1990 Belarus declares independence from the USSR
  1995 Korean War Veterans Memorial dedicated in Washington
28 -46 Day 3 of Caesar's Triumph, for the defeat of Pharnaces of Pontus
  0 National Buffalo Soldiers' Day
  754 Pope Stephen II confirms Pepin "the Short" as King of France (r. 752-768), displacing the Merovingians Dynasty
  1148 Second Crusaders abandon the siege of Damascus (invested the 24th)
  1233 King Jaime I of Aragon liberates Burriana from the Moors
  1330 Battle of Velbuzda/Kiustendil: Serbians crush the Bulgarians
  1424 Battle of Zagonara: The Visconti defeat the Florentines
  1480 Mehemet II's Ottoman army besieges Otranto, Naples (falls Aug 11) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic340b.asp#two
  1488 Battle of Saint Aubin/Sant Albin an Hiliber: The French defeat the Bretons
  1689 Parliamentary ship 'Mountjoy' breaks the Royalist blockade of Derry, ending a 105 day siege
  1812 Napoleon captures Vilna -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic267b.asp#two
  1813 Battle of Sorauren, Day 1: Anglo-Spanish v. the French (ends 30th)
  1835 Giuseppe Fieschi attempts to assassinate King Louis Philippe by an "infernal machine" in Paris
  1862 Skirmish at More's Hill, Mo: Confederates defeated
  1864 Atlanta Campaign: Battle of Ezra Church
  1866 Congress approves adoption of the metric system
  1898 Skirmish at Ponce, Puerto Rico, which shortly surrenders to the US
  1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on and intiates hostilities with Serbia, igniting WW I
  1914 Mme. Caillaux is cleared of murder charges, permitting the French to notice the Austrian invasion of Serbia
  1914 Flying a Short Folder seaplane, Royal Navy Lt. Arthur Longmore conducts the first test of an air dropped torpedo, in Southampton Water.
  1931 Congress makes "The Star-Spangled Banner" the national anthem
  1932 Douglas MacArthur routs the Bonus Army, against orders
  1942 Papua: Australians retake Kokoda in a spirited counterattack.
  1943 FDR announces an end to coffee rationing
  1943 Japanese squadron rescues over 5,000 troops from Kiska in an hour
  1943 The RAF firebombs Hamburg, c. 40,000 die
  1944 Japanese at Myitkyina withdraw, commander commits hara-kiri
  1945 Kamikaze sink their last ship, the USS 'Callaghan' (DD-792), off Okinawa.
  1945 US Army B-25 crashes into 79th floor of Empire State Bldg, 14 die
29 -46 Day 4 of Caesar's Triumph, for the defeat of Numidia
  1014 Battle of Cledon/Clidium/Kleidion/Bala Thistau/Belasitsa: Byzantine Emperor Basil II defeats the Bulgars, blinds 15,000 prisoners
  1030 Battle of Stiklestad: Norwegian Christians triumph over pagans, in a fight punctuated by a solar eclipse
  1187 Saladin captures Sidon
  1364 Battle of Cascina: The Florentines under Galeotto Malatesta defeat the Pisans under John Hawkwood
  1693 Battle of Neerwinden: The French defeat the English & Dutch
  1813 Battle of Sorauren, Day 2: Anglo-Spanish v. the French (ends 30th)
  1846 Landing party off USS 'Cyane' captures San Diego
  1874 Maj. Walter Copton Wingfield patents a portable tennis court
  1915 A briefcase with German sabotage plans is found on the IRT subway in NYC
  1918 First meeting between FDR & Winston Churchill, Gray's Inn, London
  1937 China Incident: Japanese troops occupy Peking & Tientsin
  1942 Buna: Japanese land reinforcements, despite losses to Allied a/c
  1942 Japanese retake Kokoda from the Australians, who fall back on Deniki
  1943 New Guinea: 43rd Div Cdr relieved, as his troops press on slowly.
  1944 Marines take Orote airstrip on Guam against fierce Japanese resistance
  1945 U.S. warships shell naval and air bases on Honshu.
  1949 Berlin Airlift ends, as Soviets end blockade
  1953 Soviets shoot down US patrol bomber northeast of Vladivostok
  1958 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  1967 Fire aboard USS 'Forrestal' (CV-59), Gulf of Tonkin, 134 die
  1975 Military coup ousts Nigerian President/Dictaor Yakubu Gowon (1966-1975)
30 -101 Battle of Campi Raudii: The combined armies of G. Marius and Q. Lutatius Catulus annihilate the Cimbri, near Vercellae, in the Po Valley
  634 Arabs defeat Byzantines at Agnadain, Palestine
  657 Consecration of Pope Vitalian (657-672)
  1291 Egyptian Mamlukes take Haifa
  1371 Massacre of the mercenary Compagnia del Bruco at Florence
  1419 The First Defenestration of Prague: Initiates the Hussite Wars
  1588 Battle of Gravelines: Indecisive clash that decides the fate of the Spanish Armada
  1609 Samuel de Champlain uses a musket to help the Huron defeat the Iroquois, initiating a 150-year Franco-Iroquois war
  1638 Battle of Wittenweir: French defeat the Imperialists
  1760 Three of London's four remaining medieval gates are sold for £416 10s, perhaps $1.0 million today
  1839 "Mutiny" in the slave ship 'Amistad': Enslaved Africans liberate themselves
  1863 Lincoln orders retaliation if Confederates kill black P/Ws
  1864 Petersburg Campaign: Battle of the Crater
  1866 White racists attack blacks in New Orleans
  1898 Skirmish at Manila: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire
  1909 US Army accepts delivery of its first military airplane
  1913 Conclusion of Second Balkan War
  1916 German saboteurs blow up munitions stored at Black Tom Island, NJ, 7 die, $20 million in damages (perhaps $1.5 billion today)
  1918 1st Marine Aviation Force lands at Brest, France
  1941 Japanese "accidentally" bomb USS 'Tutuila' (PR-4), Chungking, China
  1942 German occupiers set curfew on Jews in the Netherlands
  1942 The Nazis murder 25,000 Jews at Minsk, Belorussia
  1942 USS 'Grunion" (SS-216) is declared "over due," probably lost to hazards of the sea.
  1942 VAdm Mikawa arrives at Rabaul to assume command of the Eighth Fleet.
  1942 WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) created
  1943 New Georgia: Heavy fighting continues.
  1943 U.S. DDs shell suspected Japanese positions on Kiska.
  1944 US 6th Inf Div lands on the Vogelkop, NW New Guinea, and offshore islands
  1945 British midget subs sink Japanese cruiser with mines in Singapore.
  1945 Near Samarinda, Borneo, Japanese troops slaughter several hundred Dutch civilian men, women, and children interned since 1942.
  1945 USS 'Indianapolis' (CA-35) torpedoed & sunk; nearly 900 die over the next four days, many in shark attacks
  1966 US airplanes bomb demilitarized zone in Vietnam
  1971 Japanese Boeing 727 collides with an F-86 fighter, 162 die
  1971 US Apollo 15 (Scott & Irwin) lands on Mare Imbrium on the Moon
  1997 Islamist suicide bombings in Jerusalem, 14 Israelis killed
31 -593 Ezekiel has a vision, on banks of the River Chebar in the Land of the Chaldeans (Ez 2, 9-10) [Astron]
  -30 Skirmish outside Alexandria: Antony wins a small victory over Octavian, in the last battle of the Roman Civil Wars, but afterwards his troops desert him
  904 The Arabs sack Thessalonica
  1009 Consecration of Pietro "Bucca Porci" as Pope Sergius IV (1009-1012)
  1192 Richard I recaptures Jaffa from Saladin, who had it 17 days
  1291 Egyptian Mamlukes take Beirut, end the Latin presence in the Holy Land
  1498 Christopher Columbus lands at Trinidad, on his third voyage
  1667 Peace of Breda: Second Anglo-Dutch War ends
  1760 Seven Year's War: Battle of Warburg: Brits & Hanoverians defeat the French -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic266b.asp#one
  1777 The Marquis de Lafayette becomes a major-general in the Continental Army
  1813 British attack Plattsburgh, NY
  1815 Bey of Tunis agrees to compensate U.S. for seizure of ships
  1830 Charles X of France is forced to abdicate
  1845 French Army bands adopt the recently invented Saxophone
  1849 Battle of Segesvár: Russians defeat Hungarian nationalists
  1849 Wars of Italian Unification: Garibaldi & his companions gain refuge in San Marino after the fall of the Roman Republic
  1865 USN East India Squadron established, origins of Asiatic Fleet
  1874 USS 'Intrepid' becomes the first American warship armed with automotive torpedoes
  1898 US and Spanish troops skirmish outside Manila
  1917 Third battle of Ypres begins (ends Nov. 10th), perhaps 500,000 die or are injured on both sides
  1922 General strike in Italy protests Fascist violence
  1925 Last Allied occupation forces leave the Rhineland
  1932 German Election; Nazis get 37.3% of the vote
  1938 Hitler decorates fellow anti-Semite Henry Ford with the "Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle"
  1942 Allied air attack forces Japanese Buna-bound convoy back to Rabaul
  1942 Australians at Deniki reinforced by another company
  1942 British Far Eastern Fleet returns to Colombo from East Africa.
  1942 USS 'Essex' (CV-9) is launched at Newport News, the first of a class of 26
  1943 Japanese 17th Div begins moving to Rabaul from central China.
  1944 British help form an anti-Japanese Burmese government-in-exile.
  1970 Parliament abolishes the Royal Navy's 300 year tradition of a daily issue of grog, replacing it with a daily can of beer
  1990 Bosnia-Hercegovina declares independence from Yugoslavia
  1991 George H.W. Bush and Mihail Gorbachev sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
  1997 NYC police capture three Islamist terrorists planning subway attacks


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