The Perfect Soldier: Special Operations, Commandos, and the Future of Us Warfare by James F. Dunnigan
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Old Boats Never Die, They Get Recycled
While the U.S. Navy is willing to spend over half a billion dollars to repair fire damage inside the USS Miami (a Los Angeles class SSN or nuclear attack submarine), it is seeking ways to keep those costs down. One good idea is to salvage components from the recently (last year) decommissioned USS Memphis. This boat entered service in 1977, 13 years before the Miami. While the Memphis was one of the "original" 31 Los Angeles boats and the Miami is one of the third generation (Improved Los Angeles) designs, both share many common components, especially in the forward part of the boat where Miami suffered most of its damage.
by James Dunnigan
October 28, 2012
The Miami blaze occurred while the sub was in the Portsmouth (Maine) Naval Yard for maintenance and upgrades. Initially the navy estimated that the sub suffered $400 million in damage. But a more detailed examination revealed that it would cost at least $450 million and probably north of half a billion.
The fire (set by a deranged shipyard worker) took place last May 23rd, and there were fears that the 22 year old Miami might be scrapped. It's not just fires that these old Los Angeles class boats have to worry about. Three years ago a 25mm (one inch) hairline crack was found on the pressure hull of the (then) 14 year old USS Toledo. The crack was in the metal plate, not a weld, which was replaced. Above the crack there was a 53 cm (21 inch) hairline crack in the outer (non-pressurized) hull, which was under the sail. The USS Toledo had just undergone a three year refit, costing $179 million, when these cracks were discovered. The sub was sent to a nearby (to New London, Connecticut) shipyard for repairs. At first it was thought some of these cracks were related to a recent scandal where shipyard workers failed to check for substandard welds but that was not the case with the Toledo.
Such a crack in the pressure hull is a serious problem because it makes it more likely that the pressure hull would fail and flood the boat, at less than the "test depth" (about two thirds the "design depth," which is the maximum depth the sub can operate at). Going a little deeper gets you to the collapse (or "crush") depth, at which the pressure hull is crushed and implodes. The deepest diving U.S. subs, the Seawolf class, are believed to have a test depth of 490 meters (1,600 feet) and a collapse depth of 730 meters (2,400 feet). During World War II collapse depths were never more than 320 meters (a thousand feet). Since then, larger boats, built of stronger metals, have greatly increased the depth subs can operate at. But that only works if the crew knows the limits of their boats and cracks in the pressure hull reduce those limits. Using Memphis components for the Miami repairs will enable close inspection of those items, to see if there was any more unexpected deterioration. The Miami hull has already been checked for any damage from the fire and none was found.
Both the Miami and the Toledo were among the latest "improved Los Angeles" boats. If the Miami were retired, a much older (in terms of technology) boat would have to delay retirement and fill in. Upgrading one of these older boats would also be expensive. If the repairs for the Miami do indeed cost less than half a billion, then it's worth keeping the Miami in service.
The navy is putting most of its cash into building new Virginia class boats to replace the 42 (of 62) remaining Los Angeles subs. The most recent of Los Angeles boats entered service in 1996, and will be gone by the end of the next decade. Nine Virginias are in service and another 21 are planned. If the navy can scrounge up enough cash it can build two a year, they can have all the Virginias in service before the Los Angeles class is gone. Otherwise, the SSN fleet will shrink because additional old Los Angeles subs will be retiring compared to new Virginia's entering service.