April Military History

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Born
1 1283 Ludwig IV of Bavaria, Holy Roman Emperor (1314-47)
  1621 Tegh Bahadur, Sixth Sikh Guru (1665-1675), murdered by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
  1815 Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor, d. 1898 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic333b.asp#two
  1823 Simon Bolivar Buckner, Lt Gen, C.S.A., d. 1914
  1900 The Irish Guards, from cadres drawn from the Grenadier Guards and Irish volunteers
  1918 The Royal Air Force, by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service
  1920 Toshiro Mifune, IJAAF, actor ("Rashoman," "Midway", etc.), d. 1997
  1922 William Manchester, Marine, historian ("Goodbye Darkness"), d. 2004
2 -323 Alexander IV of Macedon (323-309 BC), son of Alexander the Great
  742 Charlemagne, King of the Franks, Holy Roman Emperor, d. 814 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic84b.asp#two
  1725 Giacomo Casanova, who somehow found time to soldier, d.1798 http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic180a.asp
  1826 Philip Dale Roddey, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1897
  1833 Thomas Howard Ruger, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1907
  1914 Alec Guinness, naval officer, actor ("Lawrence of Arabia," "Bridge on the River Kwai"), d. 2000 http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic267b.asp#one
  1920 Jack Webb, sometime B-26 crewman, actor ("The DI"), d. 1982
  1925 George MacDonald Fraser, soldier, author ("Flashman"), d 2008
3 1245 King Philip III "the Stout" of France (1270-1285)
  1367 King Henry IV Bolingbroke of England (1399-1413), who stole the throne from his cousin Richard II
  1637 Alessandro Stradella, Italian Baroque composer & rake; murdered by a jealous husband, 1682
  1783 Washington Irving, historian ("The Conquest of Granada"), d. 1859
  1798 Charles D Wilkes, explorer, naval officer, U.S, d. 1877
  1822 Edward Everett Hale, author ("The Man Without a Country"), d. 1909
  1842 Ulric Dahlgren, Col., U.S., kia, 1864, possibly while trying to "decapitate" the Confederate government
  1866 James Barry Munnik Hertzog, Boer general, South African politician, d. 1942
  1893 Leslie Howard, soldier, actor ("GWTW", "The Scarlet Pimpernel"), k. 1943
  1914 Sam H.F.J. Maneksaw, Indian field marshal, d. 2008
  1917 Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema, the "Soldier of Orange", d. 2007
  1926 Virgil "Gus" Grissom, USAF astronaut (Mercury 4, Gemini 3), d. 1967
  1955 Aleksander Nikolayevich Yablontsev, cosmonaut
4 186 Septimius Bassianus, later M. Aurelius Antoninus Caesar, the Roman Emperor Caracalla (211-217), at Lugdunum -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic376b.asp#one
  1814 John Blair Smith Todd, Brig Gen. U.S., d. 1872
  1817 John Wilson Sprague, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1893
  1820 Charles Devens Jr, Brig Gen., U.S., d. 1891
  1823 Robert Byington Mitchell, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1882
  1831 Edward Cary Walthall, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1898
  1880 Georg von Trapp, Austrian u-boat ace, sire of a musical clan, d. 1947
  1884 Isoroku Takano, later Yamamoto, Admiral of the Fleet., Imperial Japanese Navy, kia 1943
  1897 Pierre Fresnay, French veteran, actor ("The Grand Illusion"), d. 1975
  1943 Ian Robertson, director, Britain's National Army Museum (1988-2003), d. 2003
5 1643 Charles V Léopold Nicolas Sixte, titular Duke of Lorraine (1675-1690), Imperial Field Marshal, d. 1690
  1795 Henry Havelock, British general, inventor of "the Havelock" (the little bib that hangs down behind a Foreign Legion or US Civil War kepi), d. 1857
  1818 Lewis Baldwin Parsons, Brig Gen, U.S.
  1822 James Nagle, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1866
  1825 David Rumph "Neighbor" Jones, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1863
  1857 Prince Alexander-Jozef von Battenberg of Bulgaria (1879-1886), d. 1893
  1900 Spencer Tracy, actor ("Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo"), d. 1967
  1908 Herbert von Karajan, conductor, Hitler's Generalmusikdirektor, Nazi who got over, d.1989
  1923 Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnamese soldier & president (1965-1975), d. 2001
  1937 Colin Powell, general, chairman of the JCS, national security advisor, secretary of state
6 1498 Giovanni de'Medici - Giovanni degli Bande Nere, condottiero, d/w 1526
  1630 Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire (r. 1674?1680), d. 1680
  1828 Charles William Field, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
  1890 Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker, Dutch aircraft designer, d. 1939
  1892 Donald Douglas, USMA alumnus, aircraft designer (DC-3/C-47, etc.) d. 1981
  1892 Lowell Thomas, intrepid war correspondent, d. 1981
7 1644 François de Neufville, 2nd duc de Villeroi, Marshal of France, d. 1730
  1756 King Charles Felix of Sardinia (1821-1831)
  1771 Michele "Fra Diavolo" Pezza, at Itri, Naples, resistance fighter, executed by the French 1806 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic120b.asp
  1801 Henry Eagle, naval officer, U.S., d. 1882
  1822 Gershom Mott, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1884
  1882 Kurt von Schleicher, German Guardsman, chancellor (Dec 2, 1932-Jan 28, 1933), succeeded by Hitler, who had him murdered, 1934
  1893 Allan W Dulles, OSS, CIA, d. 1969
8 1460 Juan Ponce de León, conquistador and explorer, first Spanish Governor of Puerto Rico, d. 1521
  1605 King Philip IV of Spain (1621-65) & Portugal (1621-40)
  1726 Lewis Morris, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1795
  1731 William Williams, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1798
  1818 King Christian IX of Denmark (1863-1906)
  1828 George Baird Hodge, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
  1832 Count Alfred von Waldersee, Generalfeldmarschall and Chief of the Imperial General Staff (1888-1891), fired for criticizing the Kaiser's military prowess, d. 1904 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic128c.asp
  1875 Albert I of Saxe-Coburg, King of Belgium (1909-34)
  1929 Renzo de Felice, historian ("Mussolini"), d. 1996
9 1812 Randolph Barnes Marcy, Brig Gen, U.S.A., d. 1887
  1826 Thomas Hewson Neill, Brig Gen, U.S.A., d. 1885
  1835 King Leopold II of Belgium (1865-1909), Lord of the Kongo Free State (1885-1908), mass murderer
  1865 Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister to Hindenburg, rightist conspirator against the Republic, friend to Hitler, d. 1937
  1872 Leon Blum, French Popular Front premier, appeaser, d. 1950
  1898 Paul Robeson, actor, singer, & folklorist, Stalinist stooge, d. 1976
  1933 Jean-Paul Belmondo, actor ("Dunkerque")
10 401 Theodosius II "the Younger", longest reigning Roman Emperor (408-450), albeit not the most able
  1512 King James I of Scots (1513-42)
  1583 Huig de Groot, "Hugo Grotius", father of international law, d. 1649 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic144b.asp#two
  1769 Jean Lannes, Marshal of France, kia 1809 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic131b.asp#one
  1783 Hortense de Beauharnais, Napoleon's step-daughter, Queen of Holland (1806-10), mother of Napoleon III, d. 1837
  1794 Matthew Calbraith Perry, naval officer, who opened Japan, d. 1858
  1806 Leonidas Polk, Episcopal Bishop, inept Lt Gen, C.S.A, cannon balled 1864
  1823 Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia Fredericksburg, 1862
  1827 Lewis Wallace, Maj Gen, U.S., author ("Ben Hur"), d. 1905
  1833 David McMurtrie Gregg, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1916
  1833 James Edward Rains, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862
  1915 Harry Bratsburg -- Harry Morgan, actor (Col. Potter on "M*A*S*H"), d. 2011
11 146 Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor (193-211)
  1370 Elector Frederick IV "the Warlike", Margrave of Meissen and Elector of Saxony (1381-1428)
  1492 Marguerite d'Angouleme, Queen Consort of Navarre, d. 1559
  1794 Edward Everett, long-winded orator who preceeded Lincoln at Gettysburg, d. 1865
  1837 Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth, Col., New York Fire Zouaves, kia 1861
  1902 Quentin Reynolds, war correspondent, historian ("Custer's Last Stand"), d. 1965
  1919 Hugh Carey, National Guardsman, veteran of the 104th Division, Governor of N.Y. (1975-1982), d. 2011
  1942 Anatoli Berezovoi, cosmonaut (Soyuz T-5)
12 1550 Edward de Vere, later Earl of Oxford, English peer and courtier, who wasn't Shakespeare's ghost writer, 1604
  1577 King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway (1588-1648)
  1579 Francois de Bassompierre, French diplomat, minister, & courtier, d. 1646
  1724 Lyman Hall, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, d. 1790
  1793 Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria (1835-1848)
  1831 George Burgwyn Anderson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., kia 1862
  1831 Grenville Mellen Dodge, Brig. Gen, U.S.,d. 1916
  1871 Ioannis Metaxas, Greek general, dictator (1936-1941), d. 1941
  1907 Felix de Weldon, sculptor (The Marine Corps Memorial), d. 2003
  1937 Igor Petrovich Volk, Russia, cosmonaut
  1947 Thomas Leo "Tom" Clancy, Jr., novelist and defense writer, "The Hunt for Red October," etc., d. 2013
13 1570 Guy Fawkes, who tried to blow up the House of Commons, executed 1606 -- arguably the only man who went into Parliament knowing exactly what he wanted to do
  1732 Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford - Lord North, inept British Prime Minister (1770-82), d. 1792
  1743 Thomas Jefferson, militiaman, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, President (1801-1809), d. 1826 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic219b.asp
  1818 Mariano Melgarejo, dictator-president of Boliva (1864-1870), k. 1871
  1822 Leroy Augustus Stafford, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1864
  1822 William Stephen Walker, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1899
  1907 Harold Stassen, naval officer, Governor of Minnesota, perennial presidential candidate, d. 2001
  1923 Donald James Yarmy, Guadalcanal marine, actor (Don Adams of "Get Smart"), d. 2005
14 1578 King Philip III of Spain & Portugal (1598-1621)
  1721 Prince William August, the Duke of Cumberland - "Sweet William" or "Stinking Billy", d. 1765
  1820 Harry Thompson Hays, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1876
  1830 Davis Tillson, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1895
  1832 James Hewett Ledlie, incompetent Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1882
  1862 Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin, reforming Prime Minister of Russia (1906-1911), assassinated by a radical revolutionary
  1907 Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier, dictator of Haiti, d. 1971
  1912 Bela Kiraly, Hungarian patriot, soldier, American scholar, d. 2009
  1925 Rod Steiger, actor ("Waterloo," "Lion of the Desert"), d. 2002
15 1452 Leonardo from Vinci, friend to Niccolo Machiavelli, sometime military engineer to Cesare Borgia, d. 1519
  1646 King Christian V of Denmark and Norway (1670-1699)
  1684 Empress Catherine I of Russia (1725-27)
  1820 Evander McNair, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1902
  1822 Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana, Maj Gen, U.S.
  1837 Horace Porter, Bvt Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1921
  1951 Marsha S Ivins, astronaut (STS 32, 46, SK:66)
  1956 Gregory J Harbaugh, astronaut (STS 39, 54)
16 1319 King Jean II "the Good" of France (1350-1364), a chivalrous gentleman, and notoriously poor king
  1652 Lorenzo Corsini - Pope Clement XII (1730-40)
  1816 Edward "Allegheny" Johnson, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1873
  1823 Orlando Bolivar Wilcox, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1907
  1867 Wilbur Wright, co-inventor of the airplane, 1903.
  1897 Lt Gen Sir John Bagot Glubb KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE -- "Glubb Pasha" of the Arab Legion (1939-1956)
  1940 Queen Margrethe II of Denmark (1972-)
17 1573 Maximilian I, Duke and Elector of Bavaria (1597-1651)
  1788 Joseph Gilbert Totten, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1864
  1809 Philip St George Cocke, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1861
  1813 Henry Washington Benham, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1884
  1894 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, War Commissar (1941-1945), Party Head/Premier (1953-64), d. 1971
  1915 Anthony Quinn, actor ("Back to Bataan"), d. 2001
  1918 William Holden, AAF veteran, actor ("Stalag 17", "Bridge Over the River Kwai"), d. 1981
  1958 Sergei Y Vozovikov, cosmonaut
18 359 Flavius Gratianus, Roman Emperor (367-383)
  1480 Lucrezia Borgia, a much maligned woman, d. 1519
  1521 François d'Andelot de Coligny, French Protestant general, d. 1569
  1590 Sultan Ahmed I (1603-1617)
  1797 Louis-Adolphe Thiers, statesman, historian ("Histoire de la revolution française"), Head of State of the French Provisional Republic (1871-1873), d. 1877
  1864 Richard Harding Davis, intrepid war correspondent, d. 1916
  1927 Samuel P. Huntington, political scientist - "The Soldier & the State," "Clash of Civilizations," d. 2008
19 1320 King Pedro I of Portugal (1357-67)
  1757 Admiral Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, GCB, sea dog, d. 1833
  1821 Mortimer Dormer Leggett, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1896
  1883 Getulio Vargas, fascistic dictator/president of Brazil (1930-45, 1951-54), suicide 1954
  1905 John Smith "Jimmy" Thach, naval aviator, innovative tactician, d. 1981 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic352b.asp#one
20 1808 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, better known as Napoleon III or Napoleon "the Little", d. 1873 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic195b.asp#one
  1809 John Smith Preston, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1881
  1824 Alfred Holt Colquitt, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1894
  1827 John Gibbon, Maj Gen, U.S., who held "The Angle" at Gettysburg, d. 1896
  1839 King Carol I of Romania (1881-1914)
  1889 Adolph Hitler, Frontsoldat (1914-1918), German Chancellor & Fuhrer (1933-45), mass murderer, suicide 1945
  1891 Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds, British naval aviator, RAF Air Vice Marshal, d. 1954 --http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic334b.asp#one
21 -753 Numa Pompilius, later the second King of Rome (715-673 BC)
  1713 Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, Marshal of France, guillotined 1793
  1729 Empress Catharine II "the Great" of Russia (1762-96)
  1816 Louis Trezevant Wigfall, Brig Gen, C. S.A., d. 1874
  1834 William Rufus Terrill, Brig Gen, U.S., KIA 1862
  1852 Alberto Pollio, military historian, Chief-of-Staff of the Italian Army, 1912-1914, d. 1914
  1926 Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor, Queen of the United Kingdom (1952-)
  1962 Sergei Viktorovich Zalyotin, cosmonaut
22 1357 King Jao I of Portugal (1383-1433)
  1451 Queen Isabella I of Castilla-Leon (1479-1504), patron of Columbus
  1515 Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome, King of Navarre (1555-1562).
  1610 Pietro Ottoboni - Pope Alexander VIII (1689-91)
  1818 Cadwallader Colden Washburn, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1882
  1823 Alfred Gibbs, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1868
  1827 William Hopkins Morris, Maj Gen, U.S.. d. 1900
  1831 Alexander McDowell McCook, Maj Gen, U.S., of the "Fighting McCooks", d. 1903
  1866 Hans von Seeckt, German military reformer, d. 1936
  1870 Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, known as "Lenin" - intellectual mass murderer, d. 1924
  1882 Gen. Holland "Howling Mad" Smith, USMC, d. 1967
  1904 J. Robert Oppenheimer, physicist, head of Manhattan Project, d. 1967
  1952 Tamara Sergeyevna Zakharova, cosmonaut
23 1564 William Shakespear, "The Bard", who knew that armor "scalds with safety" [Est., OS] (see Deaths)
  1598 Maarten Tromp, Dutch admiral, kia, 1653
  1697 Admiral George Anson, 1st Baron Anson, British admiral, victor at Finisterre, circumnavigator, d. 1762
  1775 Joseph Mallord William Turner, English artist ("The Fighting Temeraire"), d. 1861
  1791 James Buchanan, volunteer, War of 1812, President (1857-1861) who choked in the secession crisis, d. 1868
  1828 King Albert of Saxony (1873-1902)
  1861 Field Marshal Viscount Allenby of Megiddo, d. 1936
  1891 Sergey Prokofiev, composer ("Leningrad Suite"), d. 1953
  1897 Lucius D. Clay, military governor of West Germany, d. 1978
  1918 Maurice Druon, cavalryman, resistance fighter, lyricist ("Chant des Partisans"), member of the French Academy, d. 2009
24 1194 Ezzelino III da Romano, "cruel tyrant", Ghibelline, suicide to cheat the executioner, 1259
  1769 Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, d. 1852
  1804 Thomas Oliver Selfridge, naval officer, U.S., d. 1902, at the time the senior living admiral by date of rank in the world
  1807 Charles Ferguson Smith, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1862
  1815 James Edward Harrison, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1875
  1822 Erastus Bernard Tyler, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1891
  1828 Robert Brank Vance, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1899
  1829 George Peabody Estey, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1881
  1849 Joseph S. Gallieni, Hero of the Marne, d. 1916
  1856 Henri Philippe Petain, Marshal of France, Head of Vichy, d. 1951
  1876 Grand-Adm. Erich Raeder, CinC Kriegmarine (1928-1943), d. 1960
  1882 Hugh Dowding, Air Marshal, Hero of the Battle of Britain, d. 1970
  1903 Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera y Saenz de Heredia, Falangist, murdered, 1936
  1906 William "Lord Haw Haw" Joyce, British traitor, executed 1946
25 1214 King Louis IX of France (1226-70) - "Saint Louis"
  1228 Holy Roman Emperor Conrad IV (1237-54)
  1284 King Edward II of England (1307-27)
  1599 Oliver Cromwell, "Lord Protector" of England (1653-58), d. 1658, general, dictator, & genocider
  1725 Admiral Viscount Augustus Keppel, RN (1726-1786)
  1840 James Dearing, Brig Gen, C.S.A., the last Confederate general kia, 1865
  1914 Marcos Perez Jimenez, general, dictator of Venezuela (1952-1958), d. 2001
26 121 Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (161-180)
  570 Mohammed, by the Shi'a chronology
  1228 Conrad von Honenstaufen, d. 1254, King Conrad II of Jerusalem,(1228-1254), IV of Germany (1237-1254), & I of Sicily (1250-1254).
  1319 King Jean II "the Good" of France (1350-64), royal chucklehead -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC-01-04&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1573 Marie de'Medici, Mrs. Henri IV of France, who taught the French to cook, d. 1642
  1648 King Pedro II of Portugal (1683-1706)
  1718 Esek Hopkins, Senior Officer, Chief, Continental Navy (1775-1783), d. 1802.
  1798 Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix, French Romantic artist ("The Massacre of Chios"),d. 1862
  1812 Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp, German arms merchant, d. 1887
  1827 Charles Edward Hovey, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1894 Rudolph Hess, Nazi, suicide in prison, 1987
27 1701 King Charles Emanuel I of Sardinia (1730-1773)
  1737 Edward Gibbon, Captain of the Hampshire Grenadiers, historian of "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", d. 1794 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic221b.asp
  1770 Adm Sir Edward Codrington. GCB, Victor of Navarino, d. 1851
  1822 Ulysses S Grant, general, 1861-1869, president 1869-1877, memoirist, d. 1885
  1835 John Murray Corse, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1893
  1942 Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov, Russian cosmonaut
28 32 Marcus Salvius Otho, Roman Emperor for a little while (Jan 15-Apr 16, 69)
  1442 King Edward IV of England (1461-70, 1471-83)
  1592 George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English courtier & admiral, d. 1628
  1758 James Monroe, soldier, president (1817-1825), d. July 4, 1831 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic237b.asp
  1810 Daniel Ullmann, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1892
  1812 Daniel Henry Rucker, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1910
  1815 Andrew Jackson Smith, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1897
  1825 James Winning McMillan, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1903
  1888 Henry Crerar, Commander, Canadian First Army, World War II, d., 1965
  1889 Karel Doorman, Dutch admiral, kia, Java Sea, Feb 27, 1942
  1908 Oscar Schindler, one of the Righteous, d. 1974
  1937 Saddam Hussein al-Takriti, Dictator of Iraq (1979-2003), executed 2006
  1943 John O Creighton, USN, astronaut
  1949 Jerome "Jay" Apt, astronaut
29 1815 Abram Duryee, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1890
  1818 Tsar Alexander II of Russia (1855-81), blown up 1881
  1837 Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger, 54, French general, frustrated putchist, suicide in 1891, on the grave of his mistress
  1875 Rafael Sabatini, author ("The Sea Hawk", "Captain Blood"), d. 1950
  1901 Hirohito, the "Showa" Emperor of Japan (1926-89), amateur biologist, unindicted war criminal
  1932 Alexei A Gubarev, Czech cosmonaut (Soyuz 17, 28)
  1953 Nikolai Nikolayevich Budarin, Russia, cosmonaut
30 1309 King Kazimierz III "The Great" of Poland (1333-70)
  1805 William Kerley Strong, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1867
  1893 Joachim von Ribbentrop, Nazi, executed 1946
  1909 Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (1948-80), d. 2004
  1938 Bugs Bunny, sometime U.S. Marine
  1946 King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden (1973- )
  1993 The World Wide Web

Died
1 1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine, 82, Queen Consort of France (1137-1152), then England (1152-1189), Queen Mother of England (1189-1204), Crusader, d. 1204
  1205 Amalric of Lusignan, c. 60, King Amalric II of Cyprus (1194-1205) and Amalric I of Jerusalem (1197-1205)
  1405 Timur/Tamerlane, 68, founder and Emir of the Timurid Empire (1370-1405)
  1406 King Robert III of Scots (1390-1406), c. 66
  1548 Sigismund I "the Old", King of Poland & Grand Duke of Lithuania (1506-1548), at 81
  1870 Patrick Gass, last survivor of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, at 98
  1922 Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Marie von Habsburg-Lothringen, 34, Emperor Karl I of Austria and King Károly IV of Hungary(1916-1918)
  1930 Empress Zawditu of Ethiopia (1916-1930), 53, daughter of the great Menelik
  1940 Pierre-Alexis Ronarc'h, Rear-Adm, commander, Brigade de fusiliers marins on the Yser Front, 1914-1916, at 74
  1946 Noah Beery, actor ("Beau Geste"), at 62
  1947 King George II of Greece (1922-1924, 1935-1947), at 56
  1965 Gen. Henry Crerar, 77, Canadian First Army, World War II
  1994 Léon Joseph Marie Ignace Degrelle, 87, Belgian Nazi, in exile in Malaga
2 1118 Baldwin of Boulogne, 60, Count Baldwin I of Edessa (1098-1118), King Baldwin I of Jerusalem (1100-1118)
  1416 Ferdinand I "the Just", King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, & Sardinia, Titular King of Corsica, King of Sicily, Titular Duke of Athens and Neopatria, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon, & Cerdanya (1412-1416), Regent of Castile (1406-1416), at 35
  1420 Nicolò Malvizzi, Patrician of Bologna, Papal Notary, assassinated
  1440 Giovanni Maria Vitelleschi, cardinal & condottiero, murdered
  1502 Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, at 15; elder brother of the later Henry VIII
  1657 Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, at 48
  1702 Jean Bart, 50, French admiral
  1831 King Charles Felix of Sardinia (1821-31), at 74
  1865 Lt. Gen. Ambrose P. Hill, C.S.A., KIA at 39
  1945 Maj. Gen. Maurice Rose, 45, highest ranking US Jewish officer, killed resisting capture
  1966 C.S. Forester, novelist ("Horatio Hornblower"), b. 1899
  2005 Pope John Paul II (1978-2005), one of the Righteous, at 84
3 33 Jesus [alternative astronomical estimate]
  628 Shah Chosroes II of Persia (579-628), murdered by his son
  963 Duke William III of Aquitaine (935-963), b. 915.
  1192 Conrad of Montferrat, c. 52, King of Jerusalem (1190-1192), assassinated at Tyre
  1203 Prince Arthur, Duke of Brittany, c. 15, nephew of Richard Lionheart, heir to the English throne, probably murdered by his uncle, King John [Alt, Apr 13]
  1287 Pope Honorius IV - Giacomo Savelli (1283-1287), c. 77
  1680 Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, founder of the Maratha Empire (1681-1689), c. 50
  1838 Dr. Francesco Antommarchi, Napoleon's personal physician, 57
  1882 Jesse James, shot by Robert Ford, at 34, St Joseph, Mo
  1946 Lt Gen Masaharu Homma, 58, shot for the Bataan Death March
  1988 Milton A Caniff, US cartoonist ("Steve Canyon"), at 81
  1991 Graham Greene, novelist ("Our Man in Havana"), b. 1904
  2011 Kevin Jarre, 56, Civil War buff, screenwriter, actor ("Glory")
4 636 St. Isidore of Seville, Patron of the Internet, at Seville, c. 75
  896 Pope Formosus (891-896), c. 80
  1284 King Alfonso X "the Wise" of Castilla-Leon (1252-84), c. 62
  1292 Pope Nicholas IV - Girolamo Masci (1288-1292), 74
  1292 Pope Nicholas IV (1288-1292), sometime Girolamo Masci, 64
  1406 King Robert III of Scots (1390-1406), c. 65
  1588 King Frederick II of Denmark & Norway (1559-88) at 53
  1817 Jean-André Masséna, 48, 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling, brilliant Marshal of France, noted looter
  1841 President William Henry Harrison, victor at Tippicanoe, after 30 days in office, at 68 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic277b.asp
  1953 King Charles II of Romania (1930-40), at 59
  1979 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, former Pakistani President (1971-1973), hanged at 51
  2003 Sgt. 1st Class Paul Ray Smith, 32, kia, Bagdhad, earning a Medal of Honor
5 1208 Quetzalcoatl
  1356 Colin Doubel, le Comte de Graville, le Comte de Harcourt, & Mabue de Mainemares, beheaded by King John "the Good" of France
  1697 King Charles XI King of Sweden (1660-97), at 41
  1794 Georges-Jacques Danton, 45, French revolutionary leader, guillotined
  1964 Douglas MacArthur, "Defender of Australia, Liberator of the Philippines, Conqueror of Japan", not to mention "Router of the Bonus Army", at 84
  1972 Brian Donlevy, actor ("Wake Island"), at 73
  1975 Chiang Kai-shek, 87, President/Premier/Leader of China , 1928-1975
  1991 Manley L "Sonny" Carter Jr, 50, US astronaut, in an accident
6 -46 Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, Plaetorius Rustianus, L. Manlius Torquatus, Licinius Crassus Damasippus, & thousands of other Senatorials, plus a few Caesarians, kia, Battle of Thapsus
  403 Saul, King of the Alans, Roman general, kia, Pollentia
  432 Pope Celestine I (422-432)
  1199 King Richard I "Lionheart" of England (1189-99), of wounds at 41
  1348 Laura de Noves, Petrarch's beloved, of plague, at c. 40
  1362 James of Bourbon-La Marche, c. 42, Count of Ponthieu (1351-1360) & of La Marche (1356-1362)
  1490 King Matthias I "the Just" Corvinus, 43, King of Hungary (1458-1490) and of Bohemia (1469-1490), Duke of Austria (1486-1490)
  1803 Sir William Hamilton, 72, sometime British ambassador at Naples, husband to Lady Hamilton, friend to Nelson -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic244b.asp#one
  1992 Isaac Asimov, Boys' High alum, Army veteran, author, at 72
  1994 Pres. Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi (b. 1958), Pres. Juvénal Habyarimana of Rwanda (b 1937), and 12 others, when a surface-to-air missile strikes their plane as it is landing at Kigali International Airport
  2005 Rainier III Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1949-2005), French soldier, at 82
7 -347 Plato, c. 60, hoplite, wrestler, philosopher [Alt]
  30 Jesus [alternative astronomical estimate]
  924 Berengar of Friuli, c. 85, Margrave of Friuli (874-c.895), King of Italy (887-924), & Holy Roman Emperor (915-924), murdered
  1498 King Charles VIII of France(1483-98), at 27, concussion from banging his head on a stone door lintel
  1779 Martha Ray, c. 37, mistress to First Lord of the Admiralty the Earl of Sandwich, and mother of his five children, shot twice by the Rev. James Hackman, her former lover, outside Covent Garden Theatre [see Apr 19]
  1789 Sultan Abdul Hamid I of Turkey (1774-89), at 64
  1803 Toussaint L'Ouverture, 59, liberator of Haiti, in a French prison
  1804 Jean-Charles Pichegru, French Revolutionary general, suicide at 43 upon being arrested for conspiring against Napoleon
  1871 Wilhelm Freiherr von Tegetthoff, 67, Austrian admiral, victor of Helgoland & Lissa
8 217 Caracalla, Roman Emperor (211-17), 29, murdered while relieving himself on the march
  1143 Byzantine Emperor John II Komnenos (co-ruler 1092/sole 1118-1143), 55, accidental poisoning by one of his own arrows while boar hunting
  1364 King Jean II "the Good" of France (1350-64), royal chucklehead, at 44, a prisoner of the English
  1364 King Jean II "the Good" of France (1350-1364), 44, as a prisoner of war -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC-01-04&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1492 Lorenzo "il Magnifico" de' Medici, 43, Lord of Florence (1469-92)
  1595 Henri II d'Orléans, Sovereign Count of Neuchatel, Duke of Longueville & Estouteville, etc., kia, Amiens
  1697 Niels Juel, Danish admiral (Oland, Moen), at 67
  1973 Pablo Picasso, artistic left-leaning Nazi collaborator, at 91
  1981 Omar Bradley, last US 5-star officer, at 88
  2013 Margaret Thatcher, 87, PM of Great Britain (1979-90)
9 340 Roman Emperor Constantine II (337-340), assassinated at c. 23
  491 Roman Emperor Zeno (Feb 9, 474-Jan 9, 475, & 476-491), at c. 65
  715 Pope Constantine (708-715)
  1024 Pope Benedict VIII - Theophylact of Tusculum (1012-24), brother of Pope John XIX (1024-1032)
  1483 King Edward IV of England (1461-70 & 71-83), at 38
  1747 Simon Fraser, c. 80, 12th Baron Lovat, Jacobite, having the honor of being the last man beheaded in England
  1904 Queen Isabella II of Spain (1833-68), at 73
  1917 Edward Thomas, 39, British soldier & poet, kia at Arras
  1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer (39), theologian; Hans Oster (57), general; Hans von Dohnanyi (43), jurist & politician; and Wilhelm Canaris (58), admiral, anti-Nazis, hanged by Hitler
  1961 King Zogu of Albania (1925-39), at 65
10 879 Louis "the Stammerer", 32, King of Aquitaine (866-879) and of France (877-79)
  947 Count Hugo of Arles, King of Italy (924-947), at c. 62
  1503 Cardinal Giovanni Michiel (nephew of Pope Paul II), poisoned by Cesare Borgia, who nets 150,000 ducats
  1533 King Frederick I of Denmark & Norway (1523-33), at 61
  1559 Duke Ercole II d'Este of Ferrara, Modena, & Reggio (1534-59), son of Alfonso I & Lucrezia Borgia, condottiero, at 50
  1585 Pope Gregory XIII - Ugo Buoncampagni (1572-1585), 83
  1739 Dick Turpin, c. 35, noted highwayman, hanged in England
  1919 Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary, b. 1879, murdered in an ambush
  1940 Royal Navy Capt. Bernard Armitage Warburton-Lee (44), winning the first VC of WW II, and Commo Friedrich Bonte, 43, Kriegsmarine, earning the Knight's Cross, kia along with many others, First Battle of Narvik
11 678 Pope Donus/Dominus (676-78)
  1034 Byzantine Emperor Romanus III Argyrus (1028-34), c. 66, murdered by his wife
  1240 Prince Llywelyn ab Iorwerth "the Great" of Wales (1194-1240), c. 67
  1508 Duke Guidobaldo di Montefeltro (1482-1508), 36, condottiero, connoisseur
  1512 Gaston, Vicompte de Foix, Pretender to the throne of Navarra (22), plus most of his regimental commanders, and about 4,500 of his Franco-German-Italian troops, as well as all opposing Spanish regimental commanders and about 9,000 Spanish-Italian troops, killed in action at Ravenna
  1555 Queen Juana "la loca" of Spain (1504-1506), at 75
  1916 Richard Harding Davis, intrepid war correspondent, at 52 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic102b.asp
  2013 Jonathan Winters, 87, sometime Marine, noted comedian
12 -45 Gnaeus Pompeius, c. 30, son of Pompey the Great, executed by Caesar upon being captured fleeing his defeat at Munda, Spain
  238 Gordian II (b. 192), kia outside Carthage, followed by his father, Gordian I (b. c. 160), suicide in Carthage, after 21 days as Roman Co-Emperors
  352 Pope St. Julius I (337-352)
  1312 Rizzardo IV, Lord of Treviso, Belluno, & Feltre, d/w
  1550 Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, claimant to the throne of Naples, at 53
  1864 Thomas Green, 49, Brig Gen, C.S.A., Blair's Landing, La; the only Confederate general kia by the USN
  1912 Clara Barton, war nurse, founder of the American Red Cross, at 90
  1945 FDR, cerebral hemorrhage at 63
  1946 August Borms, Flemish quisling, executed
  1956 Jose Moscardo Ituarte, 85, Defender of the Alcazar of Toldeo
  1975 Josephine Baker, entertainer, resistance fighter, at 68
  1981 Joe "The Brown Bomber" Louis, veteran, at 66
13 1053 Godwine, c. 53, First Earl of Wessex (1019-1053), father of King Harold II of England
  1203 Duke Arthur I of Brittany, nephew & heir to Richard I, probably murdered by his uncle, King John of England [Alt, Apr 3]
  1517 Al-Ashraf Tuman II Bey, the last Mamluke Sultan of Egypt, hanged by the Turks
  1638 Henri II, Viscount, later Duke of Rohan-Gié (1586-1638), 58, French soldier & Huguenot leader
  1868 Emperor Theodorus/Tewodros II of Abyssinia (1855-1868), c. 50, suicide to avoid capture by the British
14 711 King Childebert III of the Franks (695-711), at about 27
  911 Pope Sergius III (904-911)
  1390 Rinaldo Orsini, Count of Tagliacozzo, and Giovanni Orsini, his brother, murdered at L'Aquila
  1471 Richard "The Kingmaker" Neville, 42, 16th Earl of Warwick & 6th of Salisbury, kia, Barnet
  1488 Girolamo Riario, Lord of Imola & Forli, condottiero, husband to Caterina Sforza, murdered at 45 in a coup
  1515 Galeazzo I Sforza, Lord of Pesaro (1510-12), Governor of Cremona (1512-15), kia
  1574 Count Hendrik of Nassau-Dillenburg, murdered
  1759 George Frederick Handel, 74, composer ("Music for the Royal Fireworks")
  1941 Jack Edmonson, Australian corporal, KIA at Tobruk, earning the V.C.
  1942 Lt Cdr Malcolm David Wanklyn, VC, kia at 31, commanding HMS 'Upholder', top scoring British sub commander in history
  1943 Yakov Djugashvili, 36, Stalin's son, shot "trying to escape" from a German P/W camp
  1944 Marshal of the Soviet Union Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin, 43, ambushed by Ukrainian partisans
  1986 Simone de Beauvoir, leftist Vichyite feminist ("The Second Sex"), at 78
  2004 Cpl. Jason L. Dunham, kia, Karbala, the first Marine awarded a Medal of Honor for Iraq
  2009 Maurice Druon, cavalryman, resistance fighter, lyricist ("Chant des Partisans"), member of the French Academy, nine days short of 91
15 1257 Mamluke Sultan al-Malik al-Mu'izz Izz al-Din Aybak al-Jawshangir al-Turkmani al-Salihi of Egypt (1250-1257), murdered by order of his wife
  1595 Torquato Tasso, poet, at 51 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic86b.asp
  1605 Tsar Boris Fyodorovich Godunov of Russia (1598-1605), 54
  1861 Pvt Richard Hough, killed by a premature explosion during a salute to mark the surrender of Ft Sumter
  1865 Abraham Lincoln, 56, several hours after being shot by John Wilkes Booth
  1944 Marshal of the Soviet Union Nicholai Fyodorovich Vatutin, 42 of wounds from an ambush by Ukrainian partisans on Feb 28th
  1980 Jean-Paul Sartre, existentialistic Vichyite Nazi-collaborating communist sympathizer, at 74
  1981 John Smith "Jimmy" Thach, Adm., USN, noted naval aviator, four days short of 76 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic352b.asp#one
  2005 Martin Blumenson, soldier, historian ("Cross Channel Attack"), at 86
16 69 Roman Emperor Otho (Jan 15-Apr 16, 69), suicide at 32 after defeat by Vitellius
  1090 Sigelgaita, warrior princess, daughter of Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno, wife to Robert the Weasel, mother of Roger of Sicily, stepmother to Bohemund, at c. 50
  1115 Grand Prince Sviatopolk II of Kiev (1093-1113), c. 62
  1828 Francisco Goya, artist ("The Horrors of War"), b. 1746.
  1978 Lucius D Clay, U.S. military governor of West Germany, at 80
17 -43 Aulus Hirtius, c. 57, general, author (Book VIII of "Caesar's Commentaries"), Consul, kia at Modena
  -43 Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, general, Consul, d/w from Forum Gallorum, 15th
  744 Caliph Walid ibn Yazid - Walid II of Baghdad (743-744), murdered
  858 Pope Benedict III (Sep 29, 855-April 17, 858)
  1355 Doge Marino Falieri of Venice (1354-1355), beheaded by the Serenissima for treason
  1427 Duke Jan IV of Brabant and Limburg (1415-1427), 23
  1433 Stefano Colonna, Co-Lord of Palestrina, Condottiero, murdered by his nephew Salvatore Colonna, Co-Lord of Palestrina, who is promptly lynched in a popular uprising.
  1605 Pope Leo XI - Alessandro Ottaviano de'Medici (1-17 Apr 1605), at 69
  1616 Tokugawa Ieyasu, 73, retired First Tokugawa Shogun (1603-1605)
  1711 Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I von Habsburg (1705-11), at 32
  1790 Benjamin Franklin, sometime militiaman and military engineer, at 84
  1945 Walter Model, Nazi field marshal, suicide at 54, rather than surrender
  1983 Gen. Mark W Clark, at 87
  1987 Dick Shawn, actor ("What Did You Do in the War, Daddy?"), at 63
  1997 Chaim Herzog, President of Israel (1983-93), at 78
18 680 Caliph Muawiyah I (661-680), c. 78, the first Umayyad
  1592 Troilo Savelli di Polombara, Lord of Poggio Moiano, Aspra, & Montasola, beheaded in the Sant'Angelo at 18.
  1689 George Jeffreys, British Chief Justice, the ultimate "Hanging Judge", at c. 40
  1690 Charles V Leopold (47), titular Duke of Lorraine (1675-1690), Imperial field marshal
  1943 Adm. Yamamoto Isoruku (59), air ambush in the Solomon Islands.
  1945 Ernie Pyle, war correspondent, kia at 44, Ie Shima, Okinawa
19 1054 Pope St. Leo IX (1049-1054), 51, the former Count Bruno of Egesheim-Dagsburg
  1390 King Robert II "the Steward" of Scotland (1371-1390), 74
  1689 Christina, 62, who abdicated as Queen of Sweden (1644-54), in Rome
  1779 The Rev. James Hackman, c. 28, sometime subaltern of the 68th Foot, hanged at Tyburn for the murder on Apr 7th of Martha Ray, mistress to First Lord of the Admiralty the Earl of Sandwich
  1881 Benjamin Disraeli, 76, novelist, British PM
  1886 Bishop Narciso Martinez Izquierdo of Madrid (56), shot by a disgruntled priest
  1956 Lionel "Buster" Crabb, British diver (47), last seen alive on this day, after secretly diving in Porsmouth harbor to examine the hull of a visiting Soviet cruiser
  1987 Maxwell D Taylor, commander 101st Airborne Division in WW II, at 85
  1989 Daphne du Maurier, author ("The Birds"), wife to Sir Frederick Browning of the Paras, at 81
  2009 Ray Nance (94), last of 30 men from Bedford, Virginia, who landed on Omaha on D-Day with Co. A, 116th Infantry, 22 of whom never got off the beach
20 1164 Anti-Pope "Victor IV" - Ottaviano Montecello (1159-64)
  1314 Pope Clement V - Bertrand de Got (1305-1314), c. 50, who initiated the "Babylonian Captivity" of the Papacy at Avignon
  1534 Sr. Elizabeth Barton (c. 28), 'the Maid of Kent,' nun, executed by Henry VIII when her prophetic visions no longer pleased him
  1836 Prince Johan I Jozef of Liechtenstein, Austrian field marshal, at 75
  1947 King Christian X of Denmark (1912-1947), hero of the Resistance
21 -753 Remus Silvius (18), accidentally (maybe not?) slain by his brother Romulus
  -323 BC - Alexander the Great, 32, noted conqueror & drunkard [Alt]
  -323 Diogenes the Cynic, c. 80, noted cynic
  586 King Leovigild of the Visgoths (569-586), c. 60
  1073 Pope Alexander II - Anselmo da Baggio (1061-73)
  1509 King Henry VII of England, 52, the first Tudor (1485-1509)
  1574 Cosimo I de' Medici, c. 54, Duke of Florence (1537-1574), first Grand Duke of Tuscany (1569-1574)
  1792 "Tiradentes" - Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, Brazilian revolutionary, executed at c. 45
  1910 Mark Twain, 74, American humorist & novelist ("Huckleberry Finn"), Missouri militiaman who fabricated his humourously war experiences
  1918 Manfred "The Red Baron" von Richthofen, ground fire after his aircraft had been disabled in air-to-air combat, at 25
  1962 Frederick Handley Page, 76, pioneer aircraft designer
  1971 Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier, 64, Dictator/President of Haiti (1957-1971)
  1997 Diosdado Macapagal, 86, former President of the Philippines (1961-65)
  2004 Karl Hass, incarcerated Nazi war criminal, at 92
22 296 Pope St Gaius (283-296)
  455 Roman Emperor Flavius Petronius Maximus (Mar 17-May 22, 455), c. 58
  536 Pope Agapitus I (535-36)
  1616 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, marine, author, on his 69th birthday [NS]
  1864 Bvt. Maj. Gen. Joseph G. Totten (USMA 1805), at 76
  1864 Joseph Gilbert Totten, 75, Brig. Gen., US, scholar, engineer
  1994 Richard M Nixon, sometime naval officer, President (1969-1974), stroke at 81
23 303 St. George, Martyr, beheaded in Cappadocia
  871 King Ethelred I of Wessex (866-871), c. 30, elder brother of Alfred the Great
  1014 Brian Boru, High King of the Irish (1002-1014), kia at 87
  1016 King Aethelred II "the Ill-Counseled" of England (978-1013 & 1014-1016), c. 48
  1521 Don Juan López de Padilla (c. 30), Leader of the Comunero Revolt against Chalres V, beheaded after the Battle of Villalar
  1616 William Shakespeare, c. 52, by tradition, on his birthday [OS].
  1625 Maurice of Nassau, 57, Prince of Orange (1618-1625), Captain-General of the Dutch Republic
  1915 Rupert Brooke, 27, soldier-poet, of an infection en route to Gallipoli -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic58c.asp
  1986 Otto Preminger, 80, director ("In Harm's Way")
  2007 Boris Yeltsin, first President of post-Soviet Russian Federation (1991-1999), at 76
24 1077 King Geza I of Hungary (1074-1477), c. 36
  1185 Antoku, 81st Emperor of Japan (1180-85), drowned at 12
  1342 Pope Benedict XII - Jacques Fournier (1334-1342), c. 60
  1516 Sultan Ghowir of Syria, trampled to death at 80 by his troops, who were fleeing Selim the Grim's Turks
  1617 Concino Concini, c. 36, Count della Penna, Marshal of France, murdered on orders of Louis XIII
  1891 Count Helmuth von Moltke, greatest German chief-of-the-general staff, at 90
  1967 Vladimir Komarov (40), first man to die in space, Soyuz 1 disaster
25 1295 King Sancho IV "the Brave" Castile & Leon (1287-1295), c. 38
  1553 Fabio Malvizzi, Patrician of Bologna, executed
  1607 Adm. Don Juan Álvarez de Ávila, of Spain, drowned, Battle of Gibraltar
  1607 Jacob van Heemskerck, 40, Dutch admiral, cannon balled, Battle of Gibraltar
  1644 Emperor Chongzhen of China (1627-1644), 33, the last Ming, suicide
  1792 Nicolas Jacques Pelletier, Fench highwayman, the first man to date Mdm. Guillotine
  1928 Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, 49, Russian "White" general
26 757 Pope Stephen II (752-757)
  1196 King Alfonso II of Aragon (1162-96), c. 39
  1478 Giuliano de' Medici, c. 28, assassinated by the Pazzi while at mass, and Francesco Pazzi, Jacopo de' Pazzi, & Cardinal Francesco Salviati lynched by the Florentines for murdering him
  1538 Diego de Almagro (c. 63), Conquistador, executed by Pizzarro
  1865 John Wilkes Booth, 27, hearth trhob, assassin, shot trying to avoid arrest
  1998 Monsignor Juan José Gerardi Conedera, 75, Auxiliary Bishop of Guatemala, Roman Catholic human rights advocate, murdered by right wing radicals
  2004 Gunther Rothenberg, military historian, b. 1923
27 -399 Socrates, noted hoplite, stone cutter, busy-body, executed by poison, at c. 70
  630 Shah Ardashir III of Persia (1123-1124), c. 9, murdered
  1124 King Alexander I of Scotland (1107-24), c. 45
  1404 Philip "the Bold" or "the Stout," 62, Duke of Burgundy (1363-1404), Count of Charolais (1390-1404)
  1521 Ferdinand Magellan, 41, explorer, slain by the Filipinos
  1682 Tsar Theodorus III (1676-82)
  1694 Elector Johan Georg IV of Saxony (1691-94), at 25
  1702 Jean Bart, 51, French naval hero
  1792 Jacob Johan Anckarström (29), assassin of King Gustav III of Sweden, executed
  1813 Zebulon M Pike, army officer and explorer, kia at 34
  1881 Ludwig A Benedek, Austrian general who lost at Koniggratz, 76
  1893 John Murray Corse, Brig. Gen, U.S., on his 58th birthday
  1965 Edward R. Morrow, war correspondent, Cold Warrior, at 57
28 1192 Conrad I of Montferrat, King of Jerusalem (1191-1192), assassinated at c. 40
  1197 Rhys ap Gruffydd, c. 65, King of Deheubarth [South Wales] (1155-1197)
  1851 Adm Sir Edward Codrington GCB, Victor of Navarino, at 71 and one day
  1905 Fitzhugh Lee, Maj. Gen., CSA, Brig. Gen, USA, b 1835
  1936 King Fuad of Egypt (1922-36), 68
  1945 Benito Mussolini (61) & Claretta Petacci (33) murdered by partisans near Milan -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic389b.asp#two
29 1380 St. Catherine of Siena (33), who wasn't afraid of anyone, Patron of Italy
  1676 Dutch Adm. Michael Ruyter, cannonballed at 69, Naval Battle of Syracuse
  1862 Timothy Webster (40), American patriot, executed by the Confederacy as a spy
  1918 Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, in jail at 23 of TB
30 313 Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia, c.42, erstwhile Roman Emperor (305-312), possibly of despair or maybe just poisoned
  535 Queen Amalasuntha of the Ostrogoths (516-534), 40, strangled by order of her husband Theodahad, who assumes the throne (534-536),
  1305 Roger de Flor, c. 43, Count of Malta, Captain of the Catalan Company, Byzantine Emperor-aspirant, assassinated by the real one, who also massacres his troops
  1524 Pierre Terrail, Seigneur de Bayard, "The knight without fear nor equal", gunshot at the Sesia, Italy, at c. 50 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic301b.asp#two
  1632 Johann Tserclaes, 73, Count of Tilly, Imperial field marshal, kia Ingolstadt
  1632 Sigismund III Vasa, 65, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1657-1632), King of Sweden (1592-1599)
  1792 John Montague, Earl of Sandwich, naval officer, bon vivant, culinary innovator, at 73
  1828 King Shaka zan Senzagakona of the Zulu (1816-1828), c. 41, murdered by his brothers
  1847 Archduke Charles of Austria (75), Napoleon's "Great Enemy" -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic334b.asp#two
  1864 William Read Scurry, 43, Brig. Gen., C.S.A., kia, Battle of Jenkins' Ferry
  1945 Adolph Hitler (56) and Eva Braun (33), suicide
  1945 Col. William O. Darby, of "Darby's Rangers," kia at 34 near Lake Garda, while serving as Assistant Commander, 10th Mountain Div
  1972 King Ntare V Ndizeye of Burundi (1966-1972), 24, murdered

Event
1 0 All Fools Day
  286 Diocletian makes Maximian co-Emperor (286-305)
  705 Election of Pope John VII (705-707)
  1605 Alessandro Ottaviano de'Medici elected Pope as Leo XI (1-17 Apr 1605)
  1792 Eruption of Mt. Unzen, Japan, estimated deaths range from 15,000-53,000
  1863 The US adopts conscription for the Civil War
  1865 Battle of Five Forks, Lee's line of communications is severed
  1893 USN establishes the rate of Chief Petty Officer
  1924 Hitler gets five years for the Munich "Beer Hall" putsch; will serve 18 months
  1933 Heinrich Himmler becomes Police Commander of Germany
  1933 Nazi Germany enacts anti-Semitic legislation
  1939 US recognizes the Franco government in Spain
  1941 CNO orders "special precautions against surprise attack on weekends and holidays."
  1941 The US Navy takes over Treasure Island, San Francisco Bay
  1942 Bataan: Fil-American troops go on quarter rations
  1942 Japanese First Air Fleet refuels south of Java
  1942 Japanese troops capture Jessami, Netherlands East Indies
  1943 Japanese aircraft attack the Russell Islands
  1944 Adm Toyoda becomes commander of Combined Fleet
  1944 TF 58 completes three days of raids in the western Carolines
  1944 The Admiralties: 1st Cav Div begins mop up of outlying islands
  1944 B-24s of the 392nd Bombardment Group bomb Schoffaussen, Switzerland (on the "German" side of the Rhine), causing about 75 casualties, including 40 dead
  1945 Okinawa: 60,000 U.S. soldiers and Marines land, on Easter Sunday
  1945 US First & Ninth Armies meet to form the Ruhr pocket
  1954 US Air Force Academy established
  1954 The US Army forms its first helicopter battalion, Fort Bragg, NC
  1955 EOKA-bomb attacks against British facilities in Cyprus
  1957 Leaders of the '56 Hungarian Revolution are tried in Budpest
  1960 French detonate their 2nd atom bomb, in the Sahara
  1960 US launches Tiros I, first weather satellite
  1979 Iran is declared an Islamic Republic
  1986 USS 'Nathanael Greene' (SSBN-656) grounds in the Irish Sea
  1991 Warsaw Pact officially dissolves
  1992 USS 'Missouri' (BB-63) decommissions for the last time
2 0 Feast of St Francis de Paola, Patron of Naval Officers and Sick Children
  999 Gerbert of Aurillac elected Pope as Sylvester II (999-1003)
  1118 Count Baldwin of Edessa becomes King Baldwin II of Jerusalem (1118-1131)
  1194 Richard Lionheart meets Robin Hood in Sherwood Forest [Trad]
  1283 Giacomo Savelli is elected Pope as Honorius IV (1283-1287)
  1416 Alfonso V succeeds to the throne of Aragon and Sicily (1416-1458)
  1513 Juan Ponce de Leon claims Florida for Spain
  1550 Jews are expelled from Genoa
  1781 US Frigate 'Alliance 'captures British privateers 'Mars' and 'Minerva'
  1794 The French Committee of Public Safety authorizes the activation of the "1ere Compagnie d'Aérostiers", a balloon unit -- the first "air force" in history
  1801 Nelson "Copenhagens" the Danish Fleet
  1827 Construction of the first U.S. Naval Hospital begins, Portsmouth, Va
  1863 Richmond Bread Riot: Jeff Davis threatens to fire on women & children
  1865 Battles of Petersburg/Ft Gregg/Sutherland's Station, Va: Robert E. Lee is forced to evacuate Richmond
  1865 US Maj Gen James H Wilson's cavalry captures Selma
  1912 Sun Yat Sen forms the Kuomintang Party
  1915 Battle of the Wasaa: Good Friday riot by ANZAC troops in Cairo's Red Light District
  1916 Zeppelin bombs Rosyth distillery, causing a flood of fine whiskey
  1917 Pres Wilson asks Congress to declare war against Germany
  1941 Nazi occupiers disband the Dutch Boy Scouts
  1942 Burma: the British abandon Prome.
  1942 USS 'Hornet' (CV-7) sails from San Francisco, carrying 16 Army B-25Bs
  1942 Singapore: Japanese 18th Div sails for Rangoon.
  1942 US bombers from India attack Japanese shipping in the Andaman Islands.
  1943 Italian blockade runner 'Orseolo' reaches Bordeaux from Kobe
  1944 US Fifth Air Force raids Hansa Bay, New Guinea.
  1944 Merrill's Marauders heavily engaged at Nhpum Ga, Burma
  1964 President Goulart of Brazil replaced by Castello Branco in a coup
  1972 Israeli PM Menachem Begin visits Pres Sadat of Egypt
  1982 Argentina invades the Falkland Is, initiating a 72-day losing war with Britain
  1986 TWA Flight 840 bombed on approach to Athens airport; four passengers (all of them American), including an infant, are killed.
  2012 Mass shooting at Oikos University, Oakland, California, 7 die
3 1367 Battle of Najera/Navarrete: An Anglo-Spanish army defeats a Franco-Spanish army, to confirm Pedro the Cruel as King of Castille (1350-1369)
  1559 Treaty of Le Cateau-Cambrensis: end of the Franco-Spanish "Italian Wars" (1494-1559) -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic346b.asp#two
  1860 First ride of the Pony Express
  1865 Union forces occupy Richmond & Petersberg, to the tune of "Dixie"
  1896 Battle of Tucruf: Sudanese Mahdists defeat the Italians
  1922 Stalin is named Secretary-General of Central Committee of the CPUSSR (1922-1953)
  1930 Ras Tafari ascends the throne of Ethiopia as Emperor Haile Selassie (1930-1974)
  1941 Putsch installs pro-Nazi Rashid Ali al-Ghailani as PM of Iraq, who initiates attacks on Britons & Jews, leading to British intervention (May 2-31)
  1942 Bataan: Japanese launch a major offensive.
  1942 Burma: Stilwell orders the Chinese to stand at Pyinamana.
  1942 First foreign landing on a US carrier: Royal Navy Capt. H.L. St. J. Fancourt's Gloster Gladiator on USS 'Wasp' (CV-7) in the Orkney Islands
  1943 New Guinea: Elms 41st Div land at Morobe, near the Waria River, without opposition
  1944 British bombers attack the German battleship 'Tirpitz' in Norwegian waters
  1944 Burma-India: British juggle forces to stem the Japanese drive on Imphal
  1944 Hollandia: major Fifth AF raid on Japanese base.
  1945 USSR renounces Apr '41 non-aggression pact with Japan
  1948 Harry Truman signs the Marshall Plan
  1982 Security Council demands Argentina withdraw from the Falkland Islands
4 -431 Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (431-303 BC) [Trad]
  0 Feast of St. Isidore of Seville, Patron of the Internet
  1081 Alexius I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor (1081-1118), father of the learned Anna
  1541 Ignatius of Loyola is appointed the first Superior-General of the Jesuits
  1581 Frances Drake completes the second circumnavigation of the world
  1588 Christian IV, aged 10, ascends the throne of Denmark & Norway (1588-1648)
  1655 Battle at Porto Farina, Tunis: English fleet defeats the Barbary pirates
  1745 Battle of Hohenfriedberg: Prussians defeat the Austrians & Dutch
  1776 First USN victory at sea: USS 'Columbus' captures HM Tender 'Hawke'
  1854 Sloop 'Plymouth' lands a party to protect U.S. citizens in Shanghai
  1862 Yorktown: First serious fighting of the Peninsular Campaign
  1865 Lincoln sits in Jeff Davis' chair, in the Confederate White House
  1898 First Chief of USN's Bureau of Yards and Docks appointed, Mordecai Endicott
  1920 Jerusalem: Arab rioters attack Jews
  1933 USN Airship 'Akron' (ZRS-4) crashes off New Jersey, 73 die
  1939 King Faisal II ascends to throne of Iraq (murdered 1958)
  1941 RAdm Claude Bloch, COM 14th Naval District, warns Midway against Japanese surprise attack
  1941 Rommel takes Benghazi
  1942 Bataan: Fil-American forces fall back after Japanese break through
  1942 Indian O: Japanese carrier a/c sink HM Heavy Cruisers 'Cornwall" & 'Dorsetshire'
  1943 4th Marine Div is activated at San Diego
  1944 Burma: Heavy fighting around Nhpum Ga
  1944 Japanese move on Kohima, having cut the road from Imphal.
  1945 Heavy fighting begins in southern Okinawa.
  1945 Hungary liberated from Nazi occupation
  1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed
  1958 Aldermaston, England: 1st anti-nuclear weapons demonstration
5 823 Pope Paschal I crowns Lothar I Co-Emperor of the HRE
  1242 Battle of the Neva: Prince Alexander of Novgorod defeats the Teutonic Knights
  1614 Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe
  1654 Treaty of Westminster: First Anglo-Dutch War ends (1652-54)
  1762 British capture Greneda from French
  1799 Battle of Magnano: Austrians defeat the French
  1811 Battle of Barrosa: English defeat the French
  1812 British take Badajoz, Spain, from the French by storm
  1861 U.S. troops abandon Ft Quitman, Tx
  1881 Transvaal regains independence from Britain
  1887 Lord Acton writes, "Power tends to corrupt, absolute power corrupts absolutely."
  1896 Athens: 1st modern Olympic Games begin
  1915 French begin Woevre offensive
  1916 Battle of El Hanna: Unsuccessful British attempt to break the Turkish siege of Kut
  1939 Germany: "Aryan" youth ordered to join the Hitlerjugend
  1942 Bataan: Japanese troops capture Mt. Samat
  1942 Colombo, Ceylon: Japanese First Air Fleet inflicts heavy damage
  1943 Burma: Br 6th Bde HQ is overrun by advancing Japanese in the Arakan
  1943 Poon Lim (1917-1991) lands near Belem, Brazil, ending 133 days in a lifeboat in the Atlantic after the 'Ben Lomond' was torpedoed, setting a record for survival at sea
  1945 Japanese cabinet resigns.
  1950 Prague espionage trial against bishops & priests begins
  1951 Julius & Ethel Rosenberg, atomic spies, sentenced to death
  1955 Winston Churchill resigns as British PM, succeeded by Anthony Eden
  1962 NASA civilian pilot Neil A Armstrong takes X-15 to 54,600m
  1986 Berlin: two US servicemen & a Turkish woman die in a terrorist bombing
  1991 Iraq: US begins relief air drops to Kurds in the north
6 -1400 Theseus and the Athenian Youths and Maidens sail for Crete
  -648 BC - Solar eclipse visible in Greece & the Aegean
  -46 BC - Battle of Thapsus: Caesar defeats the Senatorials and Numidians
  0 National Tartan Day
  0 Army Day, US
  403 Battle of Pollentia: Stilicho's Romano-Alan Army defeats Alaric's Visigoths, on Easter Sunday
  1250 Battle of Minieh: Ayyubids defeat the Crusaders
  1327 Petrarch first sets eyes on Laura de Noves [see Deaths]
  1362 Battle of Brignais: French forces under Count Jacques De Bourbon are wiped out by the rebel Free Companies
  1453 Sultan Mehmet II lays siege to Constantinople (falls May 29th)
  1664 France & Saxony conclude an alliance
  1672 France declares war on the Netherlands
  1712 Slave revolt in New York
  1776 US naval squadron captures eight British ships off New England
  1859 US recognizes Benito Juarez and the liberal government in Mexico's War of Reform
  1862 Battle of Shiloh, Day 1: Confederate success -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC45&Prev=0&BeginCnt=61
  1866 Union veterans form the Grand Army of the Republic
  1906 Massive eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, hundreds die
  1916 German parliament OKs unrestricted submarine warfare
  1917 US declares war on Germany, entering World War I
  1934 Nazis arrest 418 Lutheran ministers
  1939 Great Britain & Poland sign military pact
  1939 US & UK agree on joint control of Canton & Enderbury Is in the Pacific
  1941 Germans bomb Belgrad, 17,000 reportedly die
  1941 Germans bomb the Piraeus, two old battleships sink
  1941 Italians surrender Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to the British
  1942 Chaing Kai-shek agrees to provide additional forces for Burma
  1942 Japanese First Air Fleet raids in the Bay of Bengal.
  1942 Stilwell's Chinese forces prepare to defend Pyinamana.
  1943 USS 'Trout' (SS-202) begins laying mines near Sarawak, Borneo
  1944 The Supreme Allied Commander cancels all further military leaves throughout the British Isles, in preparation for D-Day
  1945 Coevorden, the Netherlands, liberated from the Nazis
  1945 Japanese battleship 'Yamato' sails for Okinawa on a one-way mission
  1945 Okinawa: Massive kamikaze attack on the US fleet sinks 6 ships
  1968 USS 'New Jersey' (BB-62) recommissioned, the first battleship in active service since 1958
  1973 India invades and annexes Sikkim
7 451 Attila's Huns sack Metz
  1118 Pope Gelasius II excommunicates Emperor Henry V
  1381 2nd treaty of Guerande: Yann IV of Brittany and Charles VI of France
  1509 France declares war on Venice
  1528 French troops defeat Cardinal Pompeo Colonna outside Gaeta, initiating an unsuccessful siege
  1555 Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi elected Pope as Marcellus II (7 Apr-6 May 1555)
  1625 Albrecht von Wallenstein appointed supreme commander by the HRE
  1652 The Fronde: Battle of Bleneau: French Royalists defeat the Frondist rebels
  1655 Fabio Chigi elected Pope as Alexander VII (1655-1667)
  1776 Continental brig 'Lexington' captures the British 'Edward'
  1818 Gen Andrew Jackson seizes St Marks, Fla, from Seminole Indians
  1831 Dom Pedro II crowned Emperor of Brazil (1825-1891)
  1836 Skirmish between Texian rear guards and advancing Mexican troops at San Felipe Ford
  1855 Battle of Kaba: King Cakobau of Bau, aided by King George of Tonga, completes the unification of Fiji
  1862 Battle of Shiloh, Day 2: Grant defeats the Confederates
  1863 First Battle of Charleston, SC: Unsuccessful USN attempt to force the harbor
  1865 Battle of Farmville, Va
  1917 USN takes over all wireless stations for the duration of WW I
  1926 Violet Gibson, deranged daughter of Baron Ashbourne, attempts to assassinate Mussolini, but only wounds him slightly in the nose; arrested, she is released at the Duce's orders
  1933 Nazis bar Jews from law & public service
  1938 Battle of Taierzhuang ends: 14 days of desperate Chinese resistence cause the Japanese to fall back - their first major defeat in the "China Incident"
  1939 Italy invades Albania, initiating the first combat by an armored division, the Centauro
  1941 USS 'North Carolina' (BB-55) is commissioned
  1942 Bataan: Fil-Am troops fail to form a new defensive line
  1942 Heavy Axis air attack on Malta
  1942 Japanese 18th Div lands at Rangoon.
  1942 Solomons: Japanese land on Bougainville
  1942 USN agrees to accept black Americans for general service
  1943 Japanese a/c inflict heavy losses on Allied shipping around Guadalcanal
  1944 Japanese cut water supply of Anglo-Indian forces at Kohima.
  1945 First Navy Nurses land on Iwo Jima: Lt, jg, Ann Purvis & Ens Jane Kendeigh
  1945 Japanese BB 'Yamato' sunk off Okinawa by TF 58 a/c.
  1945 Massive kamikaze attack on the US fleet off Okinawa
  1946 Part of East Prussia is incorporated into the Russian SFSR
  1949 Rogers & Hammerstein's "South Pacific" opens at the Majestic on Broadway for 1928 performances -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fkrt3NMvMHU
  1966 US recovers lost H-bomb from sea off Palomares, Spain
  1978 President Jimmy Carter defers production of neutron bomb
  1980 President Jimmy Carter breaks relations with Iran over the hostage crisis
  1989 Soviet sub sinks in Norwegian Sea, c. 12 die
8 0 Feast of St Walther Gautier of Pontoise, Patron of Prisoners-of-War
  1195 Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus (1185-1195) is ousted & blinded by his brother Alexius III (1195-1203); will later be restored as Emperor (1203-1204)
  1341 Petrarch is crowned "Poet Laureate" on the Capitoline in Rome
  1378 Bartolomeo Prignano of Itri elected Pope as Urban VI (1378-1389)
  1455 Alfonso Borja elected Pope as Callistus III (1455-1458)
  1500 Battle of Novara: King Louis XII beats Duke Ludovico Sforza of Milan
  1596 Battle of Amiens: The Spanish capture the city from teh French
  1801 Riot in Bucharest, 128 Jews slain
  1861 US mint at Dahlonega, Georgia, seized by Confederate officials
  1864 Battle of Mansfield, La; U.S. forces routed by Lt Gen Richard Taylor
  1865 Lee's retreat cut off near Appomattox Court House
  1898 Battle of the Atbara River: Kitchener's Anglo-Egyptian forces crush the Sudanese Mahdists
  1904 France & Britain conclude the Entente Cordiale
  1925 First planned night landings on a carrier, USS 'Langley' (CV 1), by VF-1
  1940 HM Destroyer 'Glowworm' is sunk after a gallant fight with the German heavy cruiser 'Admiral Hipper' -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic223b.asp#one
  1945 Okinawa: Marines probe Japanese lines on the Motobu Peninsula
  1950 Unarmed USN patrol plane downed over the Baltic Sea by Soviet aircraft
  1956 Parris Is, SC: Six Marine recruits drown during an unauthorized night exercise
  1961 Persian Gulf: Explosion aboard the British liner Dara, 236 die
9 30 The Crucifixion [the first Friday following the first night of Passover on a Thursday]
  1002 Battle of "Hocktide": Saxon women defeat Danish raiders
  1097 Norman-Italian Crusaders under Bohemund & Tancred reach Constantinople
  1241 Battle of Liegnitz/Wahlstadt: Mongol armies defeat the Poles & Germans
  1260 Battle of Montaperti: The Sienese Ghibellines defeat the Florentine Guelfs
  1388 Battle of Naefels: The Swiss defeat the Hapsburgs
  1454 Peace of Lodi: ends Milanese-Venetian war
  1534 Turkish corsair Khair Ed-Din -- "Barbarossa", captures Sperlonga, Italy
  1621 Twelve Years' Truce (1609-1621) between Spain and the Netherlands expires
  1770 Capt James Cook discovers Botany Bay, Australia
  1783 Tippu Sultan expels the English from Bednore, India
  1848 Battle of Sorio: The Austrians defeat Venetian Insurgents
  1848 Battle of the Ponte di Goito: Piedmontese defeat the Austrians
  1864 Battle of Pleasant Hill, La
  1865 Appomattox: Robert E Lee & the Army of Northern Virginia pack it in.
  1865 Union troops capture Ft Blakely, Alabama
  1898 Lt Andrew S. Rowan leaves for Cuba with "a message for Garcia."
  1913 Ebbet's Field opens
  1914 Tampico Incident: US sailors arrested in Mexico
  1917 After a massive mine explosion, Canadian troops storm Vimy Ridge, initiating the Battle of Arras
  1918 Latvia proclaims independence from Russia
  1940 Germany invades Denmark, which promptly surrenders
  1940 Germany invades Norway
  1942 Bataan: c. 75,000 U.S. & Filipino troops surrender to the Japanese
  1942 The Japanese First Air Fleet raids waters around Ceylon, sinking 12 merchant ships & HM CV 'Hermes'
  1942 Manila Bay: U.S. troops hold out on Corregidor and Ft. Drum
  1942 RAdm William F. Halsey, sails from Pearl Harbor in 'Enterprise' (CV-6)
  1943 Japanese DD 'Isonami' sunk south east of Celebes by USS 'Tautog" (SS-199)
  1944 Japanese encircle Imphal, in northeastern India
  1944 Japan offers to mediate peace between Germany and Russia.
  1945 Philippines: U.S. forces land on Jolo in the Sulu Sea
  1945 RAF sinks Pocket Battleship 'Admiral Scheer' in port
  1959 NASA names seven astronauts for Project Mercury
  1963 Congress declares Winston S. Chruchill an honorary U.S. citizen
  1981 USS 'George Washington' (SSBN-598) rams Japanese freighter 'Nisso Maru'
  1991 Georgia votes to secede from the USSR
  1992 John Major becomes PM of the UK (1990-1997)
  2003 Brooklynite CPL Edward Chin, USMC, plants the US and Free Iraq flags on the statue of Sadam Hussein in Firdos Square, Baghdad, which is then pulled down
10 847 Consecration of Pope Leo IV (847-55), who fortifies the Vatican against the Moors & is later canonized
  879 Coronation of King Louis III of France, at c. 14 (879–882)
  1241 Battle of the Sajo River, Day 1: The Hungarians hold the Mongols
  1500 Duke Ludovico "Il Moro" Sforza of Milan is deposed and imprisoned by the French, after being back in power for only two months.
  1534 Khair Ed-Din "Barbarossa" & his Turkish corsairs sack Fondi, and begin a march on Itri
  1734 Great Fire of Montreal: c. 50 buildings burn, a black woman is lynched
  1741 Battle of Mollwitz: Prussians defeat the Austrians
  1815 Austria declares war on King Giacchino Murat of Naples -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic378b.asp#one
  1845 Great fire of Pittsburgh, c. 1,000 buildings damaged or destroyed
  1848 Battle of Castelnuovo: Austrians defeat Italian Nationalists
  1864 Austrian Archduke Maximilian becomes Emperor of Mexico (1864-1867), executed 1867
  1865 Appomattox: Gen Lee issues Gen Order #9, his last
  1868 British defeat King Theodorus of Abyssinia at Magdala
  1880 War of the Pacific: Chilean fleet blockades Callao, Peru
  1917 Eddystone, PA, munitions factory explosion, 133 die
  1918 Near Toul, in eastern France, the 104th Infantry begins four days determined defense against a German assault, to become the first American regiment to be awarded the Croix de guerre
  1923 Hitler speaks of "hatred and more hatred" in Berlin
  1940 First Battle of Narvik: Royal Navy destroyers defeat German destroyers, two of which are lost
  1941 Axis troops capture Cyrenaica, invest Tobruch, initiating an unsuccessful seven month siege
  1941 USS 'Niblack' (DD-424) depth charges a u-boat; first US action against Germany in WW II
  1942 Manila Bay: Japanese bombard Corregidor and other forts
  1942 Philippines: Japanese land on Cebu
  1942 The Netherlands: Germans impose cigarette & candy rationing
  1943 USS 'Triton' (SS-201) reported overdue, presumed lost, Admiralty Islands
  1944 Burma: British offensive on the Imphal-Kohima front.
  1944 Soviet forces liberate Odessa from Nazis
  1945 Allies liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp
  1945 British carriers attack Japanese airbases on Formosa.
  1948 Jewish Hagana repels an Arab attack on Mishmar Ha-Emek
  1963 Lee Harvey Oswald attempts to assassinate right-wing segregationist Edwin A. Walker, a retired general
  1963 USS 'Thresher' (SSN-593) sinks east of Cape Cod, 124 die
  1972 US, USSR, & 70 other nations agree to ban biological weapons
  1984 US Senate condemns CIA mining of Nicaraguan harbors
11 -421 Peace of Nikias: Truce in the Peloponnesian War (431-421, 415-404 BC)
  411 Consecration of Pope Adeodatus (aka Deusdedit II) (672-676), later canonized
  1241 Battle of the Sajo River, Day 2: The Mongols crush the Hungarians
  1471 Wars of the Roses: King Edward IV of England captures London from Henry VI
  1512 Battle of Ravenna: Bloody French victory over the Spanish
  1534 Ambush of San Andrea: The Itrani rout Khairaidin Barbarossa's Arab raiders as they advance south on the Via Appia
  1713 Treaty of Utrecht: Ends War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713)
  1814 Napoleon's first abdication
  1822 Turks massacre Greeks on Chios
  1856 Battle of Rivas: Costa Rica beats William Walker's invading Mercs & Nicaraguans
  1862 Confederates surrender Ft Pulaski, Georgia
  1863 Battle of Suffolk, VA
  1865 Confederates evacuate Mobile
  1865 Lincoln urges national reconciliation.
  1895 Jose Marti & Maximo Gomez land at Plaitas, Cuba, to initiate an uprising against Spain.
  1898 Pres McKinley asks for Declaration of War against Spain
  1899 Treaty of Paris: Spain cedes Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam to US
  1900 USN accepts its first submarine, the USS 'Holland', originally designed for the Fenians
  1925 Morocco: Abd el-Krim's Riffian forces defeat the French
  1927 Chile: Gen Carlos Ibañez declares himself president (1927-1931)
  1933 Hermann Goring becomes minister-president of Prussia
  1935 The Stresa Conference: Britain, France, & Italy confer on what to do about Hitler, but when Mussolini calls for forceful action, his proposal is rejected
  1939 Hungary leaves the League of Nations
  1941 Germans "Coventryize" Conventry, England
  1942 Burma: Japanese begin a major offensive against the British.
  1942 Cebu: Japanese rapidly overrun settled areas.
  1942 American merchant mariners are authorized to receive the DSM
  1943 New Guinea: Japanese a/c from Rabaul raid Oro Bay
  1944 Marlene Dietrich's USO show premiers in the Algiers Opera House, first of a series of performances that numbered as many as three a day, almost every day, until shortly after the end of the war.
  1944 Philippines: USS 'Redfin" (SS-272) sinks Japanese DD 'Akigumo' off Zamboanga
  1944 RAF bombs census bureau in The Hague
  1951 Harry S Truman fires Gen Douglas McArthur
  1953 Former Chief WAC Oveta Culp Hobby becomes the first Secretary of HEW
  1956 France sends 200,000 reservists to Algeria
  1957 Ryan X-13 Vertijet becomes 1st jet to take-off & land vertically
  1961 Trial of Adolf Eichman begins in Israel
  1979 Tanzanian troops take Kampala, ending Idi Amin's regime in Uganda
12 464 Procopius Anthemius is proclaimed Roman Emperor in the West (464-472)
  1204 Fourth Crusaders capture Constantinople, amid great slaughter
  1229 Peace treaty between Castille and Toulouse
  1365 2nd Treaty of Guerande: the House of Blois cedes Brittany to John IV de Montfort
  1394 Turkish Sultan Bayazid takes Thessaloniki
  1495 Italian League formed to fight Charles VIII of France
  1637 Shimabara Revolt begins in Japan
  1706 The new United Kingdom of Great Britain adopts the "Union" flag
  1782 Battle of Providen: Indecisive Anglo-French naval clash off India
  1796 Battle of Montenotte: Bonaparte's French defeat the Austrians
  1809 Battle of Oporto: The English defeat the French
  1861 Confederates shell Fort Sumter, initiating the Civil War
  1862 Great Locomotive Chase: James Andrews steals a train at Kenesaw, GA
  1864 Battle of Blair's Landing, La
  1864 Fort Pillow Massacre: N. B. Forrest's men slaughter black troops
  1877 British annex the Transvaal Republic
  1911 First US naval aviator: Lt Theodore Ellyson
  1916 Battle of Hacienda Santa Cruz de la Villegas: Maj. Charles Young, senior black officer in the U.S. Army, leads a squadron of the 10th Cavalry ("Buffalo Soldiers") to rescue the white 13th Cav, besieged by the Mexicans
  1924 Off Balboa, Panama, 19-year old hooker Madeline Blair is found aboard the USS 'Arizona' (BB-39), having been plying her trade there since the ship left New York a month earlier -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic133b.asp
  1928 Attempted assassination of King Victor Emanuel III by a bomb at a fair in Milan; 15 die, 40 injured
  1931 Spanish voters elect an anti-monarchy parliament
  1935 Germany prohibits publishing of "non-Aryan" writers
  1940 Italy annexes Albania
  1942 Bataan: Japanese massacre c. 400 Filipino officers
  1942 Cebu: Fil-Am forces initiate guerrilla operations.
  1943 Allies capture Soussa, Tunisia
  1943 German occupiers seize the Catholic University at Nijmegen, the Netherlands
  1943 New Guinea: Japanese aircraft raid Port Moresby
  1944 British airlift a West African Chindit brigade into central Burma.
  1945 Okinawa: 150 kamikaze attack the Allied fleet, sinking one destroyer.
  1945 Senior U.S. commanders visit the Ohrduf Concentration Camp; Ike & Bradley are stunned, Patton vomits
  1945 The last wartime performance of the Berlin Philharmonic, opening appropriately with Brunhilde's aria and ending with the finale from "Die Gõtterdammerung".
  1961 Douglas MacArthur declines offer to become baseball commissioner
  1961 The first manned orbital mission: Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin, in Vostok 1
  1966 First B-52 raids on North Vietnam
  1993 Bosnia: USS 'Theodore Roosevelt' (CVN-71) & NATO a/c initiate no-fly zone
13 989 Battle of Abydos: Byzantine Emperor Basil II defeats usurper Bardas Phocas
  1055 Count Gebhard of Calw, Tollenstein, & Hirschberg is enthroned as Pope Victor II (1055-1057)
  1111 Pope Paschal II belatedly crowns Holy Roman Emperor Henry II (1106-1125)
  1241 Battle of the Theiss: The Mongols defeat King Béla IV of Hungary
  1471 The Battle of Leicester: King Edward IV defeats the Lancastrians 
  1517 Turks capture Cairo from the Mamlukes
  1631 Gustavus Adolphus captures Frankfurt
  1759 Battle of Bergen: The French defeat a combined British, Hanoverian, Hessian, & Brunswick force in central Germany
  1788 NYC "Doctors' Riot" protesting corpse stealing
  1796 Battle of Millesimo: Bonaparte defeats the Austrians
  1863 Battle of Irish Bend/Ft Bisland, La
  1865 Battle of Raleigh, NC
  1868 British occupy Magdala, Abyssinia
  1870 Col. Luigi di Cesnola, U.S.V., named 1st director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  1873 Colfax Massacre: Louisiana White Leaguers & Kluxers kill c. 110 black Americans
  1904 Battle of Oviumbo: The Herero defeat the Germans
  1906 Mutiny protesting brutal discipline in the Portuguese warships 'Dom Carlos' & 'Vasco da Gama'
  1906 Turret explosion in USS 'Kearsarge' (BB-5): 10 killed, 4 injured
  1919 Amritsar: British fire on Sikh demonstrators, hundreds die
  1928 An explosion in a garage under the Bond Hall in West Plains, Mo, kills 39 young people at a dance; the case remains unsolved
  1940 Second Battle of Narvik: Royal Navy BB 'Warspite' & destroyers sink eight German destroyers
  1941 Heavy German attack on Tobruk
  1941 Russo-Japan non-aggression pact goes into effect
  1942 Burma: the British Burma Corps breaks.
  1942 VAdm Robert L. Ghormley named Commander, South Pacific Area
  1943 Katyn: Nazis find graves of 13,000 Polish officers killed by Soviets
  1944 India: Heavy fighting on the Imphal-Kohima front.
  1945 Soviets capture Vienna
  1960 France becomes 4th nuclear power, with an A-test in the Sahara
  1975 Military coup in Chad
  2014 Massacre in Overland Park, Kansas: A manical anti-Semitic white supremacist opens fire on two Jewish centers, killing three Christians.
  2036 Asteroid Apophis to make a near-Earth pass
14 69 1st Battle of Bedriacum: Vitellius defeats Otho to confirm his claim as Emperor (proclaimed Jan 1st)
  193 Lucius Septimius Severus proclaimed Roman Emperor (193-211)
  754 Pact of Quierzy between Pope Stephen II & Pepin the Short
  1191 Giacinto Bobo, c. 85, elected Pope as Celestine III (1191-1198)
  1205 Battle of Adrianople: Bulgarians defeat Latin Emperor of Constantinople Baldwin I
  1360 Besieging Paris, Edward III's army suffers many men and horses frozen to death in an extraordinary cold snap
  1471 Battle of Barnet: King Edward IV defeats the Lancastrians under the Earl of Warwick in a confusing action
  1496 Battle of Chilone: The French defeat the Neapolitans
  1544 Battle of Ceresole Alba: French defeat the Spanish & Imperialists
  1574 Battle of Mookerheyde: Spanish defeat the Dutch
  1658 Battle of Dunkerque: French defeat the Spanish
  1796 Battle of Dego: Bonaparte defeats the Austro-Piedmontese
  1818 US Army Medical Corps formed
  1828 HMS 'Acorn' (18 guns) sinks off Halifax, 115 die
  1848 Battle of Sarche: Austrians defeat Italian Nationalists
  1849 The Hungarian National Assembly passes a "Declaration of Independence" from the Hapsburg Monarchy, and promptly dispatches a copy to President Zachary Taylor
  1864 Spanish fleet captures the Chincha Islands from Peru, initiating the Guano War (1864-66)
  1865 Abraham Lincoln is mortally wounded by John Wilkes Booth in Ford's Theatre, on Good Friday
  1865 Mobile is captured by Union forces
  1898 USS 'Solace' commissioned, first hospital ship in the USN since 1865, and the only purpose-built hospital ship in the history of the fleet
  1912 RMS 'Titanic' strikes an ice berg, c. 11:40 pm
  1914 Mexican revolutionary pilot Gustavo Adolfo Salinas Camiña drops several bombs on the Federalista warship 'Guerrero', lying at Topolobampo, Mexico, in the first air attack on a warship, causing slight damage
  1931 King Alfonso XIII flees as Spain becomes a republic
  1940 British and French troops land in Norway to help fight Germans
  1942 Australia assents to MacArthur as Supreme Commander, SW Pacific.
  1942 Burma: British order the Yenangyaung oil fields destroyed.
  1942 HMS 'Upholder', top scoring British submarine of WW II (120,000 tons -- 15 merchant vessels, a cruiser, a destroyer, and 3 submarines), sunk on her 25th patrol, northeast of Tripoli, by the Regia Marina
  1943 New Guinea: Japanese air raid on Milne Bay sinks two transports.
  1943 New Guinea: 'PT-150' and 'PT-152' sink Japanese sub 'Ro-102', off Lae.
  1944 Bombay: ship loaded with 1,300 tons of TNT explodes, 21 ships sink, c. 1000 die
  1945 Arnhem & Zwolle, the Netherlands, liberated from the Nazis
  1945 Tokyo fire bomb raids: B-29s damage Imperial Palace
  1953 Viet Minh offensive in Laos
15 -56 Council of Luca: Caesar, Pompey, & Crassus renew their pact to plunder the state
  -43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Antony is defeated by the Consuls -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic187b.asp
  614 The Persians sack Jerusalem -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic93c.asp
  1207 Veteran and former prisoner-of-war St. Francis renounces worldly goods
  1632 Battle of the Lech: Swedes defeat the Imperialists
  1746 Battle of the Trebbia: Austrians defeat the French & Spanish
  1836 Battle of New Washington: Inconclusive skirmish between Texians and Mexicans
  1861 Ft Sumter surrenders
  1861 Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers
  1865 Former Brig Gen Andrew Johnson assumes the presidency (1865-1869)
  1865 The Stars and Stripes are again hoisted over Ft Sumter
  1868 Emperor Meiji reviews the first ships to fly the imperial naval ensign
  1874 Lord Randolph Spencer Churchill marries Jennie Jerome, in Paris
  1892 Battle of Serobeti: Italians defeat the Sudanese Mahdists
  1904 Battle of Pensacola: c. 350 soldiers & sailors riot against police and shore patrol; 1 k, many injured
  1912 RMS 'Titanic' sinks at c. 0225
  1940 British troops land at Narvik, Norway
  1942 George VI awards the George Cross to the people of Malta
  1942 Japanese threaten to encircle the British Burma Div.
  1943 Aleutians: U.S. convoys begin converging on Attu.
  1943 Russell Is.: U.S. completes a major airfield on Banika
  1943 US code breakers discover Adm Yamamoto will visit the Solomon Is.
  1944 India: British and Indians make important gains on the Kohima Front.
  1945 British Army liberates Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
  1945 Burma: helicopter makes first rescue of a downed pilot.
  1945 FDR is buried at his estate in Hyde Park, NY
  1947 Former Army 2nd Lt Jackie Robinson begins playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers, integrating modern Major League baseball
  1952 First test flight of a prototype B-52
  1969 North Korea shoots at US airplane over the Sea of Japan
  1974 Military coup in Niger
  1986 US a/c raid terrorist bases in Libya, following Berlin disco bombing
16 -1178 Odysseus returns to Ithaka [Astron]
  556 Election of Pope Pelagius I (556-561)
  1071 Robert the Weasel captures Bari from the Byzantines after a three year siege
  1444 Truce of Tours: pause in the Hundred Year's War (1444-1450)
  1746 Battle of Culloden: the Duke of Cumberland defeats the "Young Pretender" and massacres his supporters
  1777 Battle of Bennington: Molly Stark does not "find herself a widow"
  1796 Battle of Ceva, Day 1: French v. Austro-Piedmontese
  1797 Royal Navy "mutiny" at Spithead (ends May 14)
  1799 Battle of Mt. Tabor: Bonaparte's French defeat the Turks in Palestine
  1809 Battle of Sacile: The Austrians defeat the French
  1810 Notorious "War Hawk" Rep. Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina proposes "the whole army ought to be abolished"
  1818 Rush-Bagot treaty ratified, creating an unfortified US-Canada border
  1862 Abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia
  1862 Confederate Conscription Act: extends all prior enlistments for the duration and introduces mandatory service for white men 18-35, with exemptions for slaveowners and some others
  1865 Battles of Columbus & West Point, Ga
  1916 The French Army forms the Escadrille Americaine.
  1917 Lenin arrives at the Finland Station, in Petrograd, to plot the Bolshevik Revolution
  1924 Navy begins relief operations for Mississippi Valley floods (to June 16)
  1925 Bulgarian Communists blow up St Nedelya Cathedral in Sofia during a funeral of General Konstantin Georgiev, who had been murdered days before; 150 die, including many political and military officials, c. 500 inured
  1938 Britain recognizes the Italian annexation of Abyssinia
  1942 Burma: Japanese troops occupy Magwe
  1942 Philippines: Japanese troops land on Panay
  1942 A test mobilization of the New York Guard puts 17,000 militiamen on active duty for one day
  1944 US begins planning "Operation Olympic" - the invasion of Japan.
  1945 77th Inf Div lands on Ie Shima, off Okinawa
  1945 The Red Army initates the Battle of Berlin
  1945 US troops enter Nuremberg
  1945 USS 'Laffey' (DD-724) survives six kamikaze hits, off Okinawa
  1946 US launches captured V-2 rocket, White Sands, NM
  1947 Congress grants Navy Nurses full commissioned status
  1947 Nitrate-laden ship explodes at Texas City, over 500 die.
  1965 Test flight of the Saturn S-1C rocket
  1966 The Apartheid regime of Rhodesia breaks diplomatic relations with Britain
17 -43 BC - Phyrric senatorial victory over Marc Antony at Mutina (Modena)
  1413 Venetians defeat the Hungarians in Friulia
  1421 Dikes at Dort, Holland, break, 100,000 drown
  1488 Caterina Sforza refuses to surrender Forli, despite threats against her children by the Orsi
  1521 Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther
  1524 Giovanni da Verrazano enters New York Bay
  1536 HRE Charles V challenges Francis I of France to personal combat, but is refused
  1625 Franco-Piedmontese forces capture Gavi from the Spanish-Genoese
  1793 Battle of Warsaw: Russians crush Polish insurgents
  1796 Battle of Ceva ends: French defeat the Austro-Piedmontese (from 16th)
  1797 British troops under Abercromby invade in Puerto Rico - will fail to capture San Juan
  1808 Napoleon's Bayonne Decree authorizes seizure of American ships
  1846 Battle of Cerro Gordo: Winfield Scott defeats the Mexican Army -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic54c.asp
  1848 Battle of Visco: Austrians defeat Italian Nationalists
  1861 Confederacy authorizes privateers
  1861 U.S. steamer 'Star of West' captured by Confederates, Indianola, Texas
  1861 Virginia is the 8th state to secede
  1863 La Grange, Tn: Grierson's Raid begins, will end at Baton Rouge, LA
  1864 Battle of Plymouth, NC
  1864 Bread riot in Savannah, Georgia
  1864 Grant suspends prisoner-of-war exchanges over Confederate refusal to treat black troops as soldiers
  1865 Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
  1868 British burn and abandon Magdala, Abyssinia
  1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki: Sino-Japanese War ends (1894-1895), China loses Formosa
  1941 Iraq: British reinforcements arrive to defeat pro-fascist coup
  1941 Yugoslavia surrenders to the Germans
  1942 Burma: Anglo-Indians & Chinese are unable to hold the Japanese advance
  1942 Germans begin to destroy the Sobibor Concentration Camp
  1944 Chinese forces in northern Burma resume the offensive.
  1944 Last Japanese offensive in China, to seize B-29 bases.
  1945 Baltic: German SS 'Goya' (5,230 GRT) sunk, c. 6,000 killed
  1945 German occupiers flood Wieringermeer, Netherlands
  1945 Mussolini flees from Salo, heading for Milan
  1945 U.S. forces land on Mindanao Island, Philippines.
  1961 Bay of Pigs: 1,400 Cuban exiles land to overthrow Castro
  1975 Khmer Rouge capture Phnom Penh, initiating a reign of terror
18 310 Consecration of Pope Eusebius (Apr 18-Aug 17, 310 - or 309), later canonized
  1483 Battle of the Ponte di Crevola: The Milanese defeat the Swiss
  1506 Pope Julius II lays the first stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica
  1644 Thousands of Pamunky and allied Indians raid the Virginia Colony, killing c. 500 settlers, initiating the 32-months' long Second Tidewater War, in which the colonists triumph
  1676 Sudbury, Mass., attacked by Indians
  1775 Paul Revere, Samuel Prescott, & William Dawes take a little ride
  1804 President Jefferson welcomes Alexander von Humboldt to the White House, initiating a week long visit punctuated by lengthy philosophical, geographic, and scientific discussions
  1861 Baltimore mob attacks the 27th Pennsylvania, several injured
  1861 Col R E Lee may have been offered and refused a major command in the U.S. Army
  1861 Confederates capture Harpers Ferry arsenal
  1862 Farragut's fleet bombards Fts Jackson & St. Philip, below New Orleans
  1864 Battle of Poison Springs, Ark
  1912 Regia Marina Capt. Enrico Millo leads a nocturnal torpedo boat raid into the Dardanelles.
  1923 Poland annexes Central Lithuania
  1934 The U.S. Army stops issuing sabers to the cavalry.
  1942 Burma: Chinese 55th Div collapses, breaking Allied front
  1942 Doolittle Raid: 16 B-25Bs off CV Hornet strike Tokyo and other targets
  1942 World War II edition of "Stars & Stripes" begins publication in England
  1945 c. 1000 Allied bombers raid Helgoland, in the North Sea, 128 die
  1946 The League of Nations is officially dissolved
  1954 Egypt: Nasser seizes power as premier
  1956 Egypt & Israel agree to a ceasefire
  1983 Beirut: Suicide bomber attacks the US Embassy, 63 die
19 26 The Crucifiction [Alt Trad]
  65 Frustration of the Pisonian Conspiracy against Nero
  530 Battle of Callenico: The Persians defeat the Byzantines
  1451 Sultan Alam I (Ala-ud-Din Alam Shah) of Delhi (1445-1451) voluntarily abdicates in favor of Bahlul Khan Lodhi (1451-1489)
  1587 Frances Drake raids Cadiz
  1775 The Battles of Lexington & Concord -- "The Shot Heard 'Round the World"
  1782 The Netherlands recognizes the US
  1783 Congress orders hostilities with Britain at an end, eight years after "The Shot Heard 'Round the World."
  1809 Battle of Teugen: The French defeat the Austrians
  1859 Lombardy-Venetia War: Austria demands that Piedmont disarm.
  1861 Baltimore mob attacks the 6th Mass, 4 soldiers, c. 12 rioters die
  1861 Lincoln orders blockade of Confederate ports
  1909 Canonization of Joan of Arc, patron of France, Soldiers, & Women in Military Service
  1916 Italian troops storm the Col di Lana at Merano
  1919 Leslie Irvin of the US makes 1st free fall parachute jump
  1928 Japanese troops occupy Shantung Peninsula in China
  1936 Anti-Jewish rioting in Palestine
  1941 Bulgarian troops occupy Macedonia
  1941 US Marines begin construction of an airfield on Wake Island
  1941 Nazis initiate milk rationing in the Netherlands
  1942 British abandon the oil fields at Yenangyuang, Burma
  1943 USS 'Scorpion' (SS-278) initiates mining of Japanese home waters
  1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins; lasts until May 16
  1944 Japan reinforces drive against U.S. airbases in China.
  1944 New York: Massive rally protesting Nazi genocide.
  1945 Italian UDT sink incomplete CV Aquila, in German hands at Genoa
  1945 US offensive opens against the Shuri Line on Okinawa
  1948 Chiang Kai-shek elected president of Nationalist China
  1959 Abortive uprising at La Paz, Bolivia
  1962 NASA pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 46,900 m
  1964 Rightist coup in Laos, Suvanna Phuma remains premier
  1971 USSR Salyut 1 launched; 1st manned lab in orbit
  1989 USS 'Iowa' (BB-61) gun turret explosion, 47 die
  1990 Truce ends the Nicaraguan Civil War
  1995 Oklahoma City: Self-styled "patriot" kills 168 Americans
20 1283 Sicilian naval hero Roger de Lauria becomes Grand Admiral of Catalonia
  1505 Philbert of Luxemburg expels the Jews from Burgundy
  1653 Coup by Oliver Cromwell dissolves the "Rump" Parliament and institutes a dictatorship under the title "Lord Protector" (1653-1658)
  1775 American patriots blockade the British in Boston
  1789 George Washington is sworn in as the first POTUS, Federal Hall, NY
  1792 Republican France declares war on Austria, Prussia, & Piedmont, initiating the War of the First Coalition
  1799 Napoleon issues a decree calling for settling Jews in Jerusalem
  1809 Battle of Abensberg: The French defeat the Austrians
  1813 Battle of Bautzen, Day 1: Napoleon v. the Russo-Prussians
  1836 Skirmish between Texian and Mexican outposts near San Jacinto
  1861 Robert E Lee resigns from United States Army
  1861 Union forces burn and abandon Gosport (Norfolk, Va) Navy Yard.
  1864 Confederates capture 85th NY at Plymouth, NC
  1915 US Navy issues its first contract for lighter-than-air craft.
  1919 Polish Army captures Vilno from the Red Army
  1934 Heinrich Himmler becomes head of the Prussian secret police
  1936 The Battle of Petach Tikvah: Jews beat off an Arab attack on their Kibutz
  1941 German bombers raid Athens
  1941 Switzerland beats Germany 2-1 in soccer, on Hitler's birthday!
  1942 Burma: British forces begin a general withdrawal.
  1942 Malta subject to a heavy Axis air raid, as USS 'Wasp' (CV-7) launches 47 Spitfires to reinforce the defenses
  1942 Learning that Task Force 17 is to visit her country, Queen Salote Tupou of Tonga orders all young women into the hills,
  1943 USS 'Runner" (SS-275) lays mines off Hong Kong.
  1944 Burma: Chinese New 38th Div ejects Japanese from terrain near Kamaing, as the British approach the Yenangyaung oil fields.
  1944 India: British lift siege of Kohima, Japanese hold the road to Imphal
  1945 Okinawa: U.S. forces capture Motobu Heights, in the north
  1945 US Seventh Army captures Nuremberg, site of Nazi Party rallies
  1947 Peleliu: 27 Japanese troops surrender, 18 months after VJ-Day
  1951 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for General of the Army Douglas MacArthur
  1987 US deports Karl Linnas, charged with Nazi war crimes, to USSR
  1999 Two students run amok in Columbine High School, 13 killed, 2 suicides
21 -753 BC - Romulus founds a city, kills his borth, names it for himself, and reigns as king (753-717 BC)
  1097 Aquitainian Crusaders under Bishop Adhemar and Count Raymond reach Constantinople
  1503 Battle of Seminara: Gonzalvo de Cordoba's Spanish defeat the French in the Kingdom of Naples
  1519 Cortes lands in Mexico
  1572 Anglo-French alliance concluded against Spain
  1738 Algerian pirates raid into the Bay of Naples
  1739 Austria concedes the independence of Naples under the Duke of Parma, who rules as Charles IV (1739-1759), and is the half-brother of the King of Spain, whom he will later succeed
  1796 Battle of Mondovi: Bonaparte defeats the Austrians
  1809 Battle of Landshut: Napoleon defeats the Austrians
  1809 Battle of Landshut: Napoleon's French & German troops defeat an Austrian army outnumbered two-to-one, after a hard fight
  1813 Battle of Bautzen, Day 2: Napoleon defeats the Russo-Prussians
  1836 Battle of San Jacinto: Texas secures independence from Mexico
  1861 USS 'Saratoga' captures the Boston-owned slaver 'Nightingale' with over 900 souls aboard, bound for the Confederacy
  1864 President Lincoln reviews 72 court martial sentences, confirming some, reducing many, and reversing several
  1865 Abraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington
  1898 US declares war on Spain
  1914 US Marines and sailors occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico
  1928 Bomb explosion in a midtown Manhattan loft, nine injured; the case remains unresolved
  1941 Greece surrenders to Nazi Germany
  1944 TF 58 raids Hollandia & Wakde, to prepare for landings.
  1945 Burma: Japanese decide to retire, abandoning Rangoon
  1945 Ie Shima, off Okinawa, secured after five days fighting
  1945 Red Army reaches the outskirts of Berlin
  1954 USAF flies a French battalion to Vietnam
  1961 USAF Maj Robert M White takes X-15 to 32,000 m
  1967 Military coup in Greece
  1967 Svetlana Alliluyeva, Stalin's daughter, seeks asylum in the US
  1975 Nguyen Van Thieu resigns as president of South Vietnam
22 238 The Senate declares Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Pius & Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Roman Co-Emperors (Apr 22-July 29, 238)
  1073 Election of Pope Gregory VIII - Hildebrand (1073-1085), later canonized
  1164 Frederick Barbarossa makes Guido di Crema [Anti-]Pope as "Paschal III" (1164-1168)
  1363 Battle of Canturino: The White Company defeats the Milanese
  1370 Construction of the Bastille begins in Paris
  1509 Henry VIII becomes King of England, d. 1547
  1521 King Francis I of France declares war on Spain
  1526 First known slave revolt in what is now the US, South Carolina
  1529 Treaty of Zaragoza: Spain & Portugal divide the eastern hemisphere
  1676 Naval Battle off Etna/Agosta/Catania: Dutch-Spanish vs. French
  1769 Madame du Barry becomes King Louis XV's "official" mistress
  1796 Battle of Mondovi: Napoleon defeats the Piedmontese
  1809 Battle of Eggmuhl: The French defeat the Austrians
  1898 President McKinley orders blockade of Cuba
  1898 USS 'Nashville' captures Spanish ship 'Buena Ventura'
  1913 Balkan Wars: Montenegrans capture Scutari, Albania, from the Turks
  1914 Mexico severs diplomatic relations with the US
  1915 Second Battle of Ypres: Germany introduces poison gas
  1930 Signing of the The London Naval Arms Limitation Trety
  1944 Hitler & Mussolini confer at Berchtesgarten
  1944 New Guinea: U.S. Army troops land near Hollandia
  1945 3rd Inf Div demonstrates American cultural insensitivity by blowing up the swastika atop the Nuremburg Stadium -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFdoGlUmBSo
  1945 Soviet and Polish troops liberate the Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, near Oranienburg in Brandenburg, which held many political leaders from Captive Nations and special military prisoners
  1952 First live television broadcast of an atomic bomb test and of the Senate Army-McCarthy hearings
  1954 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for the 4th Infantry Division, home from Korea
  1961 General Raoul Salan attempts an anti-Gaullist coup in Algeria
  1972 Astronauts John Young & Charles Duke take a dune buggy ride on the Moon
  1983 Soyuz T-8 returns to Earth
23 0 Feast of St. George, Patron of England and of Soldiers
  1014 Battle of Clontarf: The Irish defeat the Danes
  1154 Damascus surrenders to Sultan Nur ad-Din of Aleppo
  1296 Battle of Spottismuir: Edward I & the Earl of Surrey defeat & depose John Balliol, King of Scotland 
  1348 Edward III founds the Order of the Garter
  1374 King Edward III grants Geoffrey Chaucer a pitcher of wine a day
  1449 Battle of Borgomanero: Bartolomeo Colleoni defeats the French & Savoyards
  1521 Battle of Villalar: Spanish Crown defeats the Communero Rebels
  1795 William Hastings acquitted in England of high treason
  1826 The Turks capture Missolonghi, Greece, amid great slaughter
  1861 Arkansas troops seize Ft Smith
  1861 Texas forces capture U.S. Army post at San Antonio
  1861 Robert E Lee named major general and commander of Virginia state forces
  1864 Red River Expedition: Battle of Cane River/Monett's Ferry
  1891 Jews are expelled from Moscow
  1918 The Dover Patrol sinks a German U-boat in the North Sea
  1918 The Royal Navy & Royal Marines raid Zeebrugge, Belgium, which yields eight Victoria Crosses, but no real success
  1938 Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia demand self-government
  1941 King George II of Greece flees abroad before the Nazi invaders
  1943 New Guinea: Aussie Kanga Force relieved by Aussie 3rd Div on the Mubo front.
  1943 USS "Seawolf" (SS-197) sinks a Japanese patrol vessel, Yellow Sea
  1945 Allies in Italy reach the Po River
  1945 Balikpapan, Borneo: USN uses guided missiles for the first time, 2 BATS, 2 hits
  1949 Red Chinese occupy Nanking
  1950 Nationalist Chinese evacuate Hainan Island
  1967 Soyuz 1 launched
  1980 Soviet sub catches fire off Japan, 9 die
24 -1184 BC - The Greeks take Troy [Trad].
  0 Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day
  858 Election of Pope St. Nicholas I 'the Great' (858-867)
  1066 Comet Halley makes an appearance
  1288 Jews of Troyes, France, are accused of ritual murder
  1524 Hapsburg Imperial troops capture Milan from the French
  1547 Battle of Muhlberg: Imperialists defeat the Schamlkaldic Leagu
  1585 Felice Peretti elected Pope as Sixtus V (1585-1590)
  1757 Battle of Reichenberg: Prussians defeat the Austrians
  1778 US Sloop-of-War 'Ranger' captures HMS 'Drake'
  1792 Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle composes "La Marseillaise"
  1800 Congress appropriates $5,000 to build a library
  1849 French Expeditionary Force lands at Civitavecchia, to crush the Roman Republic
  1862 Farragut runs the Confederate batteries on the Mississippi below New Orleans
  1863 War Department isues GO No 100, The Law of Land Warfare, the first US ROE.
  1877 Last US troops leave New Orleans: Reconstruction ends, Jim Crow begins
  1895 Joshua Slocum completes the first solo around-the-world voyage in 'Spray'
  1898 Spain declares war on US
  1915 Turks initiate widespread massacre of Armenians
  1916 The Irish "Easter Rebellion" begins (to 29th)
  1917 US DDs sail for Europe; 17 days after war is declared on Germany (see May 4)
  1920 Polish troops enter Ukraine
  1922 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for Marshal Joseph Joffre
  1932 Benito Mussolini (48) meets future mistress Clara Petacci (20) for the first time
  1932 Nazis gain 36.3% of votes in Prussian election
  1942 Japanese troops advance on all fronts in Burma.
  1943 U.S. 7th Infantry Div. having trained for desert warfare, sails from San Francisco for Alaska
  1943 Fire in the freighter 'El Estero' at Jersey City threatens to detonate 5,000 tons of ammunition aboard her, two nearby ships, and at dockside; USCG tows the vessel into New York Bay and floods her
  1944 1st Boeing B-29 arrives in China over the Himalayas -- "the Hump"
  1944 Australian troops occupy Madang in New Guinea.
  1953 Queen Elizabeth II knights Winston Churchill
  1961 JFK accepts "sole responsibility" for the Bay of Pigs
  1961 Swedish warship 'Vasa', sunk on her maiden voyage in 1628, is raised
  1968 Lenny Glynn "visits" President's office at Columbia University
  1969 US B-52s drop 3,000 tons of bombs on VC positions inside Cambodia
  1970 China PR launches its 1st satellite, transmitting song "East is Red"
  1980 "Desert One": US operation to save 52 hostages in Iran, fails, 8 die
25 0 ANZAC Day -- http://trevorcollens.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/ANZAC/G0000iSxO1u6UcAE/I0000WwIbO5gxg6g
  404 BC - Athens surrenders to Sparta, ending the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
  1283 Siege of Bere Castle: The English defeat the Welsh 
  1464 War of the Roses - Battle of Hedgeley Moor: Marquess of Montague's Yorkists defeat the Duke of Somerset's Lancastrians
  1591 The Moroccans take Timbuktu
  1607 Battle of Gibraltar Bay: the Dutch fleet defeats the Spanish & Portuguese
  1626 Battle of the Dessauer Bridge: Albrecht von Wallenstein defeats Graf von Mansfeld
  1707 Battle of Almansa: Borbonists defeat the Hapsburgists to secure the control of Spain
  1792 First execution by guillotine in France
  1861 7th NY & 8th Massachusetts arrive in Washington
  1861 Battle of Lavaca, TX
  1861 Pvt Samuel Young enlists, to retire Jan 9, 1904, as Lt Gen.
  1862 Farragut occupies New Orleans, La
  1864 Battle of Marks' Mill, Arkansas (Camden Expedition)
  1875 Combat on the Pecos: Lt. John L. Bullis and Black Seminole Indian Scouts SGT John Ward, Trumpeter Isaac Payne, & PVT Pompey Factor rout c. 25-30 Lipan Indian raiders, for which the Scouts are awarded the Medal of Honor
  1881 250,000 sign petitions to bar foreign Jews from entering Germany
  1914 First USN air combat mission: Lt. Patrick Bellinger conducts a reconnaissance over Veracruz, receiving some damage from machine gun fire.
  1915 Gallipoli Campaign: 78,000 British & ANZAC troops undertake an amphibious landing -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic208c.asp
  1925 Paul von Hindenburg becomes president of Germany (1925-1934)
  1926 Coronation of Reza Pahlavi as Shah of Persia (1925-1941)
  1927 Spain sends 20,000 reinforcements to Morocco to battle the Riffian Rebels
  1942 Burma: Chinese troops fail to the halt Japanese before Lashio.
  1942 Doolittle Mission: CVs Hornet & Enterprise return to Pearl Harbor
  1944 New Britain: 1st Marine Div relieved by the 40th Infantry Div
  1945 First UN Session: 45 countries convene in San Francisco
  1945 Japanese rout Chinese forces at Wuking.
  1945 Last Boeing B-17 attack against Nazi Germany
  1945 The Red Army completely surrounds Berlin
  1945 US & Soviet forces meet at Torgau on the Elbe River
  1951 Korean War: After an heroic four day defense of Hill 235, 39 survivors of the Gloucestershire Regiment reach safety
  1960 USS Triton (SSN-586) completes first submerged circumnavigation of the globe
  1962 Christmas Island: US resumes above ground nuclear testing
  1974 Portuguese strongman Antonio Salazar (1932-1974) ousted
  1975 Stockholm: Terrorist attack on the West German embassy
  1982 Israel completes Sinai withdrawal, in accordance with Camp David accords
  1993 Boris Yeltsin elected President of Russia (1993-1999)
26 757 Acession of Pope Paul I (757-767), later canonized; the brother of Stephen II (752)
  1478 The Pazzi attempt to assassinate the Medici at mass
  1501 Cesare Borgia captures Faenza, besieged since Nov 7, 1500
  1604 Battle of Blankenbergh: Spanish defeat the Dutch
  1607 English colonists land at Cape Henry, Va
  1654 Jews are expelled from Brazil
  1655 Dutch permit Jews to settle in Nieuw Amsterdam
  1777 Sybil Ludington, 16, makes a daring ride to alert Connecticut militiamen of a British raid
  1805 Cyrus Eaton, the proverbial few Marines, one USN medic, and some mercs storm Derna, Libya
  1814 King Louis XVIII lands at Calais, from exile in England
  1846 Mexican War: Mexicans beat U.S. Dragoons at Rancho Carricitos, Tx
  1859 Lombardy-Venetia War: Piedmont rejects Austrian ultimatum, declares war; France mobilizes in support
  1861 Joseph E. Johnston resigns his commission in the U.S. Army, to go South [See 1865]
  1865 Battle of Durham Station/Greensboro, NC
  1865 Battle of Ft Tobacco, VA
  1865 Confederate Gen Joseph E Johnston surrenders the Army of Tennessee, Durham, NC
  1913 China: Sun Yat San revolts against Pres Yuan Shikai
  1926 Germany & Russia sign neutrality & friendship treaty
  1933 Jewish students are barred from school in Germany
  1937 Luftwaffe bombs Guernica, Spain, 200-400 die
  1938 Austrian Jews required to register property above 5,000 Reichsmarks
  1941 Nazis ration potatoes in Holland
  1943 Attu: U.S. ships shell Japanese positions.
  1943 German sub 'U-180' transfers Indian radical Subhas Chandra Bose to Japanese sub 'I-29' in the Indian Ocean.
  1944 First attack by Japanese fighters on B-29s, one fighter shot down
  1944 New Guinea: Australians take Alexishafen as Americans take the airfield at Hollandia
  1944 Allied troops begin concentrating at assembly areas in Britain for D-Day
  1945 Okinawa: Japanese resistance intensifies, halting U.S. offensive
  1952 USS 'Hobson' (DD-464) accidentally rams carrier 'Wasp' (CV-18), 176 die
  1959 Cuban-sponsored guerrillas invade Panama
  1961 Collapse of Raoul Salan's coup against the French Fifth Republic under Pres. De Gaulle
  1962 Lockheed A-12 flies for first time
  1968 US underground nuclear test, "Boxcar", one megaton device
  1982 The Falklands War: Argentine forces on South Georgia I. surrender to the British
  1986 A fire devastates the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, Ukraine
27 -4977 BC - The Creation, according to Kepler
  630 Shahrbaraz becomes Persian Emperor (Apr 26-June 9. 630)
  1084 Robert the Weasel liberates Rome - and Pope Gregory VII - from Emperor Henry IV, amid great slaughter
  1507 Genovese uprising against French occupation
  1509 Pope Julius II excommunicates "The Most Serene Republic" of Venice
  1528 Battle of Cape d'Orso: Franco-Genovese fleet crushes the Spanish
  1773 British Parliament passes Tea Act, leading to the Boston Tea Party
  1778 John Paul Jones begins a two-day raid on Whitehaven, U.K.
  1799 Battle of Cassano: Russo-Austrians defeat the French
  1813 Toronto captured by Americans under Gen Zebulon Pike
  1849 Battle of Marghera: Austrians defeat Italian Nationalists in the Veneto
  1857 Jews are prohibited from establishing congregations in Lower Austria
  1861 The 7th NY Militia enters federal service at Washington.
  1861 Col. Thomas J Jackson, CSA, assumes command at Harper's Ferry
  1863 Streight's Raid: Tuscumbia to Cedar Bluff, AL
  1865 Steamer 'Sultana' explodes in the Mississippi, c. 1,500 die, mostly Union soldiers recently released from Confederate P/W camps
  1874 Racist "White League" formed in Grant Parish, Louisiana
  1881 Pogroms against Russian Jews start in Elisabethgrad
  1890 Battle of Barca: Italians defeat the Sudanese Mahdists
  1897 Dedication of Grant's Tomb
  1898 Matanzas, Cuba: US ships & Spanish batteries exchange fire
  1909 Ouster of Ottoman Sultan & Caliph Abdul Hamid II of Turkey (1876-1909), in favor of Mehmed V (1909-1918)
  1915 French Armored Cruiser 'Leon Gambetta' sunk in the Adriatic by the Austro-Hungarian submarine 'U-5', commanded by Korvettenkapitän Georg Ludwig Ritter von Trapp -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic386b.asp#one
  1930 The Italian Navy launches five new warships: heavy cruisers 'Fiume' & 'Zara,' light cruisers 'Albert di Giussano' & 'Giovanni delle Bande Nere,' and submarine, 'Delfino.'
  1940 Himmler orders establishment of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp
  1941 German troops occupy Athens
  1942 Nazis order Belgian Jews to wear yellow stars
  1942 Stilwell proposes the formation of a Chinese army in India.
  1943 Soviet Union breaks relations with Polish government-in-exile in London
  1945 Allied warships begin 4-day bombardment of Tarakan Island, Borneo
  1945 Italian partisans take Mussolini prisoner
  1945 US Fifth Army liberates Genoa
  1948 Arab Legion attacks the Gesher bridge on the Jordan River
28 1379 Battle of Marino: Pope Urban VI defeats Anti-Pope Clement VII
  1503 Battle of Cerignola: Gonzalvo de Cordoba routs the French
  1635 Virginia Gov John Harvey accused of treason & removed from office
  1655 English fleet under Blake defeats the Tunisian corsairs
  1789 Lt. William Bligh, RN, has occasion to say, "This is mutiny, Mr. Christian, mutiny."
  1796 Ceasefire of Cherasco: effectively ends Bonaparte's First Italian campaign
  1818 US & Britain agree to naval disarmament on the Great Lakes
  1919 Tumultuous parade up Fifth Avenue to welcome the 165th Infantry (69th New York) home from the Great War
  1925 Kurdish rebels surrender to the Turkish Army
  1939 Hitler claims the 1934 German-Polish non-aggression pact is still in effect
  1942 Nightly "dim-out" belatedly initiated on the East Coast, greatly reduces sinking of merchant vessels by German submarines
  1943 New Ireland: 'Scamp' (SS-277) sinks seaplane carrier 'Kamikawa Maru'
  1944 China: AAF raids Yellow River bridges to slow Japanese
  1945 Okinawa: Kamikaze attacks on U.S. fleet continue.
  1945 US Fifth Army reaches the Italian-Swiss border
  1950 Ticker tape parade on Broadway for Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid
  1952 Japanese Peace Treaty formally ends the Asiatic-Pacific War of 1937-1945
  1956 The French leave Vietnam
  1965 US Marines land in the Dominican Republic, stay until October 1966
  1967 Mohammad Ali refuses induction into the army
  1971 Samuel Lee Gravely, Jr., is promoted to rear admiral; the first black admiral in US Navy
  2009 A treaty between Bolivia and Paraguay formally ends the Chaco War (1932-1935)
29 -89 Social War: Sulla captures Stabiae from the Italiotes
  -58 BC - Cicero sails into exile from Brindisium
  711 A Moslem army under Tariq ibn Ziyad lands at Gibraltar for the Conquest of Visigothic Spain, initiating a struggle that ends in 1492 -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/reader.asp?target=CIC38&Prev=61&BeginCnt=122
  1091 Battle of Monte Levunium: Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus defeats the Pechenegs
  1289 Sultan Quala'un of Egypt captures Tripoli, Lebanon, from the Crusaders
  1429 Joan of Arc beats the English at Orleans
  1524 Battle of Sesia Romagnano: Spanish defeat the French
  1616 Naval Battle of Euboea: Tuscans defeat the Turks
  1661 Chinese troops occupy Taiwan
  1670 Emilio Altieri elected Pope as Clement X (1670-1676)
  1814 USS 'Peacock' captures HMS 'Epervier'
  1856 The Crimean War ends -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic409b.asp#one
  1861 Maryland House of Delegates votes against secession
  1863 Battle of Chancellorsville begins
  1898 Cienfuegos, Cuba: US and Spanish warships exchange fire
  1901 Anti-Semitic riots in Budapest
  1916 The Irish "Easter Rebellion" ends (from 16th)
  1926 Franco-American accord on WW I war debts
  1940 Norwegian King Haakon flees to England as the Nazis occupy his country
  1942 Burma: Japanese capture Lashio
  1942 Dutch and French Jews ordered to wear a yellow star
  1943 Dietrich Bonhoffer is arrested by Nazis
  1943 Teop, Solomon Is: USS 'Gato' (SS-212) lands coastwatchers & evacuates missionaries.
  1945 Adolf Hitler makes an honest woman of Eva Braun
  1945 Burma: Japanese army evacuates Rangoon
  1945 RAF drops food to isolated areas in the Netherlands
  1945 US liberates the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau
  1946 Tokyo: 28 former Japanese leaders indicted as war criminals
  1970 US & South Vietnamese troops invade Cambodia
  1975 Last US personnel pull out of Vietnam
  1991 Croatia declares independence from Yugoslavia
30 37 Roman proconsul Lucius Vitellius (father of a later emperor) arranges a sacrifice to "the God of the Jews" at the Temple of Jerusalem.
  311 Roman Emperor Galerius issues an edict of toleration for Christians
  462 Solar eclipse visible in Greece
  1305 Massacre of Adrianople: Byzantine Emperor Michael IX Palaiologos contrives the destruction of the Catalan Company
  1349 Massacre of the Jews of Radolszell, Germany
  1492 Ferdinand & Isabella agree to bankroll Columbus
  1527 Treaty of Westminster: Anglo-French alliance against Spain
  1563 King Charles VI orders the Jews expelled from France
  1592 Torquato Tasso is escorted by Marco Sciarra's brigands through bandit-infested mountains around Itri -- http://www.strategypage.com/cic/docs/cic86b.asp
  1635 Treaty of Compiegne: Franco-Swedish alliance in the Thirty Years' War
  1794 Menin, Belgium: Austrians break out of a French siege
  1798 The US establishes the Department of the Navy
  1838 Nicaragua declares independence from the Central American Federation
  1848 Battle of Pastrengo: Piedmontese defeat the Austrians
  1849 Battle of the Villa Pamfili: The Garibaldini defeat the French outside Rome, who fall back on Civitavecchia
  1860 Navaho Indians attack Fort Defiance
  1861 Lincoln orders Federal troops to evacuate the Indian Territory
  1862 Skirmishing at Swift Run Gap, WV
  1863 Battle of Camerone: Heroic French Foreign Legion defense against an overwhelming Mexican force
  1864 Battle of Jenkins' Ferry: Inconclusive action bungled by both sides
  1871 American & Mexican bandits murder 144 Apaches in Arizona
  1900 USA annexes Hawaii
  1904 Christian Hülsmeye patents the "telemobiloscope," an early radar, which is totally ignored.
  1906 The Meiji Emperor reviews the victorious Imperial Army at the Yakusuni Shrine, a date observed as Imperial Army Day, until 1945
  1908 First Company, Signal Corps, 71st Regiment, NYNG, formed to conduct aeronautical operations; now, 106th Rescue Wing, oldest Air Guard unit.
  1937 General Douglas MacArthur marries Jean Faircloth
  1942 British troops evacuate Mandalay in Burma
  1942 Luzon: Japanese bombardment of Corregidor and harbor forts continues.
  1942 USS 'Peto' (SS-265) is launched, first submarine built on the Great Lakes, at Manitowoc
  1943 Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp for Jews established
  1943 Chinese halt Japanese in Hupeh, ending threat to Chungking.
  1943 Panay: USS 'Gudgeon' (SS-211) conducts supply mission to Filipino guerrillas
  1944 U.S. carrier aircraft begin two day raid on Truk
  1945 American & Soviet forces link up at Torgau in Germany
  1945 Okinawa: Kamikaze attacks continue on the U.S. fleet.
  1945 Red Army liberates the Ravensbruck concentration camp
  1945 The Red Banner is raised over the Reichstag Building in Berlin
  1961 Fidel Castro receives the Lenin Peace Prize
  1980 Abdication of Queen Juliana (1948-80) & Accession of Queen Beatrix of Netherlands (1980-2012), who also abdicates
  1980 Terrorists seize the Iranian Embassy in London
  2012 Abdication of Queen Beatrice of the Netherlands (r. 1980-2012), third Dutch Queen Regnant in a row since 1880, and the third to abdicate, and the accession of her son as William IV, the first Dutch king since 1880
 

 

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