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Artillery: Chinese Artillery Divisions
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April 9, 2009: China is one of a handful of nations that still maintains artillery divisions. These units were first organized during World War I, as a means of more effectively organizing huge (hundreds of cannon) barrages in support of major attacks. Only the Russians carried over the use of artillery divisions to World War II, and kept using them throughout the Cold War. Other communist countries followed suit. China still has six of them, but has adapted to new technologies.

Chinese artillery divisions exist mainly to keep specialist artillery, often called "non-divisional" (because more common types of artillery are assigned to each combat division) together. The artillery division can supervise training and maintenance of the cannon, rocket and missile units, along looking after lots of ammunition. In wartime, the artillery division has plans in place to assign its weapons with units that will require.

The Chinese 1st Artillery Division, which is stationed near the coast, opposite Taiwan, is one of the best equipped, and ready-for-combat units in the army. It's five regiments contain 152mm howitzers (both towed and self-propelled), 130mm guns, 100mm assault guns, 300mm rockets and ATGMs (anti-tank guided missile). The 152mm howitzers can fire the Chinese copy of the Russian Krasnopol laser guided shell. The division also has units for detecting the location of enemy artillery (using specialized radars and computers) along with other computers for planning elaborate attacks using different types of cannon and rockets. This is similar to the one artillery division (the 7th) the German army did maintain during World War II. Their 7th Artillery Division was a response to the American use of highly coordinated fire from a large number of widely dispersed cannon.

The U.S. had developed techniques for rapid and highly coordinated artillery use during the 1930s, and it changed the way modern artillery were used. The Germans were surprised when they first encountered it, but never had enough artillery, radios and ammunition to make it all work like the Americans did. So they formed an Artillery Division to try and make it work for them.

Smart shells and rockets have once more changed the game. Large scale use of artillery is no longer beneficial if you have the GPS guided weapons. China is building these weapons, and working hard to figure out how to make the most of them. But they are not likely to disband their artillery divisions anytime soon. Their 1st Artillery Division, which recently celebrated its 50th anniversary, may not last another half century, but for the time being, it will remain a convenient way to administer the large number of non-divisional artillery units the Chinese have.


Next Article → MURPHY'S LAW: Weapons That Died From Too Much

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JFKY    Uh History Says Otherwise   4/9/2009 11:44:50 AM
From what little I've read the German Artillery Division was formed in response to the SOVIET firepower on the Eastern Front, not American firepower....My source being a small book On Artillery by Gudmundsson, IIRC.
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Chuang Shyue Chou       4/11/2009 12:20:16 AM
It is possible that the organisation as a division is largely administrative. A divisional-sized combat formation of this nature is unlikely to have any application in any theatre today. 
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neutralizer       4/13/2009 6:49:33 AM
The only German Arty Div was 18 and it was on the Eastern Front only (and quite short lived).  However, it did handle tactical fire control but by putting senior(ish - eg Lt Cols)) officers forward and giving them exeuctive authority.  In this it was like the British and Soviet arty systems and not like the US one that put executive control in an HQ well behind the action.  Soviet arty divs where actually a source of units to reinforce Artillery Groups at whatever level in attack sectors.
I'd also agree the Chinese arrangements are more likely to be administative, ie providing an artillery chain of command for day to day matters, training and the like, with regiments being assigned to other HQs for operations.  The disparate nature of the equipment is a bit of a clue.
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