August Military History

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Born
1 -10 Claudius, historian, Roman Emperor (AD 41-54)
  126 Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman Emperor (Jan 1-Mar 28, AD 193), murdered 193 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic266b.asp#two
  1291 The Everlasting League: Uri, Schwyz, & Unterwalden unite to form Switzerland
  1520 Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lituania (1548-1572)
  1770 William Clark, of the "Corps of Exploration" , d. 1838
  1779 Francis Scott Key, of "The Star Spangled Banner", d. 1843 -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7zauaaPufo
  1814 Maxcy Gregg, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d/w 1862
  1815 Richard Henry Dana, Jr., sailor, attorney, author ("Two Years Before the Mast"), d. 1882
  1819 Herman Melville, sailor, war poet, author ("White Jacket"), d. 1891
  1837 Marie Harris "Mother" Jones, radical, d. 1930
  1843 Robert Todd Lincoln, Capt, U.S.V., SecWar, d. 1926
2 1696 Ottoman Sultan Mahmud I (1730-54)
  1785 Oliver Hazard Perry, USN, who "met the enemy" on Lake Erie, d. 1819
  1826 William Denison Whipple, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1902
  1868 King Constantine I of Greece (1913-1917 & 1920-1922), brilliant commander, d. 1923.
  1932 Peter O'Toole, sometime Royal Navy signalman, actor ("Lawrence of Arabia," "The Lion in Winter," etc.). d. 2013
3 1770 King Frederick Wilhelm III of Prussia (1797-1840)
  1816 John Eugene Smith, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1820 William Miller, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1909
  1823 Thomas Francis Meagher, Brig Gen, U.S., Irish Patriot, d. 1867
  1824 William Burnham Woods, Bvt Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1887
  1867 Stanley Baldwin, British PM (1923-24, 1924-29, 1935-37), appeaser, d. 1974
  1872 King Haakon VII of Norway (1905-57)
  1887 Rupert Brooke, soldier-poet, d. 1915 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic58c.asp
  1900 Ernie Pyle, noted war correspondent, kia Ie Shima, Okinawa, 1945 -- http://college.cengage.com/history/ayers_primary_sources/pyle_captainwaskowmen_goodbye.htm
  1922 John Eisenhower, presidential son, soldier, ambassador, historian ("The Bitter Woods," Agent of Destiny," etc.), d. 2013
  1924 Leon Uris, marine, novelist ("Battle Cry"), d. 2003
4 1521 Giambattista Castagna - Pope Urban VII (15-27 Sep 1590)
  1610 Johan Evertsen the Elder, Admiral of Zeeland, d. 1666
  1816 Israel Vogdes, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1889
  1818 Lovell Harrison Rousseau, Maj Gen, U.S.. d. 1869
  1859 Knut Hamsun, Norwegian author, Nobel Prize in Literature for 1920, prominent Nazi sympathizer, d. 1952.
  1873 Dámaso Berenguer y Fusté, Count of Xauen, Spanish general and historian, d. 1953
  1912 Raoul Wallenberg, Swedish diplomat, one of the Righteous, honorary American, d. 1947
5 1749 Thomas Lynch, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1779
  1818 Carnot Posey, Brig Gen, C.S.A., died of wounds, 1863
  1829 Milo Smith Hascall, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1904
  1850 Guy de Maupassant, Volunteer of 1870, author ("Ball of Fat"), d. 1893
  1930 Neil Armstrong, naval officer, who would take a "small step" on the Moon in 1969, d. 2013
  1957 Andrei Yevgeniyevich Zaitsev, cosmonaut
  1957 Pavel Vinogradov, Russia, cosmonaut
6 1697 Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor (1742-1745)
  1775 Louis-Antoine of France, Dauphin of France and Duke of Angoulême, King Louis XIX of France and Navarre (for a few minutes on Aug 2, 1830), French general, pretender to the Bourbon throne, d. 1844
  1809 Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, poet ("The Charge of the Light Brigade"), d. 1892
  1811 Judah Philip Benjamin, Confederate statesman, d. in 1884
  1819 Samuel Perry "Powhatan" Carter, Maj Gen, USV, & Rear Adm, USN, d. 1891
  1861 Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt, wife to TR, mother of soldiers, d. 1948 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic362b.asp#one
  1917 Robert Mitchum, IV-F actor ("The Story of GI Joe"), d. 1997
7 317 Flavius Julius Constantius II, Roman Emperor (337-361)
  1742 Nathanael Greene, Patriot general, second only to Washington, d. 1786
  1742 Nathanael Greene, Revolutionary War general who never won a battle, but was second only to Washington in helping win the war, d. 1783
  1829 Thomas Ewing Jr, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1896
  1833 Powell Clayton, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1914
  1836 Evander McIvor Law, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1920
  1876 Mata Hari, exotic dancer, spy, executed 1917
  1886 Edward L. Spiers, later Maj-Gen Sir Edward Louis Spears, Bart, KBE, CB, MC, author, MP, liaison to the French Army in two world wars, d. 1974
8 1812 John Rodgers II, Rear Adm, U.S., d. 1882
  1819 Charles Anderson Dana, Asst SecWar, d. 1897
  1820 Winfield Scott "Old Swet" Featherston, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d 1891
  1835 James William Forsyth, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1906
  1839 Nelson Appleton Miles, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1925 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic158b.asp#three
  1879 Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary, murdered 1919
  1909 Natalie Latham, later Lady Malcolm Douglas-Hamilton, who founded "Bundles for Britain," d. 2013
  1948 Svetlana Y. Savitskaya, 2nd woman in space (Soyuz T-7)
9 1782 Sir Charles James Napier, British general who once said "Peccavi - I have Sinned", d. 1853
  1808 William Thomas Ward, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1878
  1823 Daniel Marsh Frost, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1900
  1824 Simon Goodell Griffin, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1902
  1888 Hans Oster, German general, anti-Nazi conspirator, executed 1945
  1944 Sam Elliot, actor ("Gettysburg") -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzZOp-nPho8
10 1296 Jean the Blind of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia (1309-1346), kia, 1346
  1397 King Albert II von Hapsburg of Germany (1438-1439)
  1763 Jean Victor Moreau, French revolutionary general, kia 1813 in Russian service
  1772 Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill, Peninsular general, d. 1842
  1810 Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, sometime soldier, the "Brain" of Italian Unification, d. 1861, three months after it happened
  1814 John Clifford Pemberton, inept Lt. Gen, C.S.A., d. 1881
  1823 Charles Thomas Campbell, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1895
  1874 Herbert C. Hoover, President (1929-1933), d. 1964 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic131b.asp#two
  1920 Henry Lafont, who would become the last French veteran of the Battle of Britain, d. 2011
11 1832 Thomas Ogden Osborn, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1904
  1837 Marie François Sadi Carnot, President of France (1887-1894), assassinated by an anarchist, 1894
  1882 Rodolfo Graziani, inept Italian marshal, Viceroy of Ethiopia, d. 1955
  1892 Wladyslaw Anders, Polish general-in-exile, d. 1970
  1902 Christian Marie Ferdinand de la Croix de Castries, French general, who lost at Dien Bien Phu, d. 1991
  1921 Alex Haley, Coastguardsman, author ("Roots"), d. 1992
12 1503 King Christian III of Denmark & Norway (1534-59)
  1762 King George IV of England (1820-30)
  1819 Daniel Davidson Bidwell, Brig Gen, U.S., kia 1864
  1829 John Horace Forney, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1902
  1833 William Price Sanders, Brig Gen, U.S., kia 1863
  1904 The Tsarevich Aleksei of Russia, murdered, 1918
  1909 Maurice Heath, air marshal, RAF, d. 1998
13 -615 Servius Tullius, sixth King of Rome (578-534 BC)
  1489 Francesco Ferrucci, condottiero, Captain of Florence, kia 1530
  1851 John Clem, later "John Lincoln Clem," the 'Drummer boy of Chickamauga', sometime Maj. Gen., US, d. 1937
  1907 Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, arms manufacturer, Nazi slavemaster who got over, d. 1967
  1918 Denis Smallwood, British air chief marshal, d. 1997
  1927 Fidel Castro Ruz, lousy ballplayer, dictator of Cuba (1959-2006)
  1958 Randy Shughart, American soldier, kia 1993 in Mogadisciu, earning the Medal of Honr
14 1688 Frederick William I, King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg (1713-1740), father to Frederick the Great, d. 1740 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic357b.asp#one
  1740 Barnaba Chiaramoni - Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
  1774 Meriwether Lewis, of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, d. 1809
  1814 Henry Hayes Lockwood, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1899
  1821 Clement Hoffman "Rock" Stevens, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d/w 1864
  1824 William Terry, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1888
  1876 King Alexander I Obrenovic of Yugoslavia (1922-34), assassinated
15 1761 Edward Preble, Commodore, USN, First Barbary War, d. 1807 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic108b.asp#two
  1769 Napoleone Bounaparte, Corsican adventurer, d. 1821 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic104b.asp#one
  1771 Sir Walter Scott, sometime volunteer cavalryman, novelist ("Ivanhoe"), d. 1832
  1823 Orris Sanford Ferry, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1875
  1845 U.S. Naval Academy is established at Ft Severn, Annapolis
  1878 Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, Russian "White Guard" Leader, d. 1928
  1888 Thomes E. Lawrence "of Arabia", d. 1935
  1912 Julia Child, OSS worker, chef, d. 2004
16 1622 Tsjerk de Vries, Dutch admiral, d/w, this date 1666
  1763 Frederick Augustus, the Duke of York & Albany, inept general, superb commander-in-chief, d. 1827 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic297b.asp#two
  1828 Joseph Bradford Carr, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1895
  1831 Edward Payson Chapin, Brig Gen, U.S., kia 1863
  1892 Harold Foster, cartoonist ("Tarzan", "Prince Valiant"), d. 1982
  1913 Menachem Begin, terrorist, Israeli PM (1977-83), 1978 Peace Nobelist, d. 1992
  1923 Shimon Peres, Israeli PM (1984-1986, 1995-1996), President (2007-)
17 1629 King John I of Poland (1674-1696)
  1786 David Crockett, frontiersman, k. 1836
  1819 James Henry Van Alen, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1886
  1844 Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia (1896-1913)
  1876 Henri G. Winkelman, Dutch Supreme Commander, 1940, d. 1952
  1887 Charles I, last Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary (1916-18), d. 1922
  1887 Marcus Garvey, fascistic African nationalist, d. 1940
  1914 Franklin D Roosevelt, Jr., naval officer, d. this date in 1998
  1929 Francis Gary Powers, U-2 pilot, d. 1977
18 1587 Virginia Dare, first English child born in the Americas, who will disappear with the Roanoke Colony
  1813 Benjamin Alvord, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1884
  1818 William Farquhar Barry, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1879
  1830 Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria (1848-1916), King of Hungary (1868-1916), etc, etc. -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC01&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1917 Casper Weinberger, sometime soldier, budget cutter who then became SecDef (1981-87) and complained about the "hollow" armed forces, d. 2006
19 232 M. Aurelius Probus, Roman Emperor (276-282)
  1711 Edward Boscawen, British admiral, who captured Louisbourg, d. 1761
  1815 John Porter McCown, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1879
  1831 Stephen Gano Burbridge, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1894
  1871 Orville Wright, aviation pioneer, d.1912
  1878 Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, First President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, d. 1944
  1883 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, stylish Nazi collaborator, d .1971
  1921 Gene Roddenberry, B-17 Pilot, creator of "Star Trek", d 1991
20 1778 Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme, Chilean patriot, d. 1842
  1802 Cadwalader Ringgold, naval officer, U.S., d. 1867
  1811 Gilman Marston, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1890
  1824 Absalom Baird, Brig Gen, U.S, d. 1905
  1832 Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe, Civil War balloonist, d. 1913
  1833 Benjamin Harrison, sometime colonel, 70th Indiana, President (1889-1893), d. 1901 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic395b.asp
  1882 Enrico Toti, Italian cyclist, patriot, and one-legged war hero, kia 1916 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic209b.asp#one
  1941 Slobodan Milosevich, President of Serbia (1989-1997), the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1997-2000), war criminal
21 1165 King Philip II Augustus of France (1179-1223), the first Capetian
  1579 Henri II, Viscount, later Duke of Rohan, French soldier & Huguenot leader, d. 1638
  1643 Afonso VI, insane king of Portugal (1656-67)
  1670 James FitzJames, the Duke of Berwick, bastard son of James II and Arabella Churchill, later Marshal of France, kia 1734 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic290b.asp#two
  1765 William IV of Great Brtian (1830-1837), the first "Sailor King" -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic248b.asp#one
  1810 Thomas Jefferson McKean, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1870
  1821 William Barksdale, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia 1863
  1824 John Sanford Mason, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
22 1760 Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Giralamo Nicola della Genga - Pope Leo XII (1823-1829)
  1822 George Stoneman, Maj Gen, US, cavalryman, d. 1894
  1827 Joseph Anthony Mower, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1870
  1834 Nathaniel Harrison Harris, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1900
  1836 Archibald M Willard, artist ("The Spirit of '76"), d. 1918
  1854 King Milan Obrenovich of Serbia (1882-1889), military reformer, d 1901
  1902 Bertha Helene Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl, Nazi film maker ("Triumph of the Will"), d. 2003
  1904 Deng Xiaoping, Chinese communist dictator (1976-1983), d. 1997
  1919 Alan Cathcart, 6th Earl Cathcart, British general, d. 1999
  1934 Norman Schwarzkopf, Gen., US, Liberator of Kuwait in 1991, d. 2012
23 1740 Tsar Ivan VI of Russia (1740-41)
  1754 King Louis XVI of France (1774-92), dates Mdm. Guillotine in 1792
  1788 Joseph Gilbert Totten, Brig. Gen., US, scholar, d. 1864 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic220b.asp#one
  1818 Rufus Ingalls, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1893
  1832 Alexander Chambers, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1888
  1864 Eleftherios Venizelos, PM of Greece (1910-1920, 1928-1932), d. 1936 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic311b.asp#one
  1883 Jonathan Mayhew "Skinny" Wainwright IV, Defender of Bataan & Corregidor, d. 1953 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic179b.asp#two
  1923 John Eisenhower, soldier, historian ("The Bitter Woods")
  1935 Brendan Jackson, British Air Chief Marshal, d.1998
24 1113 Count Geoffrey V of Anjou, the first "Plantagenet", d. 1151
  1750 Letitia Ramolino Buonaparte, mother of Napoleone, d. 1847
  1759 William Wilberforce, England, anti-slavery crusader, d. 1833
  1808 Benjamin G. Humphreys, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1882
  1808 Thomas F. Drayton, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1891
  1827 Walter H. Stevens, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1867
  1828 George "Maryland" Steuart, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1903
  1865 Ferdinand I, Prince (1887-1908) and Tsar of Bulgaria (1908-1918), d. 1948 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC01&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1886 William Francis Gibbs, naval architect (liners 'America' & 'United States', and most of the WW2 fleet), d. 1967
25 1109 Afonso "the Conqueror" - first King of Portugal (1139-1185)
  1530 Tsar Ivan IV "the Terrible" (1533-84) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic254b.asp#one
  1786 King Ludwig I of Bavaria (1825-1848), friend to Lola Montez, d. 1868
  1811 Joseph D. Webster, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1876
  1812 Percival Drayton, Capt, USN, d. 1865
  1819 Allan Pinkerton, detective, inept Union spymaster, d. 1884
  1823 John Newton, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1895
  1825 Henry W. Birge, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1888
  1845 "Mad" King Ludwig II of Bavaria (1864-86)
  1911 Võ Nguyên Giáp, brilliant Vietnamese commander, who fought Japanese, French, & Americans, d. 2013
  1938 Frederick Forsyth, novelist ("The Dogs of War"), putschist, d. 2001
26 1596 Frederick V Elector Palatine (1610-23), King Frederick I of Bohemia (1619-20), the "Winter King", d. 1632, having helped start the Thirty Years' War
  1676 Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the first "prime minister", d. 1745
  1740 Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, France, co-inventor with his brother Jacques-Étienne of ballooning, d. 1810
  1743 Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist, war profiteer, guillotined 1794
  1802 Mariano Arista, general and President of Mexico (1851-1853), d. 1855
  1811 Danville Leadbetter, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1866
  1819 Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince Consort to Queen Victoria, d.1861
  1833 Charles Jackson Paine, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1916
  1835 Theodore Washington Brevard, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
  1901 Maxwell D Taylor, sometime commander, 101st A/B Div, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, d. 1987
  1910 Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu - Mother Teresa, 1979 Peace Nobelist, d. 1997
27 1545 Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, Piacenza, etc. (1586-92), condottiero, Governor of the Netherlands, d. 1592
  1666 Tsar Ivan V of Russia (1682-89)
  1824 Hiram Gregory Berry, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1863
  1826 Frank Stillman Nickerson, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1917
  1832 James Alexander Walker, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1901
  1839 Emory Upton, Maj Gen, U.S.V., military theorist, d. 1881
  1869 Karl Haushofer, German soldier, geopolitician, d. 1946
  1889 C.S. Forester, novelist ("Horatio Hornblower", "The African Queen"), d.1966
  1908 Lyndon B Johnson, incidental naval officer, President (1963-1969)
  1912 Peter Gretton, British vice admiral, d. 1992
  1916 Martha Raye, comedienne, who also served, d. 1994
  1930 John Watts, sometime British Lt. Gen., Chief of Omani Armed Forces, d. 2003
  1932 Lady Antonia Fraser, biographer ("Wellington")
28 1592 George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, murdered 1628
  1798 Gershom Jaques Van Brunt, Capt, U.S.N., d. 1863
  1828 Count Leo Tolstoy, soldier, novelist ("War and Peace"), d. 1910
  1828 William Alexander Hammond, Brig Gen, US, Surgeon General, d. 1900
29 1387 King Henry V of England (1413-22), Victor of Agincourt
  1619 Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV's Minister of Finance (1665-1683), d. 1683
  1809 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., physician, poet ("Old Ironsides"), d. 1894
  1915 Ingrid Bergman, actress ("Casablanca"), d. this date 1982 at 67
30 1334 King Pedro "the Cruel" of Castille & Leon (1350-1369), k. 1369
  1748 Jacques-Louis David, artist ("The Oath of the Horatii"), d. 1825
  1772 Henri du Vergier, comte de la Rochejaquelein, leader of the Vendee Rebellion, kia 1794
  1797 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, author ("Frankenstein"), d. 1851
  1901 John Gunther, journalist, the "Inside" man, d. 1970
  1918 Ted Williams, marine, outstanding baseball player, d. 2002
  1960 Gary Gordon, American soldier, kia 1993, in Mogadisciu, earning the Medal of Honor
31 12 Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Caligula, maniacal Roman emperor (37-41) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic331b.asp#one
  161 Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, (d. 165) and Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus -- Commodus, maniacal Roman emperor (180-191)
  1396 Duke Philip III of Burgundy (1419-1467), English ally in the Hundred Years' War
  1569 Shah Jahan, Great Mogul of India (1628-1658), who built the Taj Mahal, d. 1666
  1811 Goode Bryan, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1885
  1822 Fitz John Porter, Maj Gen, U.S., aeronaut, d. 1901
  1828 George Leonard Andrews, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1899
  1879 Emperor Yoshihito of Japan (1912-1926), son of the Meiji, father to Hirohito
  1880 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (1898-1948), d. 1962
  1945 Leonid I Popov, Russia, cosmonaut

Died
1 -30 Marc Antony, suicide at 53, expiring in Cleopatra's arms
  527 Eastern Roman Emperor Justin I (518-527), c. 77
  1137 King Louis VI "the Fat" or "the Great" of France (1108-1137), c. 58
  1190 Count Floris III of Holland (1157-1190), c. 50
  1464 Cosimo de' Medici, 74, "Pater Patriae," at Florence
  1503 Cardinal Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, 67, possibly poisoned by his kinsman Cesare Borgia for his fortune
  1584 Marcantonio II Colonna of Paliano, 49, sometime Captain General of the Papal Fleet at Lepanto, Viceroy of Sicily
  1589 Fr. Jacques Clément, c. 22, slain by the King's bodyguard, after mortally wounding King Henri III, who would die the next day
  1714 Queen Anne of England (1701-1714), 49
  1720 Sir John Leake, 44, Admiral (Vélez-Málaga, defense of Gibraltar, Cabrita)
  1776 Francis Salvador, c. 29, the first Jewish-American known to have been kia
  1973 Walter Ulbricht, East German communist dictator, 80
  1977 Francis Gary Powers, U-2 pilot, at 47 in a helicopter accident
  2003 Ian Robertson, 60, director, Britain's National Army Museum (1988-2003)
  2009 Maria Corazon "Cory" Aquino, 76, President of the Philippines (1986-1992)
2 -338 King Archidamus III of Sparta (360-338 BC), kia, Manuria, Sicily
  -216 Lucius Aemilius Paullus, c. 45, Consul, plus two former consuls, 77 senators, 2 quaestors, 29 military tribunes, and at least 40,000 other Romans, kia, along with maybe 10,000 Carthaginian, African, Spanish, and Gallic troops, Cannae
  640 Pope Severinus (28 May-2 Aug 640)
  686 Pope John V (685-686)
  1100 King William II "Rufus", c. 44, by a "stray" arrow while hunting in the New Forest
  1589 King Henri III of France (1573-1589), 37, of wounds from an assassination attempt the previous day
  1799 Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier, 49, co-inventor of ballooning with his brother Joseph-Michel
  1822 Alexander Graham Bell, 75, Scottish-American inventor of the practical telephone
  1849 Mehemet Ali Pasha of Egypt (1805-1848), c.80, empire builder, slave trader
  1876 James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok, 39, shot by Jack McCall while holding black aces & eights & a jack of diamonds
  1903 "Calamity Jane" - Martha Jane Cannary, 51
  1921 Enrico Caruso, 48, noted tenor -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t936rzOt3Zc
  1934 Paul von Hindenburg, 86, field marshal, President of Germany (1928-1934), leaving the country in Hitler's hands
  1936 Louis Bleriot, 64, pioneer aviator
  1946 Andrei Andreyevich Vlasov (45), Soviet general, traitor, executed
  1955 Generalfeldmarschall Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Duke of Bavaria, of Franconia and in Swabia, Count Palatine of the Rhine, WW I German general, anti-Nazi, at 86
  1956 Albert Woolson, sometime drummer boy, Coy C, 1st Minnesota Heavy Artillery, USV, last Civil War veteran, at 106
  2012 Sir John Keegan, OBE, FRSL, 78, historian -- "The Face of Battle", etc.
3 772 Pope Stephen III [IV] (768-772) - or the 1st
  1181 Pope Alexander III - Orlando Bandinelli (1159-81), v. 80-85
  1387 Olaf Haakonsson, 17, King Olaf II of Denmark (1376-1387) & Olaf IV Norway (1380-1387)
  1530 Francesco Ferrucci, 40, Captain of Florence, fighting against the Medici, and Philibert of Chalon, 28, Prince of Orange, Spanish Viceroy of Naples, fighting for the Medici, kia, Gavinana
  1916 Sir Roger Casement, 51, Irish nationalist, executed
  2008 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, sometime Red Army major, Soviet dissident, author ("The GULAG Archipelago"), b. 1918
4 946 Pope Martin III (942-946)
  1060 King Henry I of France (1027-1060), at 52
  1265 Simon de Montfort (57), 6th Earl of Leicester, founder of Parliament, his son Henry (27), and his kinsmen Guy Balliol, Humphrey Bohun, & William Arundel, all kia, Eversham
  1306 Wenceslaus III Premyslid, 16, King of Hungary (1301-1305), of Bohemia (1305-1306), and of Poland (1305-1306). stabbed at Olmutz
  1430 Philip of Saint-Pol, 26, Duke of Brabant (1327-1430)
  1477 Jacques d'Armagnac, c. 44 Duke de Nemours (1462-1477), beheaded by Louis XI
  1526 Juan Sebastián Elcano, c. 40, first man to circumnavigate the globe
  1571 Astorre Baglioni, c. 45, condottiero, kia, Famagusta, Cyprus
  1578 Sultan Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I of Fez (1576-1578), his enemy the deposed Sultan Abu Abdallah Mohammed II (1574-1576), and the latter's ally King Sebastian of Portugal (1557-178), all kia
  1804 Adam Duncan, 73, 1st Viscount Duncan, admiral, victor of Camperdown -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic152b.asp#one
  1922 Enver Pasha, "Young Turk," kia, Turkestan, at 41
  1976 Enrique Ángel Angelelli, 53, Catholic clergyman, Bishop of of La Rioja (1968-1976), murdered by the Argentine military junta
  1999 Victor Mature, Coastguardsman, actor ("Demetrius and the Gladiators"), at 84 http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic56b.asp#two
  2013 Adm. John Woodward, RN, 81, who led the liberation of the Falklands in 1982
5 -465 King Xerxes I of Persia (485-465 BC), c. 54, murdered
  642 King Oswald of Northumbria (634-642), kia at c. 38
  882 King Louis III of France (879-882), at c. 19
  1063 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, c. 55, King of Gwynedd and Powys (1039-1055), and of all Wales (1055-1065), killed by his own troops after losing the Battle of Snowdonia
  1157 Count Dirk VI of Holland (1121-1157), c. 42
  1600 John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, c. 33, slain at Perth while attempting to murder James VI of Scots
  1792 Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, inept British PM (1770-1782) who lost America
  1799 Admiral Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, 73 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic72c.asp
  1895 Friedrich Engels, capitalist exploiter of the masses, Communist hero, at 74
  1945 Richard Ira "Dick" Bong, 24, highest scoring US ace of WW II (at least 40 Japanese a/c), killed test flying a P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter 10 days before VJ Day
  1984 Richard Burton, WW II RAF cadet, actor ("Where Eagles Dare", etc.), at 58
  2000 Alec Guinness, 86, sometime naval officer, actor ("Star Wars IV", "Bridge on the River Kwai" -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic267b.asp#one
6 258 Pope St. Sixtus II (31 Aug 257-6 Aug 258), martyred
  523 Pope St. Hormisdas (514-523)
  966 King Berengarius II of Italy (950-961)
  1162 Count Ramon Berenguer IV "the Saint" of Barcelona (1131-1162), c. 50
  1195 Henry the Lion, c. 65, sometime Duke Henry III of Saxony (1142-1180) and as Henry XII of Bavaria (1156-1180), founder of Munich, Lübeck, and other cities
  1272 King Stephen V Arpad of Hungary and Croatia (1246-1272), Prince of Transylvania (1261-1270), Duke of Styria (1258-1260), over 35
  1458 Pope Callistus III - Alfonso de Borja (1455-1458), at 79
  1666 Heinrich de Vries, Dutch naval officer, kia, at 43
  1746 King Christian VI of Denmark & Norway (1730-1746), 47
  1820 Maria Anna (Marie Anne) Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, Princesse Française, Duchess of Lucca and Princess of Piombino, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Comtesse de Compignano, sister to Napoleon, at 43
  1867 Faustin-Élie Soulouque, c. 85, sometime Emperor Faustin I of Haiti (1849-1859),
  1890 William Kemmler, 30, murderer, having the honor of being first man executed in the electric chair, Auburn Prison, NY
  1916 Enrico Toti, Italian cyclist, patriot, and one-legged Bersaglieri volunteer, kia at 33 near Monfalcone -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic209b.asp#one
  1944 Count Alfonso Casati, kia at 26 earning the Medaglia d'Oro while serving with the San Marco Naval Infantry Regiment
  1973 Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar, 72, juntero, sometime Preisdent/Dictator of Cuba (1940-1944, 1952-1959)
  1978 Giovanni Montini - Pope Paul VI (1963-1978), 80
  1987 Ira Eaker, USAAF WW II "Bomber Baron," at 91
  2000 Alec Guinness, naval officer, actor ("Bridge on the River Kwai"), at 86 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic267b.asp#one
7 -480 King Leonidas of Sparta, the "300", and the other Greek heroes, slain at Thermopylae [Alt]
  44 King Herod Agrippa I of Judea (39-44), friend to the Emperor Claudiusc, c. 33, at Caesarea
  117 Trajan, Roman Emperor (98-117), at 65
  461 Deposed Roman Emperor Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus - Majorian (Apr 457-Aug 2, 461), murdered at c. 40
  1106 Henry IV "The Great," c. 56, sometime Holy Roman Emperor (1184-1105)
  1304 Pope Bl Benedict XI - Nicholas Boccasini (22 Oct 1303-7 Jul 1304), c. 64
  1941 Bruno Mussolini, 23, son of the Duce, test flying the Piaggio 108 four-engined bomber
  2011 Hugh Carey, 92, National Guardsman, veteran of the 104th Division, Governor of N.Y. (1975-1982)
8 869 King Lothar II of Middle France/Lothringia (855-869), c. 34
  1048 Pope Damasus II (17 July-8 Aug 1048)
  1306 Wenceslas III, 16, King of Hungary (1301-1305), of Bohemia (1305-1306), of Poland (1305-1306), murdered.
  1648 Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I "the Mad" (1640-1648), c. 33, murdered,
  1788 Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu, 92, French marshal -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic329b.asp#two
  1897 Premier Antonio Cánovas del Castillo of Spain, murdered at 69
  1897 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, 69, five times Premier of Spain, assassinated by an anarchist
  1942 Six Nazi saboteurs, executed in Washington
  1944 Generalfeldmarschall Job-Wilhelm "Erwin" Georg von Witzleben, 62, anti-Nazi conspirator, hanged
9 -48 Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, 58, and thousands of others, kia at Pharsalus
  117 Marcus Ulpius Traianus -- the Roman Emperor Trajan (AD 98-117), 63, probably a coronary
  378 Flavius Julius Valens -- the Roman Emperor Valens (364-378), 50, killed by the Goths
  803 Irene Sarantapechaina, Byzantine Empress, Consort to Leo IV (775-780, Empress Mother and Regent (780-797), Empress (797-802), c. 51
  1487 Roberto Sanseverino, Count of Cajazzo & Marquis of Castelnuovo, 69, ambushed at Calliano
  1854 King Frederik Augustus II of Saxony (1836-1854), at 57
  1928 Grand Duke Frederik II of Baden (1907-1918), at 71
  1944 Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, 44, aviator, resistance fighter, & author ("Le petite prince"), shot down while on a routine reconnaissanceflight off the south coast of France
  1961 Walter Bedell Smith, 65, Eisenhower's chief of staff in the ETO, sometime head of the CIA
  1962 Hermann Hesse, 82, German volunteer of 1914, German/Swiss novelist, pacifist, anti-Nazi
10 955 Conrad the Red, c. 33, Duke of Lorraine (944-955), Count of the Nahegau, Speyergau, & Wormsgau (942-955), kia the Lechfeld
  991 Byrhtnoth, Anglo-Saxon Earl in Essex, kia at Maldon.
  1250 King Erik IV of Denmark (1241-1250), c. 35, murdered
  1535 Cardinal Ippolito de'Medici, 24, soldier, lover of Giulia Gonzaga de Colonna, possibly poisoned, at Itri
  1584 Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, 29, who wished to marry Elizabeth Gloriana
  1759 King Ferdinand VI "the Wise" of Spain (1746-1759), at 46
  1822 General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, c. 66, native New Yorker, British general, victor at Montevideo, CinC Ireland
  1945 Robert Goddard, inventor of the liquid-fueled rocket, 62
11 353 Roman Emperor-Aspirant Flavius Magnus Magnentius (350-353), suicide at Lugdunum after repeated defeats by Constantius II
  1241 Ögedei Khan, c 55, son of Ghinghiz, second Great Khan of the Mongols (1219-1241)
  1253 St. Clare of Assisi, 59, born Chiara Offreduccio, friend to St. Francis of Assisi
  1259 Möngke Khan, c. 50, fourth Great Khan of the Mongols (1251-1259)
  1456 John Hunyadi, c. 55-56, Voivode of Transylvania (1441-1456), Captain-General (1444-1446) and then Regent of Hungary (1446-1453), father of Mathias Corvinus
  1480 Bishop Stefano Argercolo de Pendinellis of Otranto, sawn in half by Mehemet II for refusing conversion to Islam, while hundreds of local clergy and citizens are beheaded for the same crime
  1689 Pope Bl. Innocent XI - Benedetto Odescalchi (1676-1689), at 78
  1932 Rin Tin Tin, c. 15, German Army veteran, American movie star.
  1942 3,500 Jews massacred by the SS in Lodz, Poland
  1975 Anthony C. McAuliffe, who once had occasion to say "Nuts!", at 77
12 -30 Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt (51-30 BC), 39, asped
  238 Roman co-Emperors (Mar 22-Aug 12, 138), Gordian II (c. 46), kia outside Carthage, and his father, Gordian I (c. 78), suicide at Carthage on hearing the news
  1350 King Philip VI "the Fortunate" of France (1328-1350), c. 57
  1484 Pope Sixtus IV - Francesco della Rovere (1471-1484), 70
  1676 Metacom - "King Philip" - Sachem of the Wampanoag (1662-1676), shot by Colonial militiaman John Alderman, a "Praying Indian"
  1811 Sir John Francis Edward Acton, 6th Baronet Acton, Tuscan admiral, Neapolitan Minister of War & Marine (1778-1804), at 75
  1914 John Philip Holland, 74, Fenian, submarine designer
  1935 MajGen Tetsuzan Nagata, 51, murdered in his headquarters by "Imperial Way" fanatic Lt Col Saburo Aizawa
  1964 Ian Fleming, British officer and novelist ("James Bond"), at 56
  1982 Henry Fonda, sometime naval officer, actor ("Mr. Roberts," etc.), at 77
  1990 USAF SSGT John Campisi, struck by a truck - the first American to die in the Gulf War
  2012 Joe Kubert, 86, sometme soldier, American cartoonist ("Sgt. Rock", "Hawkman", etc.)
13 582 East Roman Emperor Flavius Tiberius Constantinus Augustus - Tiberius II (574-582), c. 60, at Constantinople
  662 Maximus Confessor, c. 62, Greek theologian, civil servant, soldier, crusader, in exile in Georgia
  875 Holy Emperor Louis II (855-875), King of Italy (844-875), c. 50, at Milan
  900 King Zwentibold of Lorraine (895-900), at c. 29
  1447 Duke Filipo Maria Visconti of Milan (1412-1447), 54, the last of a ruthless line
  1860 Danilo I Petrovich-Njegosh, 34, Prince-Bishop (1851-1852), later Prince of Montenegro (1852-1860), assassinated
  1910 Florence Nightingale, 90, "The Lady with the lamp"
  1946 H. G. Wells, author ("The Land Ironclads"), pacifist, wargamer, at 79
  2004 Julia Child, master chef, OSS staffer, at 91.
14 1433 King John I of Portugal (1383-1433), at 76
  1464 Pope Pius II - Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini (1458-1464), 58, at Ancona while trying to engineer a new Crusade
  1482 Count Palatine Marc'Antonio Malvezzi, condottiero, kia in Neapolitan service
  1870 David Glasgow Farragut, the USN's First Admiral, at 69
  1936 Rainey Bethea, 25, hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky, allegedly for raping a white woman, the last public execution in the U.S.
  1941 Josef Jakobs, 43, German spy, the last man executed in the Tower of London
15 423 Flavius Honorius, 38, inept Roman Emperor (395-423)
  465 Roman Emperor Libius Severus (Nov 461-Aug 15, 465), possibly poisoned
  778 Roland, kia at Roncevalles
  1057 Mac Bethad mac Findlaích -- Macbeth, King of the Scots (1040-1057), slain by the future Malcolm III (1058-1093)
  1118 Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118), 70
  1380 Vettor Pisani, 56, Venetian admiral
  1388 James, 2nd Earl of Douglas (1358-1388), c. 30 , kia, Otterbourne
  1528 Odet de Foix, c. 43, Vicomte de Lautrec, Marshal of France, of plague on campaign in Italy
  1636 Marquis Ranuccio Pallavicino, Captain of Imperial Cuirassiers, kia Rottofreddo
  1935 Will Rogers, 55, and Wiley Post, 36, airplane accident, Point Barrow
  1975 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, 1st President of Bangladesh (1971-1972), PM (1972-1975), in a military coup
  1992 Giorgio Perlasca, 82, Italian anti-fascist diplomat who saved 5,200 Jews in Hungary
  2003 Jannie Brandes-Brilleslijper, 86, Dutch Resistance fighter, friend to Anne Frank.
16 1153 Bernard de Tramelay, 4th Master of the Templars, kia, Ascalon
  1675 Bogdan Chmilnicki - Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky, c. 62, Cossack hetman, who murdered 300,000 Jews
  1870 Charles Ardant du Picq, 60, French soldier, author ("Battle Studies"), kia at Gravelotte
  1921 King Peter I Karadjordjevic of Serbia (1903-1918) and of the Serbs, Croats, & Slovenes (1918-1921), 77 [8/26 NS]
  1921 Peter I Karadordevic, 77, sometime Foreign Legionaire, King of Serbia (1903-1918), of Yugolsavia (1918-1921)
  1945 Vice Admiral Takihiro Onishi, 54, founder of the Kamikaze, on a mission
  1949 Margaret Mitchell, 48, novelist ("GWTW"), a day after being hit by a taxi
  1949 Tom Wintringham, British radical, International Brigader, godfather of the Home Guard, poet, at 51
  1959 Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey, 76
  1977 Elvis Aaron Presley, 42, sometime sergeant, 3rd Armored Division
  2002 Abu Nidal (Sabri al-Banna), Palestinian terrorist, suicide (b. 1937)
  2003 Idi Amin, 78, maniacal dictator/president of Uganda (1971-1979), in bed, unfortunately
17 310 Pope St Eusebius (Apr 18-Aug 17, 310 - or possibly 309)
  1373 Ambrogio Visconti, condottiero, Captain of the [second] Company of San Giorgio, Lord of Pavia, assassinated at 30
  1553 Duke Charles III the Good, of Savoy (1504-1553)
  1657 Robert Blake, English "general at sea" at c. 58
  1786 King Frederick II "The Great" of Prussia (1740-86), 74 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic265b.asp#one
  1877 F.P. Cahill, Billy the Kid's first victim
  1915 Leo Frank, 31, Jewish businessman, lynched in Georgia
  1962 Peter Fechter, 18, shot by East German border guards at the Berlin Wall
  1987 Rudolph Hess, Nazi, suicide at 93, after 46 years in Allied custody
  1988 FDR Jr, sometime naval officer, on his 74th birthday -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic343b.asp#one
  1988 Pakistani President Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, 64, and US Ambassador to Pakistan Arnold Raphel, 45, plane crash
18 472 Count Ricimer, Romano-Barbarian general, emperor-maker, at c. 67
  1227 Genghis Khan, c. 65, Khakan of the Mongols (1206-1227), greatest conqueror in history, with a very high body count, in bed
  1276 Pope Hadrian V (Jul 11-Aug 18, 1276), c. 60
  1276 Pope Adrian V - Ottobuono Fieschi (12 Jul-18 Aug 1276)
  1500 Alfonso d'Aragona, 19, husband to Lucrezia Borgia, wounded on Jul 15th, "not having died of his wounds, was found strangled in his bed," by order of Cesare Borgia
  1503 Pope Alexander VI - Rodrigo Borja [Borgia] (1492-1503), 72 -- abysmal pontiff
  1510 Sir Edmund Dudley & Sir Richard Empson, ministers to Henry VII, executed on Tower Hill
  1559 Pope Paul IV - Giovanni Pietro Caraffa (1555-1559), 83
  1746 Arthur Elphinstone, 6th Lord Balmerino, c. 58, and William Boyd, c. 42, 4th Earl of Kilmarnock, beheaded as Jacobite traitors, London
  1870 Prince Felix zu Salm-Salm, 41, soldier-of-fortune, d/w, Gravellote-St. Privat
  1870 Col. Charles Ardant du Picq, 48, French officer and military theorist ("Battle Studies"), of wounds at Metz
  1940 Hector Bywater, journalist & novelist ("The Great Pacific War"), at 55
  1989 Luis Carlos Galan, 45, Colombian presidential candidate, assassinated
  2010 Bill Millin, 88, who piped for Lord Lovat during the relief of Pegasus Bridge, on D-Day
19 14 Augustus, Roman Emperor (27 BC-AD 14), 75 [see Events]
  1186 Geoffrey II Plantagent, 27, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, brother of King Richard Lionheart, killed during a tournament at Paris
  1493 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III of Innsbruck (1440-1493), at 77
  1601 Michael the Brave, c. 42, Prince of Wallachia (1593-1601), of Transylvania (1599-1600), and of Moldavia (1600)
  1693 Patrick Sarsfield, Commander, the French "Brigade Irlandais", kia, the Battle of Landen, saying "Would it were for Ireland."
  1936 Federico Garcia Lorca, 38, Spanish poet, murdered
  1944 Generalfeldmarschall Günther "Clever Hans" von Kluge, 61, suicide rather than surrender
  1974 Rodger P. Davies, 53, US Amb to Cyprus, shot in the Embassy during an anti-American demonstration
20 651 St. Oswin of Deira, King of Deria (642-651), Martyr
  984 Pope John XIV (983-984), a prisoner of Anti-Pope Boniface VII
  1190 St. Bernard of Clairveaux, c. 43, who inspired the Second Crusade
  1191 2,500 Moslem men, women, & children massacred at Acre by order of "Good King" Richard I of England, slain in 'retaliation' for a similar 'heroic' deed by Saladin, the "Light of Islam"
  1672 Johan de Witt (47), Grand Pensionary of Holland (1653-1672) and his brother Cornelius (49), lynched at the Hague
  1804 SGT Charles Floyd, c. 22, of "bilious cholic" - the only fatality on the Lewis & Clark Expedition
  1823 Pope Pius VII - Barnaba Chiaramoni (1800-1823), 82
  1985 Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, 53, Sikh leader, shot by Sikh extremists
  2006 Joe Rosenthal, 91, photographer - http://www.iwojima.com/raising/lflaga2.gif
  2010 Charles Roberts, 80, pioneer wargame publisher
21 1131 Baldwin II of Rethel, second Count of Edessa (1100-1118), third King of Jerusalem (1118-1131)
  1157 King Alfonso VII of Castille (1126-1157), at c. 52
  1190 Godfrey III, Count of Louvain, Landgrave of Brabant, Margrave of Antwerp, and as Godfrey VIII Duke of Lower Lorraine (1142-1157)
  1425 Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425), at c. 75
  1553 John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, c. 51, father-in-law and mentor of "Lady Jane Grey," beheaded in the Tower
  1940 Leo Trotsky, at 62, a day after being axed in the head
  1982 King Ngwenyama Sobhuza II of Swaziland/Ngwane (1921-82), 82
  1983 Benigno Aquino, Jr., 50, Philippine presidential candidate, assassinated
22 634 Abu Bakr, the first Caliph (632-634), at c. 60
  1188 King Ferdinand II of Castille & Leon (1157-1188), c. 60
  1241 Pope Gregory IX - Count Ugolino of Segni (1227-1241)
  1280 Pope Nicholas III - Giocanni Gaetani Orsini (1277-1280) at c. 75
  1286 King Erik V of Denmark (1259-1286), c. 36, murdered
  1350 King Philip VI de Valois of France (1328-50), c. 57
  1485 King Richard III of England (1483-1485), 32, unable to find a horse
  1711 Louis Francois, duc de Boufflers, Marshal of France, 67
  1793 Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, Marshal of France, at 80
  1818 Warren Hastings, 85, first Governor-General of Bengal (1773-1785)
  1922 Michael "Big Mike" Collins, 31, Irish revolutionary hero, in an ambush by the IRA
  1978 Jomo Kenyatta, first Prime Minister (1963-1964) and President (1964-1978) of Kenya, at 83
  2000 Abülfaz Elçibay, 62, first President of Azerbaijan (June 1992-June 1993), ousted in a coup
23 93 Gnaeus Julius Agricola, 53, Roman general, father-in-law of Tacitus
  408 Stilicho, c. 50, Roman general, beheaded by an inept emperor [See Events, 406]
  818 Ali ibn Musa al-Rida, the 8th Shia Imam, at c.53
  1305 William Wallace, c. 33, Scottish patriot, half-hanged, castrated, eviscerated, and his bowels burnt before him, beheaded, & then cut into four parts
  1628 George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, murdered at 35
  1819 Oliver Hazard Perry, 34, Commo, USN, who met the enemy and they were his, yellow fever
  1927 Nicola Sacco (36) & Bartolomeo Vanzetti (39), executed after a show-trial in Massachusetts
  1973 Eddie Rickenbacker, American ace, at 82
  1999 King Hassan II of Morocco (1961-1999), at 80
24 1103 King Magnus III "the Barefoot" of Norway (1093-1103) and of Mann and the Isles (1099-1102), c. 30
  1313 Henry VII, c. 38-39, King of the Germans (1308-1313) and Holy Roman Emperor (1312-1313), at Siena
  1572 Gaspard de Coligny, 53, Seigneur de Châtillon, Admiral of France & Huguenot leader, murdered by a pusillanimous king
  1680 Col. Thomas Blood, c. 62, who had stolen the Crown Jewels in 1671
  1954 Getulio Vargas, 72, fascistic Dictator/President of Brazil (1930-45, 51-54), suicide
  1970 Robert Fassnacht, 33, by an "anti-war" bomb, U of Wisconsin
  1974 Alexander P. de Seversky, 80, aviator, author, aeronautical engineer
25 79 Gaius Plinius Secundus - Pliny the Elder, c. 56, soldier, admiral, administrator, naturalist, stroke while rescuing the victims of Mt. Vesuvius
  383 Flavius Gratianus - Gratian, 24, Roman emperor (375-383) assassinated at Lyon
  882 King Louis III of France (879-882), 21-22
  1270 St Louis IX, 56, King of France (1226-70), of disease on Crusade in Egypt
  1330 Sir James "the Black" Douglas, Scottish patriot, in Spain at c. 45
  1807 Edward Preble, 46, Commodore, USN, First Barbary War, d. 1807 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic108b.asp#two
  1942 Air Commodore Prince George, the Duke of Kent, 30, brother of King George VI, plane crash
  1945 Vice Admiral Willis Augustus "Ching" Lee, Jr., 57, premier USN battleship commander, Olympian, heart attack -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC17
  1967 George Lincoln Rockwell, 49, USN veteran, American Nazi, shot by a follower
  2009 Edward "Ted" Kennedy, 77, sometime soldier, politician, last of four brothers who were devoted to national service
  2012 Neil Armstrong, who on July 20, 1969 took a 'small step', at 82
  2013 Neil Armstrong, 82, sometime naval officer, 44 years after becoming the first man to walk on the moon
26 796 King Offa of Mercia (757-796)
  1260 Alberico II da Romano, c. 64, condottiero, poet, brother of Ezzelino "The Cruel," tortured to death after seeing his sons Alberico, Giovanni, Romano, & Ugolino be drawn & quartered, and wife Margherita and daughters Amabilia, Griselda, and Tornalisce, burned at the stake
  1278 King Ottokar II of Bohemia (1253-78), Duke of Austria (1251-1276), Styria (1260-1276), Carinthia (1269-1276), and Carniola (1269-1276), kia
  1346 King Jean "the Blind" of Bohemia (1335-1346), 50, Louis I of Nevers, c. 34, Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel(1322-1346), and some thousands of others, kia at Crecy
  1486 Ernst I of Saxony (1464-86), at 45
  1813 Karl Theodor Körner, Prussian war poet, kia at 22
  1921 Matthias Erzberger, 45, German Minister of Finance, murdered by nationalists for having signed the Armistice of 1918
  1942 Benito Albino Mussolini, 26, illegitimate son of Mussolini and the Russian socialist Ida Dasler, in an insane asylum, possible murdered
  1974 Charles Lindbergh, intrepid flyer, environmentalist, Nazi dupe, anti-Semite, at 72
  1974 Prince Junio Valerio Borghese, Fascist condottiero, b. 1906
  2010 William B Lenoir, 71, astronaut
  2011 General Donn Albert Starry, soldier, scholar, military reformer, at 86
27 -479 Aristodemos, Spartan survivor of Thermopylae, kia, Plataea, with c. 750 other patriotic Greeks
  -479 Mardonios, Persian Satrap of Greece, kia, Plataea, with thousands of other Persians and numerous medizing Greeks
  827 Pope Eugene II (824-827)
  1590 Pope Sixtus V - Felice Peretti (1585-1590), 68
  1635 Félix Arturo Lope de Vega y Carpio, 72, sometime naval officer, glory of Spanish literature
  1919 Louis Botha, 55, Boer general, first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa (1910-1919)
  1975 Haile Selassie, 83, deposed Emperor of Ethiopia (1930-1974)
  1979 Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (79), his grandson Nicholas Knatchbull (14), and Paul Maxwell (15), murdered by the IRA [Baroness Doreen Knatchbull Brabourne, 83, dies the next day]
28 388 Magnus Clemens Maximus, c. 52, usurping Roman Emperor (383-88) & his son Flavius Victor, executed by Theodosius the Great
  876 Louis I the German, c. 70, King of Bavaria (817-843) and of Eastern Francia (843-876)
  1354 "Fra Moriale" - Giovanni di Montréal du Bar - mercenary, Captain of the "Great Company", beheaded in Rome by Cola di Reinzo
  1481 King Afonso V of Portugal (1438-1477, desposed & restored, 1477-1481)
  1504 The Chevalier Orsini, assassinated by order of Cesare Borgia
  1551 Fabrizio Colonna, Roman Noble, condottiero, kia by the Farnese, Vigolana
  1645 Huig de Groot, "Hugo Grotius", father of international law, at 62 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic144b.asp#two
  1793 French General Adam Philippe, le comte de Custine de Sarreck, guillotined at 53 for not being aggressive enough
  1943 Boris III of Saxe-Coburg, 49, King of Bulgaria (1918-43)
  1944 Ernst Thaelmann, 58, German communist, in Buchenwald
  1955 Emmett Till, 14, black American, lynched in Money, Mississippi
  1978 Bruce Catton, Civil War historian ("A Stillness at Appomattox"), at 78
  2010 Wing Commander John Freeborn, 90, the RAF pilot with the most air time in the Battle of Britain, and 12 kills
29 29 John the Baptist, c. 30, beheaded [Trad]
  886 Byzantine Emperor Basil I "the Macedonian" (867-886), c. 75
  1315 Charles, Prince of Taranto, and his uncle Peter, Count of Eboli, condottiero, kia, Montecatini
  1782 Admiral Richard Kempenfelt (c. 64) and c. 900 men, women, & children, as HMS 'Royal George' (108) capsizes at dockside in Portsmouth -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic139c.asp
  1799 Pope Pius VI - Giovanni Anelico Braschi (1775-1799), 81, a prisoner of the French
  1904 Sultan Murad V of Turkey (May 30-Aug 31, 1876), 63
  1941 Lt. Cdr. Count Honore d'Estienne d'Orves (40), 2nd Lt. Maurice Barlier (35), & Jan Doornik (36), Martyrs of the Resistance, executed by the Germans in Mt. Valerian, near Paris
  1960 PM Hazza el-Majali of Jordan (1959-1960), assassinated by a bomb
  1972 Lale Anderson, 67, Swedish/German actress, Himmler's favorite star, singer ("Lili Marlene")
  1975 Eamon de Valera, 92, Irish nationalist, prime minister, president (1959-1973)
  1981 Lowell Thomas, intrepid war correspondent, author, at 89
  1983 David Niven, soldier, actor ("Dawn Patrol"), at 74
  1987 Lee Marvin, marine, actor ("The Big Red One"), at 63
30 536 King Theodoric "the Great" of the Ostrogoths (471-526), c. 70,
  1483 King Louis XI of France (1461-83), at 60
  1580 Emanuele Filiberto, 52, Duke of Savoy (1553-1580), Viceroy of the Spanish Netherlands (1555-1559)
  1800 Gabriel Prosser (c. 24) and 34 others, hanged at Richmond for "servile insurrection" [See Events]
  1879 John Bell Hood, Gen, C.S.A., who lost Atlanta, yellow fever at 48
  1918 Col. Bertram T. Clayton, 55, Alabama-born Brooklyn cavalryman & congressman, killed by air attack in the trenches; ranking West Pointer (1886) kia in World War I -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC28&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1935 Henri Barbusse, WW I veteran, author ("Under Fire")
  1935 Henri Barbusse, 62, French radical, poilu, author of 'Under Fire', in exile in Moscow, where he is given a splendid funeral
  1981 Mohammad Ali Rajai (48), Pres of Iran (Aug 15-30, 1981) and Mohammad Javad Bahonar (c. 48), PM of Iran, a bomb
31 683 K'inich Janaab' Pacal, Lord of Palenque (615-683)
  1057 Earl Leofric III of Mercia (1030-1057), husband to Lady Godiva, b. 968
  1158 King Sancho III of Castille (1157-1158), c. 24
  1186 King Baldwin in V of Jerusalem (1183-1186), age 9.
  1422 Henry V of England (1413-22), at 35
  1729 John Blackader, late Lt Col, 26th Foot (the Cameronians), and Col of the Glasgow Militia, diarist, at 65
  1888 Mary Ann "Polly" Nichols, 43, first known victim of Jack the Ripper
  1967 Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg, 76, Soviet war poet ("Kill the German - this is the cry of your Russian earth. Do not waver. Do not let up. Kill.")
  2006 Guy Gabaldon, marine, the "Pied Piper of Saipan," at 80

Event
1 -2 Temple of Mars Ultor is dedicated in Rome
  0 Air Force Day - US http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C95Cb2ByHNA
  527 Justinian I becomes sole Roman Emperor (to 565)
  626 Persians & Avars abandon siege of Constantinople (begun June 29)
  902 The Arabs capture Taormina, the last Byzantine naval base in Sicily
  939 Battle of Simancas: Asturians defeat the Andalucian Arabs
  1086 Oath of Salisbury: Landowners of England swear fealty to William the Conqueror
  1096 Walter the Penniless, Peter the Hermit, and the "Beggars' Crusade" reach Constantinople
  1209 Crusaders besiege Albigenian-held Carcassone (falls, 15th)
  1354 Triumphal restoration of Cola di Rienzo to power in Rome, who is murdered Oct 8th
  1423 Battle of Cravant: English longbowmen devastate attacking French
  1498 Christopher Columbus lands in Central America
  1578 Battle of Rimenant: Dutch defeat the Spanish
  1589 Monk Jacques Clement attempts to kill French King Henri III
  1664 Battle of Szentgotthard: Austrian crush Turkish invaders
  1675 Battle of Altenheim: The French defeat the Imperialists
  1759 Battle of Minden: English infantry attacks & routs French cavalry
  1781 Cornwallis' British army occupies Yorktown, Virginia
  1794 Whiskey Rebellion begins, desultory outbreaks continue to 1794
  1801 U.S. schooner 'Enterprise' captures Tripolitanian ship 'Tripoli'
  1834 Slavery abolished in the British Empire
  1848 Battle of Crotta d'Adda: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1864 Phil Sheridan takes command of the Army of the Shenandoah
  1898 US and Spanish troops skirmish outside Manila
  1907 U.S. Signal Corps forms an Aviation Section
  1914 German Emperor Wilhelm II declares war on his nephew Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
  1917 Pope Benedict XV urges "an end to useless slaughter" and is widely condemned by both the Allies and the Central Powers -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic311b.asp#one
  1918 British troops occupy Vladivostok
  1926 Attempted assassination of Spanish dictator Primo de Rivera
  1926 The Druze riot against the French in Damascus
  1936 Hitler opens the Berlin Olympics, the 11th modern games, initiating the now routine "Olympic Torch" ceremony
  1940 Soviets occupy Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia
  1942 Allied fleets begin diversionary moves to mask the Guadalcanal operation
  1942 U.S. battlefleet departs San Francisco for Pearl Harbor
  1943 Blackett Str: "Tokyo Express" to Kolombangara tangles with 15 PT-boats
  1943 Japan declares Burma independent under U Ba Maw
  1943 Kiska: U.S. surface ships shell suspected Japanese positions.
  1944 Chinese hold Japanese before Hengyang.
  1944 George S. Patton's Third Army begins 281 days of operations -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9b5g1avyCSA
  1944 Marines crush Japanese resistance on Tinian
  1944 Warsaw Uprising: the Polish Home Army begins a 62-day insurrection against the Nazis, as the Soviets stand idle nearby
  1945 B-29s raid Toyama, Japan
  1945 The Yangtze: U.S. air dropped mines sink or damage 47 Japanese ships.
  1946 Office of Naval Research is established
  1946 McMinn County War (Battle of Athens): WW II veterans take up arms to help local citizens oust a corrupt political machine in Athens & Etowh, Tenn
  1950 Belgium's parliament mandates that King Leopold III (1934-1951) must abdicate in favor of his son Baudouin (1951-1993)
  1958 USS 'Nautilus' (SSN 571) passes beneath the Arctic ice-pack [See Aug 3]
  1961 East Germany limits traffic to West Berlin, Cold War intensifies
  1966 Britain disbands the Colonial Office - the Empire is over
  1966 UT Austin: former Marine Charles Whitman leaves 13 dead, 31 wounded
  1966 Military coup in Nigeria installs Army Chief-of-Staff Yakubu Gowon as President/Dictator (1966-1975)
  1975 Helsinki Pact guaranteeing boundaries and civil rights in Europe
2 -216 Battle of Cannae: Hannibal crushes a Roman Army -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic291b.asp#two
  -47 "Veni, Vidi, Vici"; Caesar defeats Pharnaces II of Pontus at Zela
  1057 Federick of Lorraine elected Pope as Stephen X [IX] (1057-1058)
  1247 HR Emperor Frederick II besieges Parma (lifted Feb 18, 1248)
  1492 King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella of the Spains order the expulsion of the Jews
  1530 Battle of Gavinara: Spanish-Medician forces defeat the Florentines
  1554 Battle of Marciano: Spanish-Medician forces defeat the Franco-Sienese near Florence
  1740 First public performance of Thompson's & Arne's "Rule, Britannia!" -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1XPHL4Q86t4
  1770 Battle of the Pruth: Russians defeat the Turks, who lose 20,000
  1776 Royal Navy lands 32,000 British & Hessians on Staten I, near New York City
  1802 Napoleon Bonaparte declares himself "Consul for Life" of France
  1819 First parachute jump in the US, from a balloon
  1831 Dutch invade secessionist Belgium (withdraw Aug 12)
  1832 Battle of the Bad Axe River: final action of the Black Hawk War, many Indians slain
  1865 In the mid-Pacific, CSS 'Shenandoah' learns the Civil War ended four months earlier
  1867 Wagon Box Fight: c. 30 army woodcutters defeat c. 1000 Sioux
  1870 Battle of Saarbrucken: French troops capture Saarbucken - the only victory of Napoleon III's Imperial Army in the Franco-Prussian War
  1887 Rowell Hodge receives a patent for barbed wire
  1903 Macedonians began an unsuccessful uprising against the Turks
  1904 British capture Lhasa, Tibet
  1911 President/Dictator of Haiti François C. Antoine Simon (1908-1911) flees in a US warship
  1914 Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia
  1914 Germany occupies Luxembourg, without a declaration of war.
  1917 First deck landing on an underway warship: CDR E. H. Dunning, RNAS, in a Sopwith Pup aboard HMS 'Furious' at Scapa Flow
  1928 Mussolini signs peace treaty with Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
  1931 Albert Einstein urges scientists to refuse military work
  1934 German Armed Forces swear a "Holy Oath" to the unholy Adolf Hitler
  1941 Jews are expelled from Hungarian Ruthenia
  1943 Blackett Str: JFK's 'PT-109' rammed & sunk by HIJMS 'Amagiri'.
  1943 New Georgia: 27th RCT arrives to reinforce U.S. troops.
  1943 Riot at Treblinka Concentration Camp
  1944 Burma: Chinese troops heavily engaged at Teng-chung.
  1944 Turkey breaks diplomatic relations with Nazi Germany
  1945 B-29s drop 6,600 tons of bombs on five Japanese cities.
  1950 The 1st Marine Provisional Bde lands at Pusan
  1964 Gulf of Tonkin: North Vietnamese patrol boats attack USS Maddox, escorting CIA gun runners
  1990 Iraq invades & occupies Kuwait - onset of Desert Shield/Desert Storm
3 9 Tiberius defeats the Pannonian Pirustae & Desidiates
  1108 Louis VI "the Fat" or "the Great" is crowned King of France (1108-1137)
  1460 Scots capture & raze Roseburgh.
  1492 Columbus sails from Palos on the most momentous voyage in history
  1529 Treaty of Cambrai ("The Lady's Peace"): Francis I accepts Spanish domination of Italy, temporarily
  1530 The Medici return to Florence
  1601 Battle of Guruslau: Michael the Brave's Imperial-Romanian forces defeat the Poles
  1644 First Battle of Freiburg: the French defeat the Bavarians
  1645 Battle of Allersheim: the French defeat the Bavarians
  1692 Battle of Steenkerken: the French defeat the English & Germans
  1704 Gibraltar falls to an Anglo-Dutch expedition after a three day siege -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic107b.asp
  1758 Naval Battle of Negapatam: English defeat the French off India
  1796 Battle of Lonato: The French defeat the Austrians
  1797 Bohemia: Emperor Francis I permits Jewish veterans to marry non-Jews
  1804 USN squadron bombards Tripoli
  1812 US Frigate 'Essex' captures the British brig 'Brothers'
  1848 Battle of Milan: Austrians defeat the Piedmontese
  1849 The "Roman Republic" surrenders to the French
  1861 First manned balloon ascent from a ship, USS 'Fanny', Hampton Roads
  1861 U.S. Navy authorizes three ironclads: 'Monitor', 'Galena', & 'New Ironsides'
  1914 Germany declares war on France.
  1915 Second Battle of the Isonzo ends (from July 18)
  1917 The N.Y. Guard is activated for duty on the home front in WW I
  1919 Romanians capture Budapest, to oust the "Hungarian Soviet Socialist Republic"
  1940 Italian troops invade British Somaliland
  1940 Lithuania is annexed by the USSR
  1942 Japanese Army begins forming armored divisions in Manchuria.
  1942 Mildred McAffee becomes the first woman officer in the Naval Reserve.
  1943 New Georgia: Fijian and Solomons troops join US forces.
  1943 Patton slaps Pvt Charles H. Kuhl, 1st Infantry Division, at the 15th Evac Hospital, near Nicosia, Sicily
  1944 Auschwitz-Birkenau: 4,000 Gypsies murdered
  1944 Burma: Allied troops conquer Myitkyina, reopening the Burma Road
  1958 "Nautilus 90 North", US submarine 'Nautilus' (SS 571) passes under the ice at the North Pole
  1990 US announces commitment of naval forces to the Persian Gulf
  1993 "Black Hawk Down": Insurgents ambush US troops in Mogadisciu, Somalia
4 0 U.S. Coast Guard Day -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puh6Q4QEYCk
  1135 The Pisans sack Amalfi
  1265 Battle of Evesham: Prince Edward [later King Edward I] defeats Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, to end the 2nd Baron's War
  1347 English troops capture Calais
  1578 "Battle of the Three Kings" - Wadi Al-makhazin: the Moroccans defeat Portuguese invaders & a local usurper
  1645 Battle of Nordlingen: French defeat the Imperialists
  1693 Dom Perignon allegedly invents champagne
  1735 Journalist John Peter Zenger cleared of slander charges in New York
  1753 George Washington becomes a Master Mason
  1790 Revenue Cutter Service formed, the origins of the USCG
  1846 USS 'Congress' captures Santa Barbara, Ca
  1870 Battle of Weissenburg: Prussians defeat the French
  1900 Battle of Elands River: 400 Australians defeat 2,500 Boers
  1903 Giuseppe Sarto elected Pope as Pius X (1903-1914), later canonized
  1914 Denmark declares neutrality in the First World War
  1914 Siegfried Sassoon enlists in the Sussex Yeomanry -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic200a.asp
  1914 Germany invades Belgium without a declration of war, investing Liege
  1914 Great Britain comes to the defense of Belgium in conformity with treaty obligations, without a formal declaration of war against Germany
  1916 US agrees to buy the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million
  1917 Pravda calls for killing of capitalists, priests, & officers
  1917 US takes title to the Virgin Islands from Denmark
  1918 Adolf Htler is awarded the Iron Cross, First Class, for delivering messages under fire, on the recommendation of Lt. Hugo Gutmann, a Jewish officer
  1918 During a German raid on 82nd Div lines, YMCA worker Bernetta Miller walks the trenches handing out hot chocolate, cake, and cigarettes, earning a mention in dispatches.
  1927 Peace Bridge between US & Canada opened
  1929 60,000 Nazi Storm Troopers march in Munich
  1936 Ioannis Metaxas names himself dictator of Greece (1936-1941)
  1939 HM Australian cruiser 'Perth' arrives at New York to help celebrate the World's Fair -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic223b.asp#two
  1942 G. C. Kenney takes command of Allied AF SW Pacific, under MacArthur.
  1942 USS 'Tucker' (DD 374) is mined and sunk at Espiritu Santo.
  1943 Kiska: USAAF bombers drop 152 tons of bombs
  1943 Munda, New Georgia: U.S. troops close in on Japanese airfield.
  1944 Anne Frank and her family are betrayed to the Nazis
  1944 Burma: Chinese troops finally break into Teng-chung on the Salween.
  1944 Guam: Army and Marine forces cut Japanese defenders into two groups.
  1944 T. D. Dean, RAF, scores the first V-1, by "tipping" its wing
  1964 Gulf of Tonkin: US DDs report second attack by North Vietnamese PT boats
  2005 The USS 'New York' (LPD-21) receives her bow section, with 24 tons of steel from the World Trade Center, during construction in Louisiana
5 -54 Battle of Wheathampstead: Caesar defeats the Britons under Cassivellaunus
  135 Romans capture the last major Jewish stronghold in the Bar Kochba Revolt (132-136)
  642 Battle of Maserfeld: King Penda of Mercia defeats King Oswald of Northumbria
  1063 Battle of Snowdonia: Harold Godwinson defeats King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn of Wales
  1192 Battle of Jaffa: a greatly outnumbered Richard Lionheart defeats Saladin
  1264 Anti-Jewish riots in Arnstadt, Germany
  1305 Scots hero William Wallace is betrayed to the English
  1391 Arsonists kill c. 200 Jews in Barcelona
  1435 Battle of Ponza: Franco-Genovese fleet defeats the Aragonese off Gaeta
  1598 Battle of Traigh Gruinart: Sir James MacDonald of Islay defeats Sir Lachlan MacLean of Duart
  1600 Battle of Perth: King James VI of Scotland defeats the Earl of Gowrie
  1620 The 'Mayflower' & 'Speedwell' sail from Plymouth for Virginia.
  1644 Second Battle of Freiburg: Bavarians defeat the French
  1716 Battle of Peterwardein: 40,000 Hapsburg troops under Eugene of Savoy rout 150,000 Turks
  1763 Battle of Bushy Run: Henry Bosquet defeats Pontiac
  1772 First Partition of Poland: Austria, Prussia & Russia annex vast areas
  1781 Battle of Dogger Bank: Royal Navy defeats the Dutch
  1796 2nd Battle of Castiglione: Austrians defeat Bonaparte, but surrender anyway.
  1812 Battle of Brownstone Creek: Tecumseh routs Col Thomas Van Horn's Americans
  1830 Algiers surrenders to the French, who will remain for 132 years
  1832 1st Royal visit to a U.S. warship; USS 'Potomac' hosts King Kamehameha III of Hawaii
  1857 HMS 'Agamemnon' & USS 'Niagara' commence laying the first Atlantic cable, at Valentia, Ireland
  1858 After many vicissitudes, HMS 'Agamemnon' & USS 'Niagara' complete laying the first Atlantic cable, which fails in about three weeks
  1861 Skirmish at Athens, Mo
  1861 US Army abolishes flogging
  1861 US levies the first federal income tax; 3% on incomes over $800.
  1862 Battle of Baton Rouge, LA
  1864 Battle of Mobile Bay: Farragut "damns" the torpedoes
  1873 Massacre Creek: Sioux slay 350 Pawnee men, women, & children
  1884 Work begins at Ft. Wood, in New York harbor, for the erection of the Statue of Liberty
  1898 US and Spanish troops skirmish outside Manila
  1898 US naval landing party goes ashore at Cape San Juan, Puerto Rico
  1898 US troops land at Guayamo, Puerto Rico
  1915 German troops capture Warsaw
  1921 Yangtze River Patrol Force established within the US Asiatic Fleet.
  1936 Berlin Olympics: Jesse Owens wins his third medal
  1940 Nazis blow up the Zandvoortse Synagogue, Netherlands
  1942 Blockade running Japanese submarine 'I-30' arrives at L'Orient, France.
  1942 Japanese convoy leaves Rabaul with reinforcements for Buna.
  1942 Japanese superbattleship 'Musashi' is commissioned.
  1943 Soviet forces liberate Orel & Belgorod
  1944 TF 58 raids Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima.
  1945 China: Chinese forces recapture Tanchuk and Hsinning
  1947 India and Pakistan become independent, and promptly go to war
  1963 Britain, US, & USSR sign a limited nuclear test ban treaty
  1964 US begins bombing of North Vietnam
  2012 Mass shooting at a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, 6 die
6 761 Battle of Aedwiresclif: King Moll of Northumbria defeats King Oswine of Deira
  910 Battle of Tettenhall: King Edward the Elder of Wessex defeats the Danes
  1187 Saladin takes Beirut from the Crusaders
  1284 Naval Battle of Meloria: Genoese defeat the Pisans
  1534 Turkish corsair Khairaidin Barbarossa sacks Fondi
  1623 Battle of Stadtlohn: Tilly's Imperials defeat Christian of Brunswick
  1623 Maffeo Barberini elected Pope as Urban VIII (1623-1644)
  1734 Austrian-held Gaeta (invested July 15), surrenders to Carlo IV of Naples
  1780 Battle of Hanging Rock: Tarleton's dragoons annihilate an American column - Andrew Jackson (13) becomes a P/W
  1806 The Holy Roman Empire is dissolved
  1813 Battle of Caracas: Columbian patriots under Bolivar defeat the Spanish
  1825 Bolivia gains independence from Peru
  1848 HMS 'Daedelus' spots a sea serpent in the South Atlantic
  1862 CSS 'Arkansas' is blown up in the Mississippi to prevent capture by US forces
  1864 Rebels evacuate Ft Powell, Mobile Bay
  1870 Battle of Spicheren: Prussians force French to retreat
  1870 Battle of Worth: taking heavy casualties, the Prussians defeat outnumbered French troops in an eight-hour fight
  1905 Doyers St Massacre, NY: Members of the Hip Sing Ton ambush On Leong members leaving a threatre, 4 die, 20 wounded
  1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia
  1914 China declares neutrality in the First World War
  1914 Serbia declares war on Germany
  1914 The first air raid of WWI: German Zeppelins bomb Antwerp.
  1915 Battle of Sari Bair begins: British initiate an ultimate unsuccessful attempt to break out of the Gallipoli beachheads (ends Aug 21st)
  1916 Sixth Battle of the Isonzo begins (to Aug 16)
  1918 Ferdinand Foch promoted to Marshal of France
  1927 Bombs explode in two NYC subway stations, one dead, many injured.
  1930 "Where is Judge Crater?" - Joseph F. Crater disappears forever from a New York street.
  1937 Spanish Nationalists shell Madrid for the first time
  1942 MacArthur creates the New Guinea Force, under Aussie Gen Thomas Blamey.
  1943 New Georgia: U.S. troops pursue Japanese forces into the interior.
  1943 U.S. engineers begin to repair the Munda airstrip.
  1943 Battle of Vella Gulf: "Tokyo Express" bound for Kolombangara loses 3 of 4 DDs.
  1944 German counter attack at Avranches fails to halt Patton's Third Army
  1944 Japanese troops advance on Hengyang, against heavy Chinese resistance.
  1944 Lodz, Poland: Nazis begin deportation of 70,000 Jews to Auschwitz
  1944 US aircraft begin raiding the Philippines from bases in New Guinea.
  1945 A-Bomb destroys Hiroshima, over 75,000 die.
  2001 A note on the threat of Al-Qaeda air hijackings is included in one of several briefings of potential dangers to US security for Pres. GW Bush
  2002 The Marquis de La Fayette, already an honorary citizen of several states, is made an honorary U.S. citizen
7 -480 Thermopylae [Alt]
  768 Consecration of Pope Stephen III [IV] (768-772)
  1297 Battle of Lochmabe: Henry Percy defeats the Scots
  1316 Jacques d'Euse is elected Pope as John XXII (1316-1334)
  1479 Battle of Guinegate: HR Emperor Maximilian I defeats King Louis XI of France
  1495 Worms: the Diet abolishes private warfare in the Holy Roman Empire
  1498 Pope Alexander VI grants his son Cesare Borgia dispensation from Holy Orders, provided he forfeit ecclesiastical benefices totaling 35,000 gold florins annually
  1594 Battle of the Biscuits: Irish defeat English, who abandon their rations
  1750 Slave uprising in Curacao
  1760 Ft Loudon, Tennessee, surrenders to Cherokee Indians
  1782 George Washington creates the Badge of Military Merit - the Purple Heart
  1789 US War Department established
  1819 Battle of Boyaca: Bolivar defeats Spanish in Colombia
  1830 Louis Philippe becomes "Citizen-King" of France (1830-1848)
  1861 Skirmish at Hampton, Va
  1864 Battle of Moorefield, WVa: Brig. Gen. William W. Averell's Union troopers defeat Brig. Gen. John McCausland's Confederates
  1897 Anglo-Egyptian-Sudanese force captures Abu Hamed.
  1914 German troops under Ludendorf capture Liege
  1914 Lord Kitchener asks Britons to serve "King and Country" in the Great War; before the introduction of conscription in January of 1916, 2.5 million men will have enlisted voluntarily
  1938 Nazis seize Innsbruck University theological faculty
  1940 Churchill recognizes de Gaulle as head of the Free French
  1941 Kishnev, Romania: 551 Jews are shot by local fascists
  1942 Guadalcanal: 1st Marine Div lands against light resistance, though some Japanese units on outlying islets fight to the death
  1942 Japanese convoy bound for Buna is recalled to Rabaul.
  1942 Tulagi: 1st Marine Div captures the island against fierce resistance
  1942 US warships bombard Kiska for the first time.
  1943 U.S. troops on New Georgia break Japanese resistance.
  1944 "Trial" of anti-Hitler "July Plot" conspirators begins
  1944 USS 'Croaker' (SS 246) sinks the light cruiser 'Nagara' off Japan
  1956 British order three aircraft carriers to Egypt
  1964 US Congress approves Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  1990 Operation Desert Shield: First American troops reach Saudi Arabia
  1998 Islamists bomb US embassies in Nairobi & Dar es Salaam, 224 die, c. 5,500 wounded
8 70 Jewish Revolt: Romans destroy the Tower of Antonia
  870 Treaty of Mersen: Charles II & Louis the German, sons of Louis I of the Franks, divide his kingdom
  1588 English fleet battles Spanish Armada
  1589 Battle of Las Palmas: Spanish beat off an English assault
  1647 Battle of Dunganhill: English rout Irish rebels
  1676 Great Fire of Boston: 160 buildings destroyed
  1692 Battle of Steenkerke: William III defeated by the French under the Duke of Luxembourg
  1806 French Marshal Massena crushes Neapolitan forces at Lauria
  1812 Battle of Inkovo: Russians defeat the French
  1813 US Schooners 'Hamilton' & 'Scourge' founder in a storm on Lake Ontario
  1814 Anglo-American Peace negotiations begin in Ghent, Belgium
  1815 Napoleon is put on a ship bound for St Helena
  1831 Battle of Hasselt: Dutch drive out Belgian Army
  1853 Refusing an offer of surrender, the Russians massacre hundreds at the White Mosque of Ac Machet, on the Aral Sea
  1861 Skirmish at Lovettsville, Va
  1890 Daughters of the American Revolution formed
  1896 Three Italian-Americans lynched in St. Charles Parish, La.
  1898 Skirmishing along the Guayamo-Cayey Road, Puerto Rico
  1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War (begun May 6) ends as Britain recognizes full Afghan independence
  1925 40,000 Klansmen march in Washington
  1929 German airship 'Graf Zeppelin' begins a round-the-world flight
  1940 The Battle of Britain begins
  1942 Guadalcanal: Marines capture the unfinished airstrip.
  1942 Japanese air raids on Guadalcanal
  1942 Russian counter-offensive at Voronezh under Marshal Timoshenko
  1943 Fighting continues around Munda, New Georgia
  1943 Nazis initiate vegetable & fruit rationing in the Netherlands
  1944 China: Japanese troops finally take Hengyang, against stiff resistance.
  1945 Harry S Truman signs UN Charter
  1945 USSR declares war on Japan.
  1953 Russia's Georgi Malenkov reports possession of hydrogen bomb
  1983 BrigGen Efrain Rios Montt deposed as president of Guatemala
  1988 Cease fire ends the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
  1988 Russian troops begin pulling out of Afghanistan after 9 year war
  1988 SecState Wm Shultz escapes assassination in Bolivia
  1988 South Africa declares cease-fire in Angola
  1990 Iraq annexes Kuwait
  2000 Confederate submarine 'Hunley' raised after 136 years on the bottom
9 -48 Battle of Pharsalus: Caesar crushes Pompey
  378 Battle of Adrianople: devastating Roman defeat by the Visigoths
  1160 Battle of Cassano d'Adda/Carcano: Emperor Frederick II Barbarossa is defeated by the Lombard League
  1238 Pope Gregory IX formalizes the duties of military chaplains.
  1386 Battle of Sempach: Swiss defeat the Hapsburgs
  1391 Rioters in Barcelona kill c. 300 Jews
  1604 Treaty of London: Spain & England make peace
  1648 French land in Naples to support Masaniello's Rebellion
  1673 Third Anglo-Dutch War: Dutch fleet captures New York (lose it again in '74)
  1675 Construction begins on the Greenwich Observatory, London
  1678 Indians sell Jonas Bronck some real estate north of Manhattan
  1757 English Ft William Henry, NY, surrenders to French & Indians
  1778 Captain Cook reaches Cape Prince of Wales, Bering Straits
  1790 Merchantman 'Columbia' completes the first American circumnavigation, Boston-Boston in 3 years
  1815 Stephen Decatur negotiates a treaty ending hostilities with Tripoli
  1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty: US-Canada border & naval anti-Slavery Patrol established
  1849 Hungarian Republic crushed by Austria & Russia
  1855 Mexican War of Reform: Battle of Acapulco
  1862 Battle of Cedar Mountain/Slaughter Mountain/ Southwest Mountain, Va
  1864 Battle of Ft Morgan, Al: Confederates evacuate the post
  1865 USNA returns to Annapolis after four years at Newport
  1898 Battle of Coamo, P.R.: US, c. 12 casualties, Spain c. 200
  1898 Skirmishing along the Guayamo-Cayey Road, Puerto Rico
  1898 US landing party again raids Cape San Juan, Puerto Rico
  1918 Poet Gabriele D'Annunzio leads nine a/c in a 700 mile round-trip raid to leaflet Vienna
  1919 Construction of US airship 'Shenandoah' (ZR-1) authorized.
  1936 Jesse Owens wins a 4th gold medal at the Berlin Olympics
  1942 200 Jews escape Mir Ghetto in Poland
  1942 Battle of Savo Island: Japanese cruisers smash Allied ships north of Guadalcanal
  1942 British arrest the Mahatma; detain him into 1944
  1942 Chinese forces defeat a Japanese offensive in Kiangsi Province.
  1942 First performance in besieged Leningrad of Shoshtakovich's "Leningrad Symphony" -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3G9ZqxcReU
  1945 Red Army begins a massive offensive in Manchuria.
  1945 Second Atomic Bomb is dropped on Nagasaki, c. 30,000 die
  1945 Third Fleet aircraft raid northern Honshu and Hokkaido.
  1974 Richard Nixon resigns the presidency, VP Gerald Ford becomes 38th pres
  1985 Former naval officer Arthur J. Walker convicted of spying for the USSR
  2001 Palestinian suicide bombing in a Jerusalem pizzeria, 15 die, c. 90 injured
  2001 USMC Commandant James L. Jones promotes Pfc Gomer Pyle to honorary lance corporal
10 70 Roman troops under Titus burn the Jewish Second Temple
  654 Election of Pope St. Eugene I (654-657)
  991 Battle of Maldon: Anglo-Saxons hold the Danes
  1405 Battle of Haverfordwest: French defeat the English in Wales
  1461 Bishop Alfonso de Espina of Osma urges an Inquisition in Spain
  1487 Battle of Calliano: The Hapsburgs defeat the Venetians
  1644 The French capture Freiburg
  1680 The Pueblo Indians revolt against Spanish rule
  1792 Revolutionaries topple the statue of Louis XIV in the Place Vendome, as 600 Swiss Guardsmen, refusing a Royal order to surrender, die at the hands of the mob
  1861 Battle of Wilson's Creek/Springfield, Mo: Confederate Victory
  1861 Skirmish at Potosi, Mo
  1862 "Battle" of the Nueces River: Confederate Texas Rangers & militia slaughter several dozen German settlers trying to flee to Mexico
  1869 Battle of Caraguatay: Brazilians defeat Francisco Lopez de Solano's Paraguayans
  1898 Ambush at Hormigueras, PR: Spanish c. 145 casualties, US c. 20
  1904 Battle of the Yellow Sea: Togo's Japanese fleet defeats the Russians
  1913 Treaty of Bucharest: Serbia, Greece, and Romania impose a harsh peace on Bulgaria, which still remains at war with the Ottoman Empire
  1916 Turks annex the Persian city of Hamadan from Russia
  1918 Alvin York captures "the whole damned German Army" -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic146a.asp
  1919 Ukrainian National Army massacres 25 Jews in Podolia
  1920 The Allies recognize the independence of Poland and Czechoslovakia
  1920 Treaty of San Sevres between the Allies and Turkey
  1921 Franklin D. Roosevelt is diagnosed with polio [More probably Guillain-Barré syndrome, unknown at the time, and often confused with polio]
  1921 Congress forms the US Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics, under RAdm William Moffett.
  1942 Guadalcanal: Marines go on 2/3rds rations.
  1942 North Africa: B. L. Montgomery assumes command of the British Eighth Army
  1942 Papua: Aussie Maroubra Force (c. 500) attacks along the Kokoda Trail
  1942 USS 'S-44' (SS-155) sinks Japanese heavy cruiser 'Kako', as she reitres from the Battle of Savo I.
  1943 New Georgia: surviving Japanese troops flee into the interior.
  1943 Patton slaps Pvt Paul G. Bennett, 17th Field Artillery Battalion, at the 90th Evac Hospital, Santo Stefano, Sicily
  1944 Guam: Organized Japanese resistance ends
  1945 Japan says it will surrender if the status of the emperor is unchanged
  1945 Japan's War Minister urges officers to obey Imperial orders.
  1945 Third Fleet aircraft raid northern Honshu and Hokkaido
  1949 Congress creates the Department of Defense
  1988 Japanese-Americans interned during WW II are awarded $20,000 each
11 -3114 The Creation, in the Mayan chronology
  353 Battle of Mons Seleucus (SE France): Constantius II defeats Emperor-Aspirant Flavius Magnus Magnentius
  355 Claudius Silvanus is proclaimed Roman Emperor at Colonia Agrippina (Aug 11-Sep 7, 355)
  883 Battle of Al-Mukhtara: Black Zanj Kharijite rebels defeated by Muwaffaq in southern Iraq
  1162 Battle of Cantu: Lombards skirmish with Frederick Barbarossa's rear guards, as he retreats
  1306 Battle of Dalry: the Lord of Lorne defeats Robert I the Bruce
  1480 Mehemet II's Ottomans capture Otranto, Naples, amid great slaughter -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic340b.asp#two
  1492 Rodrigo Borja/Borgia elected Pope as Alexander VI (1492-1503)
  1576 Plague breaks out at Milan (ends Jan 20)
  1664 Battle of Seneffe: Louis II Conde's French defeat William III's Spanish & Dutch
  1718 Battle of Cape Passero: Sir George Byng crushes a Spanish squadron off Sicily.
  1804 Abdication of the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II
  1861 Skirmish at Brunswick, Mo
  1866 "Empress" Carlotta of Mexico meets with Napoleon III, but fails to convince him to continue to support husband Maximilian
  1909 First use of the "SOS"; SS 'Arapahoe', off Cape Hatteras
  1914 France declares war on Austria-Hungary
  1918 Battle of Amiens ends, the British break the German Army in a combined arms attack
  1919 Germany adopts the "Weimar Consitution", establishing a federal republic
  1929 Russo-Chinese border clashes
  1940 German air raid on British shipping at Portland and Weymouth
  1942 Japanese Combined Fleet sails for Truk, to support operations on Guadalcanal.
  1944 B-29s from India begin to drop marine mines throughout Southeast Asia
  1945 Allied warships shell installations in the Kuriles and on Honshu.
  1990 Egyptian & Moroccan troops arrive in Saudi Arabia to reinforce Operation Desert Shield
  2003 NATO assumes command of 5,000 peacekeepers in Afghanistan
12 1071 Battle of Manzikert: Turks inflict a massive defeat on the Byzantines, & capture Emperor Romanus IV
  1099 Battle of Ascalon: Crusaders defeat the Fatimids
  1332 Battle of Dupplin Moor: Edward Valiol's English defeat King David of Scots
  1499 First Naval Battle of Sapienza: Turks & Venetians clash
  1553 Pope Julius III orders confiscation & burning of Jewish religious books
  1554 Battle of Renty: Imperialists defeat the French
  1645 The Massachusetts Council orders a third of the men in each militia company "be ready on half an hour's warning for any service" - the first "Minute Men"
  1687 Battle of Harkany/Mohacs: Charles V of Lorraine routs the Turks
  1744 Battle of Velletri II: Charles IV's Neapolitans defeat the Austrians
  1759 Battle of Kunersdorf: Russo-Austrian forces almost defeat Frederick the Great
  1805 Lewis & Clark cross the Continental Divide
  1806 Fra Diavolo lands near Salerno with 500 men, to initiate guerrilla operations against the French invaders of Naples
  1812 Battle of Gorodeczno: French and Austrians defeat the Russians
  1812 USS 'Constitution' captures and destroys British brig 'Adeona'
  1812 Wellington's troops enter Madrid
  1831 Dutch forces evacuate secessionist Belgian provinces under French pressure
  1862 John Hunt Morgan's Confederate raiders capture Gallatin, Tn
  1898 US & Spanish troops skirmish at Aibonito Pass, Puerto Rico
  1898 US Navy raids Manzanillo, Cuba
  1898 US ships and Spanish batteries exchange fire at Santiago
  1905 Pogrom at Bialystock, 36 Jews die
  1914 Battle of Haelen: Belgian Carabineers temporarily halt German advance
  1914 First British Offensive of WW I: Advancing about three miles from the Gold Coast, British troops capture Lome, capital of German Togoland
  1914 Great Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary
  1914 Montenegro declares war on Germany
  1927 Premiere of William Wellman's movie 'Wings', which would win the first 'Oscar' for best picture
  1941 French Marshal Henri Petain gives full support to Nazi Germany
  1942 German First Panzer Armee captures Elista, southeast of Stalingrad
  1942 Guadalcanal: First US airplane reaches Henderson Field
  1942 New Guinea: Japanese troops reach the crest of the Owen Stanley Mtns as a convoy lands reinforcements at Buna.
  1942 U.S. destroyer-transports land supplies on Guadalcanal.
  1943 Kiska: USAAF bombs and USN shells suspected Japanese positions
  1944 Normandy: PLUTO (pipeline under ocean) begins operating
  1944 SS massacres hundreds of civilians at Sant'Anna di Stazzema, Tuscany
  1945 Leaflets call for Japan to surrender or face "utter devastation."
  1953 Soviet Union conducts secret hydrogen bomb test
  1959 First firing of a Polaris missile from a ship, 'Observation Island'
  1962 Russia launches Vostok 4, with Pavel Popovich, who lands safely Aug 15
  1972 Last American ground troops leave Vietnam
  1983 Manuel Noriega becomes commander of Panamanian Army
13 -29 Day 1 of Octavian's Triumph, for the conquest of Illyria
  523 Election of Pope St. John I (523-526)
  900 Battle of Susteren: Count Ranier of Hainaut defeats King Zwentibold of Lorraine
  1284 Battle of Cape Corso: the Genoese fleet defeats the Pisans
  1415 King Henry V & the English army land at the mouth of the Seine
  1447 Milanese establish the "Ambrosian Republic" (1447-1450)
  1516 Treaty of Noyon: France & Spain make peace over Italy, temporarily
  1521 Cortez captures Tenochtitlan from the Aztecs
  1648 French troops supporting Masaniello's Rebellion withdraw from Naples
  1704 Battle of Blenheim/Second Battle of Hochstadt: Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeat the French and Bavarians under Tallard -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic210b.asp#one
  1704 Naval Battle of Malaga: French Adm de Bourbon (50 ships-of-the-line) defeats Sir George Rooke (41 English & 12 Dutch), but fails to regain Gibraltar
  1759 Battle of Kunersdorf: The Russians defeat the Prussians
  1762 Fall of Havana: Spanish defenders surrender to the British after 54 day siege
  1777 Americans attempt to mine a British vessel off New London
  1799 English fleet under Lord Seymour captures Surinam
  1846 CDR Robert Stockton leads an Army-Navy-Marine party to seize Los Angeles
  1870 Armed tug 'Palos' is the first U.S.N. ship to transit the new Suez Canal
  1898 Ambush at Las Marias, P.R.: US force inflicts heavy casualties on Spanish troops
  1898 Battle of Manila: US troops occupy the city against light resistance
  1898 Spanish-American War: Armistice declared (noon, EST) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic50b.asp
  1906 The Brownsville Riot: Black soldiers stage mutinous protest against racism
  1923 Turkish National Congress elects Mustafa Kemal Pasha president
  1933 President/Strongman Gerard Machado of Cuba (1925-1933) is ousted by Carlos de Cespedes (August 3-Sep 5, 1933)
  1937 Japanese attack Shanghai
  1941 The Red Army evacuates Smolensk
  1941 Walter Short, US Army Commanding General at Hawaii, says "an attack upon these islands is not impossible and . . . might not be improbable."
  1942 New Guinea: Japanese seize the pass over the Owen Stanley Mts
  1943 B-24s from Australia bomb the Balikpapan oil fields, in Borneo.
  1943 Red Army recaptures Demiansk
  1943 US scouts report few Japanese left on Vella Lavella.
  1944 Fourteenth Air Force reconnoiters Manila from Chinese bases
  1945 Air raids on Tokyo.
  1945 Okinawa: USS 'LaGrange' (APA-124) is the last US ship hit by a kamikaze in WW II
  1953 Gen of the Army Omar Bradley becomes Chairman of the JCS
  1961 Communists begin construction of the Berlin Wall
14 -29 Day 2 of of Octavian's Triumph, for the victory at Actium
  0 National Navajo Code Talkers Day
  1040 Battle of Torfness: Thorfinn's Danes defeat King Duncan I of Scotland
  1119 Battle of Hab: Turks defeat the Kingdom of Jerusalem
  1224 Hubert de Burgh captures Bedford Castle after a two-month siege.
  1281 A tremendous storm "The Divine Wind -- kamikaze" sinks the Mongol fleet off Japan
  1352 Battle of Mauron: The English & Bretons defeat the French
  1385 Battle of Aljubarotta: The Portuguese defeat the Castillians, with the aid of a lady baker
  1431 Battle of Tauss: the Hussites defeat Margrave Fredrick of Brandenburg
  1598 Battle of Yellow Ford: Tyrone's Irish crush the English.
  1665 Southwold Bay: The Duke of York [James II] overwhelms a Dutch fleet
  1678 Battle of Mons: French repulse William of Orange
  1702 Battle of Luzzara: Franco-Spanish army defeats the Imperialists
  1756 French capture Fort Oswego, NY
  1811 Paraguay declares independence from Spain
  1813 HMS 'Pelican' captures USS 'Argus'
  1824 Lafayette begins a tour of the US to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the American Revolution
  1842 Second Florida War (1835-1842) ends: some Seminoles are removed to Oklahoma, after enormous loss of life and money
  1864 Second Battle of Deep Bottom/Fussell's Mill/New Market Road/Bailey's Creek/Charles City Road/White's Tavern, Va, Day 1:
  1882 Queen Victoria receives King Cetewayo of the Zulu
  1886 Washington Navy Yard's Naval Gun Factory established
  1897 Duel near Paris between Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy-Aosta and Prince Henri Eugène Philippe Louis d'Orléans (the duc de Aumale), who is wounded
  1912 US Marines occupy Nicaragua
  1915 German 'UB-14' sinks British transport 'Royal Edward' in the Aegean, c. 1,000 die
  1917 China declares war on Germany & Austria
  1931 Air Corps fails to sink target ship Mt. Shasta, Coast Guard helps out.
  1937 Chinese Air Attacks on Shanghai Harbor: Bombs aimed at old Japanese cruiser 'Idzumo' damage the USS 'Augusta' (CA-31)
  1942 New Guinea: Japanese land 3000 construction troops near Gona
  1942 The first American air victory in the ETO: Flying a P-38 Lt Ezra Shahan gets a Luftwaffe Condor patrol bomber off Iceland
  1943 Quadrant Conference - Quebec: FDR & Churchill agree to "Operation Overlord"
  1944 Russian offensive on the Vistula
  1945 Tokyo: Atempted coup by the Imperial Guard is put down with bloodshed.
  1945 V-J Day; Japan surrenders -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Legendary_kiss_V%E2%80%93J_day_in_Times_Square_Alfred_Eisenstaedt.jpg
  1949 Colonel Sami Hinnawi stages a coup in Syria
  1969 "The Troubles": British troops occupy Northern Ireland
  2000 Russian SSN 'Kursk' sinks in the Barents Sea, 118 die
15 -310 Solar eclipse visible in Greece
  -29 Day 3 of Octavian's Triumph, for the conquest of Egypt
  0 Army Day, Poland
  717 Arab-Barbarian hordes abandon the siege of Constantinople (from 25 Aug 716)
  778 Battle of Roncevalles: the Basques attack Charlemagne's rear guard
  1040 Battle of Elgin: MacBeth defeats King Duncan I of Scotland, & usurps the throne (1040-1057)
  1057 Battle of Lumphanan: Malcolm III Canmore defeats King MacBeth of Scotland
  1097 Battle of Consuegra: Yusuf ibn Tashfin's Almoravids defeat Alfonso VI of Castille & Leon
  1118 Byzantine Emperor John II Komnenos, co-ruler since 1092, becomes sole Emperor (1118-1143)
  1209 Albigensians surrender Carcassone to the Crusaders (besieged since Aug 1st)
  1388 Battle of Otterbourne: Scots under James, Earl of Douglas defeat & capture Henry Hotspur's English
  1515 Lorenzo de'Medici the Younger is created Captain General of the Florentine militia
  1645 Battle of Klisyth: Montrose's Royalists slaughter 6000 Scots Covenanters
  1760 Battle of Leignitz/The Katzbach: Frederick the Great defeats the Austrians
  1799 Battle of Novi: Austro-Russians defeat the French
  1848 Battle of Luino: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1854 Anglo-French fleet bombards the Russian defenses at Bomersund in the Baltic
  1863 Submarine CSS 'Hunley' arrives in Charleston by rail
  1864 CSS 'Tallahassee' captures 6 U.S. schooners off New England
  1895 Second class battleship 'Texas' commissioned; sunk as target, 1911
  1920 Battle of Warsaw: Marshal Jozef Pilsudzki leads the Polish Army to rout the Soviet Red Army at the gates of Warsaw, ending the Soviet-Polish War (1918-1920)
  1940 Hitler's first "D-Day" for Operation Sea Lion
  1941 Kovono, Lithuania: Jews are herded into Slobodka ghetto
  1942 'I-6', last Japanese submarine in the Aleutians, is withdrawn.
  1942 U.S. transports land supplies at Guadalcanal
  1943 Elms 25th Inf Div land on Vella Lavella, opposed only by Japanese a/c.
  1943 Kiska: U.S. and Canadian troops land with heavy naval and air support`
  1944 Operation Anvil-Dragoon: Allied troops land in Provence
  1945 Hirohito's surrender message is broadcast to the Japanese people.
  1945 Japanese a/c raid TF 38, 12 hours after Hirohito's surrender order
  1945 Soviet aircraft sink 860 ton frigate 'Kenju' off Hokkaido; last Japanese warship lost during World War II
  1945 US ends wartime rationing of gasoline & fuel oil
  1973 Athens: Black September bomb, 3 die, 55 injured
16 -480 Leonidas reaches Thermopylae with 300 Spartans and 700 Allies [Trad]
  0 National Airborne Day, US
  1153 Crusaders invest Ascalon
  1298 Battle of Castello di Caprona: the Florentines (including Dante) defeat the Pisans
  1513 Battle of the Spurs: Henry VIII routs the French
  1717 Austrians break Turkish siege of Belgrade against enormous odds
  1777 Battle of Bennington, Vt: Americans defeat British
  1777 Battle of Oriskany: American militiamen defeat British, Tories, and Indians
  1778 French surrender Pondicherry to the British
  1780 Battle of Camden: British decisively defeat Americans
  1812 Gen. Isaac Hull surrenders Detroit & the Michigan territory to England
  1819 "Peterloo Massacre" - British troops fire on protesters at Manchester, 11 die
  1854 Anglo-French forces capture Bomarsund, on the Baltic, from the Russians, posing a threat to St. Petersburg
  1855 Battle of the Tchernaya: Russians fail to break Franco-Sardinian lines
  1859 Giuseppe Garibaldi assumes command of the Army of the Italian League, formed by the provisional governments of Florence, Modena, Parma, and Bologna
  1861 Skirmish at Fredericktown & Kirkville, Mo.
  1864 Battle of Front Royal, Va
  1866 Battle of Condino: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1907 Abd al-Hafid ousted as sultan of Morocco
  1914 Adolf Hitler joins the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry
  1914 Battle of Mt. Cher begins: Serbs repel an Austrian invasion by the 19th.
  1914 Emiliano Zapata & Pancho Villa capture Mexico City
  1916 Sixth Battle of the Isonzo ends (from Aug 6)
  1918 US troops capture Archangelsk
  1934 US ends occupation of Haiti, begun in 1915
  1942 Ichiki Detachment (c. 1000) sails from Truk for Guadalcanal
  1942 Japanese land reinforcements at Buna, in northwestern New Guinea
  1943 4th Marine Div is activated at Camp Pendleton
  1943 Japanese super-battleship 'Yamato' arrives at Truk after a long refit, to spend months swinging at anchor.
  1943 US troops encounter stiff resistance on Baanga I., near New Georgia
  1943 Vella Lavella: 25th Infantry Div encounters moderate resistance.
  1945 Soviet troops land on South Sakhalin.
  1946 Calcutta: Muslim-Hindu rioting, 3000-4000 die
  1948 Palestine: Arabs blow up the Latrun pumping station
17 -753 The Rape of the Sabine Women
  682 Consecration of Pope Leo II (681-683), later canonized
  1424 Battle of Vereuil: Greatly outnumbered English defeat the French
  1505 Florence's mercenaries under Antonio Giacomini defeat the Venetian condottiere Bartolomeo d'Alviano, who was attempting to relieve the siege of Pisa
  1549 Battle of Sampford Courtney: Lord Russell defeats the Earl of Arundel
  1745 Tula, a slave, initiates the Great Curaçao slave insurrection, scores die in the following weeks
  1787 Hungary grants Jews permission to pray in groups
  1807 Robert Fulton's steamboat begins its first voyage from Albany to New York
  1808 Napoleon seeks troops for Spain from brother King Louis of Holland
  1812 First Battle of Pulotsk, Day 1: French v. Russians
  1812 US frigate 'President' captures British schooner 'L'Adeline'
  1843 Herman Melville enlists in the USS 'United States'
  1846 CDR Robert F Stockton declares California annexed to the US
  1862 The "Great Sioux Uprising" begins in Minnesota
  1891 Battle of Lugalo/Zelewski's Defeat: Wehehe tribesmen virtually wipe out a column of c. 400 German troops and askaris in German East Africa
  1893 The Aigues-Mortes Massacre: French rioters kill 7 and injure more than 50 Italian migrant workers.
  1914 Battle of Stalluponen: Germans defeat the Russians in East Prussia
  1915 German troops overrun Kovno, Lithuania
  1916 Bulgarian offensive in Macedonia
  1917 Soldier poets Siegfried Sassoon & Wilfred Owen meet in a military hospital
  1918 British troops capture Baku, Azerbaijan
  1940 FDR & Canadian PM William McKenzie King agree to create a joint defense commission
  1940 Greece mobilizes, fearing an Italian threat
  1942 First independent US bomber raid in Europe, against Rouen
  1942 Ichiki Detachment lands on Guadalcanal, at Taivu and Kokumbona.
  1942 Marine 2nd Raider Bn lands on Makin Island, Gilbert I. [withdraws 18th]
  1943 Japanese reinforcements land on Vella Lavella, DDs beat off U.S. DDs
  1943 US troops under Maj Gen George S. Patton capture Messina
  1943 Wewak, New Guinea: U.S./Aussie air raid, 100 Japanese a/c destroyed
  1944 Surviving Japanese complete withdrawal from India
  1945 B-32 bombers attacked by Japanese a/c over Tokyo, without casualties.
  1945 Imperial kinsman Prince Higashikuni forms a new Japanese cabinet
  1959 Arleigh Burke is appointed to an unprecedented 3rd term as CNO
  1960 Francis Gary Powers' U-2 spy trial opens in Moscow, on his birthday
18 -480 The Persian host arrives before Thermopylae [Trad]
  1304 Battle of Mons-en-Peleve: The French defeat the Flemings
  1462 Battle of Troia: Ferrante I defeats pro-Angevin rebels, ending the 2nd Neapolitan Barons' War
  1487 Spanish liberate Malaga from the Moors.
  1502 On the recommendation of his friend Niccolo Machiavelli, Cesare Borgia appoints his "most dearly beloved friend" Leonardo da Vinci his Chief Engineer, with carte blanche to go anywhere and investigate anything
  1690 Battle of Staffarda: French defeat the Piedmontese/Imperialists in Lombardy
  1691 Battle of Slankanem: Imperialists defeat the Turks
  1796 Treaty of San Idelfonso: Bourbon Spain allies itself with Revolutionary France, ceding Louisiana in exchange for Tuscany
  1805 Battle of Ivankovac: Serb insurgents inflict a crushing defeat on the Ottomans
  1812 First Battle of Pulotsk, Day 2: French defeat the Russians, to capture the city
  1813 Battle of the Medina River: Royalist forces defeat Mexican-American Republican volunteers with great slaughter south of San Antonio
  1838 U.S. Exploring Expedition under Lt Charles Wilkes begins world cruise
  1846 Maj. Gen. Stephen Watts Kearney captures Santa Fe
  1864 Petersburg Campaign: Battle of Weldon Railroad begins
  1866 Battle of Pieve di Ledro: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1870 Battles of Gravelotte/St. Privat/Mars-la-Tour: Prussians blockade the French in Metz -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic103c.asp.
  1876 Japanese Imperial troops drive rebels from Kogoshima
  1911 Esther Voorhees Hasson is appointed the first Sup't of the Navy Nurse Corps
  1913 Veterans of Foreign Wars is organized
  1914 Pres Wilson issues a Proclamation of Neutrality
  1924 France begins removing troops from the Rhur
  1942 Japanese troops land unnoticed at Basabura, New Guinea.
  1943 Baanga: US forces capture Japanese guns shelling Munda
  1943 Nationalist Chinese charge they are being ignored by the Allies.
  1944 USS 'Rasher' (SS-269) sinks Japanese CVE 'Taiyo' off Luzon
  1945 Three days after the Armistice, B-32s patrolling over Tokyo are damaged by Japanese a/c, but down three attackers.
  1945 Three days after the Armistice, Soviet troops land in the Kuriles.
  1947 Naval arsenal explosion at Cadiz, Spain, 300 die
  1961 Construction on Berlin Wall completed
  1991 Anti-reform coup in the USSR, PM Gorbachev is arrested
19 -43 Octavian (19) & Quintus Pedius (c. 40) appointed suffect Consuls
  0 National Aviation Day, US
  1099 First Crusaders defeat the Saracens at Ascalon
  1153 Ascalon falls to King Baldwin III of Jerusalem
  1263 King Jaime I of Argon censors Hebrew writings
  1388 Battle of Otterburn: The Scots defeat the English
  1444 Battle of Montolmo: Muzio Attendolo Sforza defeats the League of the Porta Giovia
  1458 Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini is elected Pope as Pius II (1458-1464)
  1534 Khyar-adin Barbarossa seizes Tunis
  1812 USS 'Constitution' takes HMS 'Guerriere' in a celebrated fight
  1818 Capt James Biddle, USN, claims the Oregon Territory for the US
  1854 The Grattan 'Massacre': Lt. John Grattan gets himself and 30 US troops killed attempting to bully some peaceful Sioux
  1861 Combat at Charlestown/Bird's Town, Mo
  1917 Battle of the Bainsizza (11th Isonzo) begins (to Sep 12)
  1934 Hitler becomes Fuhrer by 95.7% of voters, in a one-man election
  1936 The Purges: Kamenev & Zinovjev tried for "Trotskyism"
  1942 Canadians take heavy casualties raiding Dieppe
  1942 German Sixth Army ordered to capture Stalingrad
  1942 Guadalcanal: 5th Marines skirmish with Ichiki Detachment.
  1942 Japanese convoys land reinforcements at Buna, NE New Guinea.
  1942 Japanese dispatch 1500 troops from Rabaul by convoy for Guadalcanal
  1942 Papua: Aussie 21st Bde leaves Port Moresby to support Maroubra Force.
  1943 Catholic Church excommunicates Belgian Nazi leader Leon Degrelle
  1943 Heavy Allied air raids on Wewak, New Guinea.
  1943 Japanese sub 'I-17' sunk by U.S. a/c and N.Z. corvette 'Moa', Espiritu Santo
  1944 FDR sends envoy to China to reconcile Nationalists & Communists
  1944 French Resistance initiates five days of fighting to liberate Paris
  1960 U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers convicted of spying by USSR
  1978 Islamists torch a theater in Abadan, Iran, 400 die
  1981 USS 'Nimitz' (CVN-68) a/c down Libyan a/c that attacked over international waters
  1982 Soyuz T-7 launched, Svetlana Savtiskaya becomes the 2nd woman in space
  1986 Car bomb explosion in Tehran, 20 die
20 -480 "Go, tell the Spartans, we lie here in obedience to their orders." [Trad]
  0 Feast of St. Bernard, Patron of Travelers
  636 Battle of the Yarmuk: After six days of fighting Arab forces under Khalid ibn al-Walid inflict a devastating defeat on the Byzantines under Heraclius, securing Syria for Islam
  917 Battle of Anchialus: Simeon the Great of the Bulgars defeats the Byzantines
  1119 Battle of Bremule/Brenneville: Henry I of England defeats Louis IV of France
  1499 Second Naval Battle of Sapienza: Turks & Venetians clash
  1504 Cesare Borgia is shipped out of Italy by Pope Julius II to be imprisoned in Spain
  1648 Battle of Lens: The Great Conde feigns retreat to rout a larger Austrian force
  1673 The Texel: Dutch fleet defeats an Anglo-French attempt to invade the Netherlands
  1781 Washington marches from NY to fight Cornwallis at Yorktown -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC18
  1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers: Maj Gen "Mad" Anthony Wayne routs the Ohio Indian Confederacy
  1847 Battle of Contreras: Brig Gen (and future president) Franklin Pierce breaks the Mexican front -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic208b.asp#two
  1861 Skirmish at Hawk's Nest, WVa
  1861 Skirmish at Jonesboro, Ms
  1866 Pres Andrew Johnson formally declares the Slaveholders' Rebellion over
  1882 Tchaikovsky's "1812 Overture" debuts in Moscow, with help from the gunners of the Imperial Guard -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbxgYlcNxE8
  1914 Battle of Gumbinnen: Russians defeat Germans in East Prussia
  1914 German troops occupy Brussels
  1914 German troops massacre 211 Belgian civilians at Andenne.
  1915 Italy declares war on Turkey
  1918 Britain opens offensive on Western Front
  1926 Uprising against Reza Shah Pahlavi in Persia
  1940 Leon Trotsky is mortally wounded in Mexico City by a Stalinist agent
  1940 Winston Churchill says, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few" -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0t-RqjMH-A&feature=related
  1942 31 Marine aircraft off USS 'Long Island' (CVE-1) land on Guadalcanal
  1942 Japanese order landing of 1500 troops at Milne Bay, southeastern Papua
  1942 Wartime dim-out begins in San Francisco
  1943 Kiska secured, as Japanese had left prior to Allied landing on the 15th
  1943 Marines take Baanga I, at a cost of 52 killed and 110 wounded
  1944 Biak I., off New Guinea, is cleared of Japanese forces after 3 months
  1944 Charles de Gaulle returns to France
  1944 Russian offensive at Iasi & Kishinev, Romania
  1945 Five days after the Armistice, Br recon a/c over Burma are fired upon by Japanese antiaircraft batteries.
  1945 Five days after the Armistice, Japanese forces in China cease fire, as Red Chinese forces occupy Kalgan, northwest of Peking, and Russian troops capture Harbin & Mukden, Manchuria
  1945 Five days after the Armistice, a second militarist coup is suppressed at Tokyo
  1955 Anti-French rioting in Morocco and Algeria, hundreds die
  1955 USAF Col. Horace A. Hanes' SuperSaber reaches 40,000 feet and 822.135 mph
  1959 Belgium shortens conscription to 12 months
  1968 Czechoslovakia is invaded by 650,000 Warsaw Pact troops, ending the "Prague Spring"
  1978 Palestinian gunmen open fire on an El Al bus in London
  1982 US Marines land in Beirut
  1988 IRA landmine demolishes a British military bus, 8 die
  1991 Estonia declares independence from the USSR
21 1192 Minamoto no Yoritomo becomes the first Kamakura Shogun (1192-1199)
  1321 160 Jews burned at the stake in Chinon, France
  1482 Battle of Civita Latina/Campomorto ("Field of the Dead"): Roberto Malatesta's Papal Army defeats the Neapolitans, to recover Rome for the Pope
  1568 Battle of Nijmegen: Spanish defeat the Dutch
  1680 Pueblo Indians capture Santa Fe from the Spanish
  1740 Admiral Lord Vernon institutes the daily issue of grog in the Royal Navy, which continues until 1970
  1799 Russian Marshal Suvorov captures Alessandria, Italy, from the French
  1800 First public concert by the U.S. Marine Corps Band, Washington, DC
  1808 Battle of Vimiero: Wellington forces the French to abandon Portugal
  1831 Nat Turner initiates a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia
  1860 Anglo-French force captures the Taku Forts at Tientsin
  1861 James A. Garfield is commissioned Lt Col of the 42nd Ohio -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC02&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1863 Quantrill's Confederate brigands raid Lawrence, Ks
  1864 Battle of Summit Point, Va
  1866 Battle of Bezzeca: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1914 Battle of Jaroslavice/Wolczkowce, Galicia: The Russian 10th Cavalry Division clashes with the Austro-Hungarian 4th Cavalry Division in the largest mounted battle of the Great War
  1938 Italy bars Jewish teachers in public education
  1942 Australian 18th Brigade reinforces Milne Bay.
  1942 Battle of Ibsuschenskii: Italian cavalry routes a Russian infantry regiment
  1942 German alpine troops plant the Nazi flag on Mt. Elbruz, the Caucasus
  1942 Guadalcanal - Battle of the Tenaru River: Marines crush the Ichiki Detachment on Alligator Creek
  1942 New Guinea: Japanese land reinforcements at Basabura
  1942 US DDs and APDs resupply Guadalcanal, with loss of one destroyer.
  1943 Andrei Gromyko named Soviet ambassador in Washington
  1943 Heavy Allied air raids on Wewak, New Guinea.
  1943 Japanese a/c raid shipping off Vella Lavella, with little effect.
  1944 B-29s from Ceylon begin raids on Japanese installations on Sumatra.
  1945 Pres Truman ends the Lend-Lease program
  1953 Sultan Sidi Mohammed Am Joessoef V of Morocco deposed
  1983 South Korean 747 airliner is shot down by Russian aircraft after straying into Soviet airspace, 269 die
  1987 Marine Sgt Clayton Lonetree convicted of spying for the KGB while an embassy guard in Moscow
  1991 Communist coup is crushed in USSR after two days
  1991 Latvia declares independence from the USSR
22 1138 "Battle of the Standard"/North Allerton/Cowton Moor: Archbishop Thurston of York defeats King David I of Scotland
  1454 Moravia: King Ladislas expels the Jews from Bruno
  1485 Battle of Bosworth Field: Henry VII defeats Richard III
  1499 Third Naval Battle of Sapienza: Turks and Venetians clash
  1642 English Civil War begins: King Charles I takes up arms against Parliament
  1707 Count Wirich Philipp von Daun's Austrians invest Gaeta (stormed, September 30)
  1791 Haitian Slave Revolution begins under voodoo priest Boukman
  1848 U.S. Grant marries Julia Dent, with James Longstreet in attendance
  1851 The first "Queen's Cup" race, won by the schooner 'America' -- origins of the "America's Cup Races"
  1858 Queen Victoria and President Buchanan exchange greetings via the Atlantic cable
  1862 Combat of Catlett's Station, Va
  1862 Santee Sioux Indians attack Fort Ridgely
  1864 The First Geneva Convention: 12 nations conclude a pact "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field".
  1877 Nez Perce Indians flee to Yellowstone National Park
  1910 Japan annexes Korea
  1914 Cavalry skirmish near Mons: First Anglo-German engagement of World War I
  1914 The French Army suffers 27,000 men killed-in-action during the Battle of the Frontiers, its heaviest loss in a single day ever.
  1914 German troops massacre 383 Belgian civilians at Tamines.
  1942 Army P-400s land at Henderson field from New Caledonia.
  1942 Brazil declares war on Germany, Japan, & Italy
  1942 Savo: Japanese DD 'Kawakaze' torpedoes USS 'Blue' (DD-387), which is towed to Tulagi.
  1943 Marines occupy undefended Nukufetau in the Ellice Islands.
  1943 U.S. destroyers shell Finschhafen, in eastern New Guinea.
  1944 Japanese abandon Ulithi in the Carolines.
  1944 Japanese counterattack on the Salween, Burma, is repelled by Chinese.
  1962 Charles De Gaulle evades an assassination attempt, an incident treated in the novel Topaz
23 -480 Battle of Thermopylae: "Go tell the Spartans . . . ." [Trad]
  -480 Naval Battle of Artemesium: Greek fleet evades the Persians [Trad]
  -55 Caesar lands in Britain, on his first expedition across the Channel
  406 Battle of Faesulae: Stilicho's Romans defeat the Goths
  476 German tribesmen elect Odoacer "King of Italy" (476-493)
  1242 Battle of Taillebourg: The French defeat the English
  1268 Battle of Tagliacozzo: King-Aspirant of Naples Conradin von Hohenstaufen is defeated by King Charles I d'Anjou of Naples
  1328 Battle of Cassel: The French defeat the Flemings
  1328 Coronation of King Philip VI "the Fortunate" of France (1328-1350)
  1514 Battle of Chaldiran: Gun-armed Turks defeat the Persians
  1572 King Charles IX initiates the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of French Protestants
  1775 George III declares that the American colonies are in a state of rebellion
  1813 Battle of Grossbeeren: von Bulow's Prussians repulse the French
  1828 Naval Battle of Chico Bank: Brazil defeats Argentina
  1839 Opium Wars: The British capture Hong Kong
  1848 Battle of Ligurno: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1860 Triumphal landing of Garibaldi in Calabria
  1864 US Troops capture Ft Morgan, outside Mobile, Ala.
  1866 Treaty of Prague ends Seven Weeks War; Prussian & Italy vs. Austria
  1914 Germans execute c. 675 civilians, including some infants, at Dinant, Belgium, as franc-tireurs
  1914 Japan declares war on Germany
  1914 Battle of Mons: The BEF fights a successfully delaying action against the German First Army
  1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Japan
  1916 A military court in Berlin sentences Socialist Karl Liebknecht to 4 years for opposing the war
  1929 Palestinian Arabs attack Jews
  1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact: Hitler and Stalin agree to cooperate in plundering Europe -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic149b.asp#three
  1940 The Luftwaffe begins night raids on London
  1942 Damaged USS 'Blue' (DD-387) is scuttled at Tulagi.
  1942 Japanese cruisers and destroyers shell Nauru.
  1942 Nocturnal Japanese destroyer raid on Henderson Field
  1942 US 40th Infantry Div departs San Francisco for Hawaii.
  1942 US recon a/c spot Japanese force intent on reinforcing Guadalcanal
  1943 Japanese sub 'I-25' reconnoiters Espiritu Santo with a small scout plane.
  1943 Fourth Battle of Kharkov: Soviet troops recapture the city from the Germans
  1943 NY Yankees 'Old Timers' Game: 69,126 fans pack Yankee Stadium to see Babe Ruth play for the first time in seven years, raising $80,000 for the Army-Navy Relief Fund
  1944 6th Marine Div begins forming on Guadalcanal.
  1944 Franco-American troops liberate Marseilles
  1944 Romania liberated from Nazi occupation, King Michael abdicates
  1945 Soviet troops capture Paramushiro, in the Kuriles, eight days after the Armistice
  1948 Count Bernadotte asks aid for fugitives to Palestine
  1963 First SatPhone Call: From the White House President John F. Kennedy speaks with Nigerian Prime Minister Abubakar Balewa, who is aboard USNS 'Kingsport' at Lagos
  1990 Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Union
  1992 Neo-Nazis riot in Rostock, Germany
24 79 Mt. Vesuvius does its thing [Trad -- more probably in October]
  410 Alaric's Visigoths begin a polite three-day sack of Rome
  1179 Saladin besieges Castle Chastelet (falls, 29th)
  1185 The Sicilian Normans take Thessalonica from the Byzantines, amidst great slaughter
  1217 Naval Battle of Dover: The English defeat the French, partially by pouring quicklime into the sea to create a smoke screen
  1246 Kuyuk becomes Kakhan of the Mongols (1246-1248)
  1346 Battle of Blanquetaque: The English defeat the French
  1349 Blamed for the plague, 6,000 Jews are killed in Mainz
  1349 Jews of Cologne set themselves on fire to avoid forced baptism
  1391 Massacre of Jews in Palma, Majorca
  1412 Battle of Matta, Friulia: Venetians defeat the Hungarians
  1415 Portuguese capture Ceuta, Morocco, from the Moors
  1503 Guidobaldo da Montefeltre recaptures San Leo from Cesare Borgia
  1516 Battle of Marg Dabir: The Turks defeat the Mamlukes, and conquer Egypt
  1569 Battle of Orthez: The French Huguenots defeat the French Catholics
  1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: Slaughter of French Protestants begins
  1632 Battle of Altendorf: Gustavus Adolphus loses to the Imperialists
  1704 Naval battle off Malaga: Indecisive encounter between an Anglo-Dutch and Franco-Spanish fleets
  1789 1st Battle of Ruotsinaslami/Svenksund: Russian fleet defeats Swedes
  1814 The British burn Washington, after Sir George Cockburn eats Pres. Madison's dinner in the White House
  1868 Paraguayan fortress of Humaita surrenders to the Brazilian fleet.
  1904 Battle of Liao-Yang; Japanese defeat Russians
  1921 Battle of Sakarya/Sangrios begins between the Greeks and Turks in central Anatolia; ends in a Turkish victory on Sept 13th
  1921 British airship 'R-38' crashes in the Humber; 44 die
  1929 Palestinians attack orthodox Jews in Jerusalem
  1937 Battle of Belchite: Spanish Republican initiate an ultimately unsuccessful offensive
  1940 Liberty magazine begins serializing "Lightning in the Night", a novel that opens with a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
  1941 British and Soviet troops invade Iran
  1942 Battle of the Eastern Solomons: 'Saratoga' (CV-3) a/c sink Japanese carrier 'Ryujo'; damaged 'Enterprise' (CV-2) lands 11 dive bombers on Henderson Field.
  1942 Nocturnal Japanese destroyer shelling of Henderson Field
  1942 Japanese naval infantry (SNLF) land in the Goodenough Islands, off northeastern New Guinea.
  1943 Lord Louis Mountbatten is named Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia.
  1944 Br Far Eastern Fleet carriers raid Padang, in southwestern Sumatra.
  1945 Red Chinese forces occupy Chefoo and Wei-hai-wei.
  1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established
  1970 Anti-war protesters bomb U of Wisconsin's Army Math Research Center, 1 dies
  1991 Gorbachev resigns as head of Communist Party of the USSR
  1991 Ukraine declares independence from USSR
25 -479 Battle of Mycale: Greeks crush the Persians in Ionia [Trad - possibly the 27th]
  -479 Battle of Plataea: Greeks crush the Persians in Boeotia [Trad - possibly the 27th] -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic215b.asp
  79 Great erupation of Mt Vesuvius buries Pompeii, Herculaneum, and many other towns and villages
  716 Arab-Barbarian hordes lay siege to Constantinople (retire, 15 Aug 717)
  1212 Children's Crusaders reach Genoa
  1261 Michael VIII Palaeologus liberates Constantinople from the Latins, restoring the Byzantine Empire
  1499 Fourth Naval Battle of Sapienza: Turks defeat the Venetians, to begin the conquest of the Morea
  1537 King Henry VIII charters the "Honourable Artillery Company" of London -- http://www.hac.org.uk/
  1580 Battle of Alcantara: Spain defeats and annexes Portugal
  1689 Montreal taken by the Iroquois
  1722 Indians raid settlements along the Kennebec River, Maine, initiating the "Three Years' War"
  1734 Battle of Bitonto: Duke Charles of Borbon-Parma defeats the Austrians to make himself King of Naples
  1758 Battle of Zorndorf: Frederick the Great defeats the Russians
  1759 British capture Ft Niagara from the French
  1825 Uruguay declares independence from Brazil
  1825 USMA Cadet Jefferson Davis penalized for imbibing, and on the Sabbath
  1830 Belgium revolts against the Netherlands
  1849 French marines & sailors occupy Honolulu, to force toleration of Catholicism
  1862 US SecWar authorizes Gen Rufus Saxton to arm 5,000 slaves
  1864 Petersburg Campaign: Second Battle of Ream's Station, Confederates defeat US
  1867 Battle of Monterotondo: the Papal Army defeats the Garibaldini
  1905 First Presidential submarine dive: Theodore Roosevelt in the USS 'Plunger' (SS 2) at Sag Harbor, staying under nearly an hour.
  1914 Namur surrenders to the Germans
  1914 German troops massacre 248 Belgian civilians at Louvain, and then commence a three-day sack of the town, burning 1,100 buildings, including the 250,000 volume medieval library
  1921 US signs peace treaty with Germany
  1937 Japanese fleet blockades Chinese coast
  1940 First RAF night bombing raid on Berlin
  1941 English & Russian troops begin occupation of pro-German Iran
  1941 German troops capture Novgorod, near Leningrad
  1942 Japanese DD 'Mutsuki' sunk by B-17s; the only known high altitude airplane kill of an underway warship
  1942 Marine & Navy a/c attack Japanese reinforcing squadron near Guadalcanal.
  1942 Japanese SNLF ("marines") troops land at Milne Bay, but are contained.
  1943 Australian 5th Div goes into action on the Salamaua front in New Guinea.
  1943 Red Army liberates Smolensk
  1943 US forces land on New Georgia in Solomon Islands
  1943 HM Sloop 'Egret' is the first ship in history to be sunk by a remotely guided missile, a German HS-293 glide bomb
  1944 Paris liberated from Nazi occupation
  1944 U.S. troops defeat Japanese in the Aitape region, New Guinea
  1945 Nationalist Chinese forces liberate Nanking.
  1957 Prince Suvanna Phuma forms govt in Laos, with Pathet Lao
26 846 Moslem raiders desecrate the Vatican, but are repulsed from the walls of Rome
  1071 Battle of Manzikert: Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine Army under emperor Romanus IV
  1139 Afonso the Conqueror is proclaimed first King of Portugal (1139-1185)
  1221 Battle of Mansura: Ayyubids defeat the Crusaders
  1260 Guelfs capture San Zeno after a 6 month siege, to bag Alberigo da Romano and his family
  1278 Battle of Durnkurut: The Habsburgs defeat the Bohemians
  1278 Battle of the Marchfeld: Rudolf of Habsburg defeats Ottokar II
  1346 Battle of Crecy: English longbows defeat the French
  1549 Battle of Dussindale: The Earl of Warwick defeats Robert Kett
  1652 Naval battle of Plymouth: The English fail to prevent a Dutch convoy from passing through the Channel into the Atlantic
  1768 Capt James Cook departs Plymouth in HM Brig 'Endeavour' on his first voyage of exploration.
  1775 First Congressional action on veterans' benefits
  1782 French fleet captures Trincomalee from the British
  1789 The "Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" approved by the French National Assembly
  1813 Battle of Dresden, Day 1: Austro-Russo-Prussians attack Napoleon
  1813 Battle of the Katzbach: The Prussians defeat the French
  1839 US Revenue Cutter 'Washington' seizes the Spanish ship 'Amistad', manned by self-liberated slaves, off Montauk Point
  1843 USS 'Missouri', the first steam warship to cross the Atlantic, and the most powerful frigate in the world, is destroyed by fire & magazine explosion at Gibraltar
  1848 Battle of Morazzone: The Garibaldini defeat the Austrians
  1861 Combat at Cross Lanes/Summerville, WVa
  1863 Battle of Rocky Gap/White Sulphur Springs, WVa
  1883 Krakatoa erupts, kills 36,000
  1914 Battle of Le Cateau: desperate British rear-guard action against the Germans
  1914 Battle of Tannenberg: German Eighth Army defeats Russian Narev Army
  1914 German Togoland surrenders to Anglo-French forces after a three week campaign
  1914 HM Light Cruiser 'Highflyer' sinks the German armed merchant cruiser/liner 'Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse' off Rio de Oro
  1915 German troops capture Brest-Litovsk, Russia
  1917 Arturo Toscanini (53), conducts an Italian army band under fire to celebrate the capture of Monte Santo, on the Bainsizza Plateau
  1920 19th amendment to US Constitution takes effect, giving women the right to vote
  1937 Franco's Nationalists capture Santander
  1939 Belgium undertakes a preventive mobilization
  1942 Australian troops at Milne Bay stoutly resist Japanese landing force.
  1942 Japanese troops occupy Nauru Island
  1942 Ramgarh, India: US opens a training center for Chinese troops, to be flown over the Hump
  1942 Russian counteroffensive begins at Moscow
  1942 Vichy French police round up 7,000 Jews
  1943 Italian sub 'Torelli' reaches Sumatra, with critical materials
  1943 U.S. bombers in China attack Japanese installations in Hong Kong.
  1944 De Gaulle marches up the Champs-Elyses to Notre Dame
  1944 Filipino guerrillas receive orders for the coming battle for liberation.
  1945 Soviet troops occupy Matsuma, in the southern Kuriles.
  1966 Battle at Omugulugwombashe: Initiates the Namibian War of Independence from South Africa
  1978 Albino Luciani is elected Pope as John Paul I (26 Aug - 28 Sep 1978)
27 -479 Battles of Plataea & Mycale: The united Greeks defeat the Persians in Thessaly and Ionia [Alt]
  -413 A lunar eclipse visible in Sicily causes the Athenians to postpone their attempt to escape from Syracuse harbor, dooming them to destruction
  1130 Pope Innocent II grants Sicily to Count Ruggero II of Calabria, when he conquers it
  1189 King Guy of Jerusalem besieges Acre
  1626 Battle of Lutter: Tilly's Imperials defeat Christian of Denmark
  1758 British capture Fort Frontenac, forcing the French out of Pennsylvania
  1776 Battle of Brooklyn/Long Island: British defeat the Americans
  1781 Battle of Pollicore: outnumbered British defeat Mysore
  1810 French magazine explodes in Almeida, Spain, causing heavy casualties
  1813 Battle of Dresden, Day 2: Napoleon defeats the Allies
  1813 Battle of Leitskau: Prussians defeat the French
  1816 Lord Exmouth's British-Dutch-Spanish-Italian fleet bombards Algiers into giving up piracy, yet again
  1828 Uruguayan independence recognized by Brazil and Argentina
  1861 Skirmish at Ball's Cross Roads, WVa
  1862 Action at Cub Run, Va
  1896 The Anglo-Zanzibari War: England defeats Zanzibar in 38 minutes (0902-0940), the shortest war on record
  1914 Battle of Heligoland Bight: Royal Navy defeats the German light forces
  1916 Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary
  1920 Dedication of the Altar to Liberty, in Greenwood Cemetery, to commemorate the Battle of Long Is/Brooklyn in 1776
  1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact: 60 nations agree that war is naughty
  1932 International anti-war congress opens in Amsterdam
  1942 Cuba declares war on Germany, Japan, & Italy
  1942 Guadalcanal: 5th Marines raid Kokumbona
  1942 Japanese reinforcements land at Milne Bay, against stout Aussie resistance
  1943 Elms 43rd Inf Div land on Arundel Island in the Solomons, unopposed
  1943 German-Croatian coup seizes Slovenia from Italian occupiers
  1943 Germans begin systematic massacres of Italian troops in the Balkans
  1944 Br 2nd Sub Flotilla reaches Ceylon.
  1945 Over 41,000 Japanese surrender on Morotai and Halmahea
  1945 Third Fleet enters Sagami Bay, south of Tokyo Bay, as US troops begin the occupation of Japan
  1945 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for General Charles de Gaulle.
  1958 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for CDR William Anderson & the crew of the USS 'Nautilus' (SS 571)
  2002 Sukhoi Su-27 crashes at the Lviv airshow, 85 die, c. 100 injured
28 -51 Cicero reviews his army at Iconium
  1105 Third Battle of Ramalah: Crusaders defeat the Fatimids
  1238 Jaime I of Aragon liberates Valencia from the Moors
  1364 Battle of Cascina: the Florentines ambush the Pisans, who are bathing in the Arno
  1397 Battle of Governolo: Anti-Visconti League defeats the Visconti
  1434 Battle of Castel Bolognese: The Visconti defeat the Anti-Visconti League
  1503 Guidbaldo di Manfredo recaptures Urbino from Cesare Borgia
  1512 Papal-Spanish Army captures Prato from the Florentines amid great slaughter.
  1513 Battle of Norham: King James IV of Scotland defeats the English
  1619 Ferdinand II elected Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637)
  1640 Battle of Newburn: Scots defeat English to capture Newcastle
  1652 Naval Battle of Plymouth: de Ruyter's Dutch defeat the English
  1739 Battle of Stavuchany: Russians drive the Turks into the Danube.
  1812 Treaty of Abo: Prince Bernadotte of Sweden & Tsar Alexander of Russia ally against Napoleon
  1861 Union forces invest Ft. Clark, Hatteras, NC, which falls the next day
  1862 Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, Va
  1862 Rebel spy Belle Boyd released from the Old Capitol Prison
  1862 Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas/Gainesville/Bristoe Station), Day 1 of 3: Union advances
  1867 Capt William Reynolds takes possession of Midway for the US
  1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium
  1916 Germany declares war on Romania
  1916 Italy declares war on Germany
  1938 Mauthausen concentration camp opens in Austria
  1939 First successful jet flight, a Heinkel He 178
  1939 The Netherlands undertakes a preventive mobilization
  1939 The Royal Navy quietly issues mobilization orders
  1940 French colonies of Cameroon & Congo throw in with de Gaulle's Free French
  1942 "Tokyo Express" lands reinforcements on Guadalcanal.
  1942 USS 'Washington' (BB-56) enters the Pacific via the Panama Canal.
  1942 Milne Bay: Aussie & US troops beat off Japanese attacks.
  1943 Elms 43rd Div advance on Arundel against light Japanese resistance.
  1943 General strike against Nazi-occupiers in Denmark
  1943 Marines occupy Nanomea in the Ellice Islands unopposed.
  1944 B-24 raid on the Kuriles, Japanese Submarine Chaser No. 77 is sunk.
  1944 'LSM-270' commissioned at Newark, under Ens. Owen R. Meredith, USNR
  1963 The March on Washington: Martin Luther King delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial
  1986 Former Navy WO Jerry Whitworth convicted of spying for the USSR
  1988 Ramstein air show: Italian stunt jets collide, 70 die
  1990 Iraq declares Kuwait its 19th province
29 1014 Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine Emperor Basil II slaughters the Bulgars, blinds 15,000 more
  1179 Castle Chastelet, invested on the 24th, falls to Saladin
  1219 Fifth Crusade: Damietta (Egypt), falls to the Moslems after a 17 month siege
  1261 Jacques Pantaléon is elected Pope as Urban IV (1261-1264)
  1315 Battle of Montecatini: The Pisans defeat the Florentines & Neapolitans
  1350 Battle of Winchelsea: English defeat a Spanish mercenary fleet in French service
  1475 Treaty of Picquigny: Settles Anglo-French tensions, for a time
  1484 Giovanni Battista Cibò elected Pope as Innocent VIII (1484-1492)
  1526 Battle of Mohacs: Lajos II of Hungary loses to Ottoman Sultan Suleiman II
  1612 Battle of Kringellen: Scots in Swedish service crush Norwegians.
  1622 Battle of Fleurs: Palatinate Germans routed by the Spanish
  1664 Peter Stuyvesant surrenders Nieuw-Nederland to the Royal Navy, British regulars, & Connecticut militiamen.
  1693 Battle of Landen: costly French victory over the Allies
  1708 French & Indians destroy Haverhill, Mass,
  1782 English warship 'Royal George' capsizes at Spithead, 900 die
  1842 Treaty of Nanking: First AngloChinese Opium War ends (1839?142),
  1848 Irish uprising at Tipperary is crushed by the British
  1861 Confederates surrender Ft Clark, Hatteras, NC, besieged since the 28th
  1861 Skirmish at Lexington, Mo
  1862 Battle of Aspromonte: Italian royal forces defeat Garibaldi
  1862 Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas/Gainesville/Bristoe Station), Day 2 of 3: Confederates hold
  1916 Chinese troop transport 'Hsin-Yu' collides with cruiser 'Hai-Yung', 1000 die
  1916 Kaiser Wilhelm II replaces Falkenhayn as German Chief-of-the Great- General Staff with Hindenburg
  1939 Chaim Weizmann informs England that Palestine Jews will fight in WW II
  1939 Einstein writes to FDR about the A-Bomb
  1942 Australian 21st Brigade relieves the Maroubra Force on the Kokoda Trail
  1942 BB 'Yamato' arrives at Truk, where she will swing at anchor for 7 months
  1942 Guadalcanal: "Tokyo Express" lands elmts Japanese Kawaguchi Detachment
  1942 Japanese cruisers attempt to support SNLF at Milne Bay with little success
  1944 15,000 American troops march down the Champs Elysee
  1944 China: Japanese launch 11 division offensive against Kwelin & Liuchow.
  1945 4th Marines land at Yokosuka Naval Base
  1945 British liberate Hong Kong from Japan
  1945 Japanese forces in Southeast Asia surrender to the British.
  1949 USSR explodes its first atomic bomb
  1956 France sends troops to Cyprus in the Suez Crisis
  1958 Air Force Academy moves to new facilities at Colorado Springs
  1990 C-5 transport plane crashes at Ramstein AFB, Germany, killing 13
  1997 Islamic militants murder over 300 people in an Algerian village
30 1125 Election of Lothair III as King of the Germans (1125-1137), later Holy Roman Emperor (1133-1137)
  1258 Battle of Corticella d'Ogli: Verona defeats Brescia
  1464 Pietro Barbo is elected Pope as Paul II (1464-1471)
  1563 Jews expelled from Neutitschlin, Moravia
  1645 Treaty of Peace between New Netherlands & the Indians
  1748 British begin two month siege of Pondicherry (fails)
  1757 Battle of Gross Jägersdorf: Russians defeat the Prussians, but retreat anyway
  1780 Benedict Arnold promises to betray West Point to the British
  1781 Battle of the Chesapeake: French fleet defeats the Royal Navy, sealing the fate of Yorktown
  1813 Battle of Kulm: Russo-Prussians defeat the French
  1842 Battle of Ghoaine: British defeat the Afghans.
  1856 Battle of Osawatomie, Ks: c. 250 pro-slavery thugs defeat John Brown's small anti-slavery gang, and then loot and burn the town
  1862 Battle of Richmond, Ky: Kirby Smith's Rebs defeat Horatio Wright's Yanks
  1862 Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas/Gainesville/Bristoe Station), Day 3 of 3: Confederates win
  1888 Lord Walsingham kills 1070 grouse in a single day
  1916 Kaiser Wilhelm II makes Paul von Hindenburg Chief of the General Staff
  1918 Fanya Kaplan shoots Lenin, but only wounds him; is later shot
  1932 Hermann Goring elected chairman of the Reichstag
  1936 USS 'Kane' (DD-235) near-missed by a bomb from Spanish Nationalist aircraft which mistook her for a Republican vessel
  1937 Near Shanghai the Chinese Air Force mistakes the liner 'President Hoover' for a Japanese ship, inflicting light damage.
  1939 Poland mobilizes
  1940 The "Second Vienna Award," Hitler takes Transylvania from Romania and gives it to Hungary
  1941 Nazis begin Siege of Leningrad
  1942 Egypt: Rommel opens the Alam Halfa offensive, loses by Sept. 5
  1942 Guadalcanal: U.S. DDs and APDs land reinforcements, lose one ship.
  1942 Nazi Germany annexes Luxembourg
  1942 Papua: Japanese abandon landings at Milne Bay, but press forward on the Kokoda Trail
  1942 U.S. troops land on unoccupied Adak Island, in the Aleutians.
  1944 6th Infantry Div completes movement from San Francisco to Hawaii
  1944 Soviet troops enter Bucharest, Romania
  1945 11th Airborne Div flies into Atsugi Airfield, Japan
  1945 Gen MacArthur arrives in Japan
  1945 Surface combatants of TF 38 enter Tokyo Bay.
  1951 US-Philippines mutual defense treaty signed
  1956 White rioters block enrollment of blacks at Mansfield HS, Texas
  1961 Last Spanish troops leave Morocco
  1991 Azerbaijan declares independence from the USSR
  2007 The Governor of Virginia pardons Gabriel Prosser and 34 others, hanged at Richmond for "servile insurrection" this date in 1800
31 257 Accession of Pope St. Sixtus II (31 Aug 257-6 Aug 258)
  1346 Edward III of England besieges Calais
  1378 Massacre of the Ciompi revolutionary cloth workers at Florence.
  1423 Battle of Cravant: French defeated by the Anglo-Burgundians
  1449 Guelf insurrection at Florence.
  1546 Battle of Ingolstadt: Imperialists defeat the Schamlkaldic League
  1642 Venice, Tuscany, Parma, & Modena form an alliance against Pope Urban VIII, to restore Odoardo Farnese to the Duchy of Castro -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic109b.asp
  1644 Battle of Fowey: Cornish Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  1778 British troops kill 17 Stockbridge Indians in the Bronx
  1842 US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress
  1842 USN Bureaus created - "CNOs come and go, but the Bureaus go on forever"
  1864 Atlanta Campaign: Battle of Jonesborough
  1900 British troops capture Johannesburg
  1907 England, Russia, & France form the Triple Entente
  1915 Bersaglieri reservist Benito Mussolini is called up for service, and is shortly at the front with the 8th Company of the 11th Bersaglieri
  1923 Italian troops occupy Corfu
  1935 "Shock Worker" Aleksei Stakhanov (1903-1977), allegedly digs 102 tons in 6 hours, at the Central Irmino Coal Mine
  1935 FDR signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents
  1940 "Free Netherlands," an underground resistance newspaper, begins publication, while the German occupiers initiate soap rationing
  1942 Santa Cruz I.: USS 'Saratoga' (CV-3) torpedoed by Japanese sub 'I-26'
  1943 Aussie 9th Div sails from Milne Bay for landing near Lae, NE New Guinea.
  1943 Japanese occupiers intern Jewish Congregation of Sorabaya
  1943 U.S. troops occupy Baker I, Central Pacific.
  1944 Allied offensive against the Gothic Line in Italy
  1944 Chinese forces in north Burma and south China approach linkup
  1944 MacArthur declares declares Noemfoor secured; fighting continues.
  1949 The 83rd - and last - GAR encampment, attended by 6 of the 14 remaining members
  1963 Moscow-Washington "Hot Line" established
  1991 Kyrgyzistan declares independence from the USSR
  1994 The last Russian troops in Germany are withdrawn
240 1664 The English capture Nieuw Amsterdam from the Dutch
 

 

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